About this topic
Summary Moral norms are intimately connected to how we, as moral agents, think, feel, and behave. As the interdisciplinary study of the mind, cognitive science is well suited to address such issues as they relate to ethical theory. Fruitful areas of inquiry include, for example: the nature of happiness, character, personality, emotions, and choice; the kinds of processes in the brain that generate our moral intuitions (e.g. affective versus cognitive); the evolutionary origins of our moral capacities (e.g. moral emotions, intuitions, and motivation); cross-cultural differences in moral norms; and so on. 
Key works Collections of key works in cognitive science generally include Nadelhoffer et al 2010 (both historical and contemporary articles) and Sinnott-Armstrong 2008 (a comprehensive state of the art with multiple volumes full of new articles and replies from prominent philosophers and scientists). On some more specific topics: Sober & Wilson 1998 (evolution of altruism), Joyce 2006 (evolution of morality), Doris 2002 (skepticism about character), Haidt 2001 (moral cogniiton), Mikhail 2011 (moral cognition), Greene 2013 (neuroethics), Bloom 2013 (moral development).
Introductions Doris 2010 provides an excellent collection of original articles for a handbook. Doris & Stich 2008 and May 2012 are overviews of empirical work in moral psychology, while more specific topics are covered in Andreou 2007 (ethics and psychology), Levy 2009 (neuroethics), May 2014 (moral cognition).
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  1. W. P. Alston (1970). Toward a Logical Geography of Personality: Traits and Deeper Lying Personality Characteristics. In Howard Evans Kiefer & Milton Karl Munitz (eds.), Mind, Science, and History. Albany,State University of New York Press. 59--92.
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  2. Miguel Alzola (2013). The Empirics of Virtue Theory: What Can Psychology Tell Us About Moral Character? In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. 89--107.
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  3. Lydia B. Amir (2005). Morality, Psychology, Philosophy. Philosophical Practice 1 (1):43-57.
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  4. Julia Annas (1995). Reply to Commentators. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (4):929 - 937.
    Response to Nancy Snow In Nancy’s impressive book she shows, through a thorough study of the philosophical debate about the position called ‘situationism’ and the psychological literature that supposedly based it, that there was a serious misconception right from the start among philosophers about the kind of disposition or trait which psychologists were concerned with. The kind of disposition the philosophers were rejecting was one taken to be expressed over a number of situations characterized from the outside, independently of the (...)
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  5. Paulo Eduardo Arantes (2003). An Irresistible Tendency to Cultivate One's Own Personality. Trans/Form/Ação 26 (1):7-51.
    Study of the relationship between the cultivated jews of Berlin and the German ical culture through the analysis of the role played in the latter by the idea of "personality", codeword of the German mandarins' ideology.Estudo da relação entre os judeus cultivados de Berlim e a cultura clássica alemã por meio da análise do papel nela representado pela idéia de "personalidade", senha da ideologia dos mandarins alemães.
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  6. Michael Argyle & Brian R. Little (1972). Do Personality Traits Apply to Social Behaviour? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 2 (1):1-33.
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  7. Raphaël Arlettaz, Veronika Braunisch, Michael Schaub & James E. M. Watson (2011). Response From Arlettaz and Colleagues. BioScience 61 (2):93-94.
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  8. Sarah Ashelford (2012). Does Depression Require an Evolutionary Explanation? In Martin H. Brinkworth & Friedel Weinert (eds.), Evolution 2.0: Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences. Springer.
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  9. John C. Avise (1979). Considerations on the Evolution of Qualitative Multistate Traits. Acta Biotheoretica 28 (3):190-203.
    Simple models for the evolution of qualitative multistate traits are considered, in which the traits are permitted to evolve in time-dependent versus speciation-dependent fashion. Of particular interest are the means and variances of distances for these traits in evolutionary phylads characterized by different rates of speciation, when alternative characters are neutral with respect to fitness, and when the total number of observable characters is limited to small values. As attainable character states are increasingly restricted, mean distance (D) in a phylad (...)
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  10. R. J. B. (1968). The Morality of Scholarship. Review of Metaphysics 21 (4):760-761.
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  11. Eugene Bagger (1949). Character and History. Thought 24 (2):216-224.
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  12. Albert G. A. Balz (1927). The Characterization of Moral Evolution. International Journal of Ethics 37 (4):403-418.
  13. Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno (2008). Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior. Adaptive Behavior 16 (5):325-344.
  14. Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay, Adam B. Moore & Katrin Starcke (2012). Use of a Rasch Model to Predict Response Times to Utilitarian Moral Dilemmas. Synthese 189 (S1):107-117.
    A two-systems model of moral judgment proposed by Joshua Greene holds that deontological moral judgments (those based on simple rules concerning action) are often primary and intuitive, and these intuitive judgments must be overridden by reflection in order to yield utilitarian (consequence-based) responses. For example, one dilemma asks whether it is right to push a man onto a track in order to stop a trolley that is heading for five others. Those who favor pushing, the utilitarian response, usually take longer (...)
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  15. Baron-Cohen, Richler, Bisarya & Gurunathan & Wheelwright (2004). The Systemizing Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism and Normal Sex Differences. In Uta Frith & Elisabeth Hill (eds.), Autism: Mind and Brain. Oup Oxford.
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  16. Stanley Bates (2009). Character. In Richard Eldridge (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature. Oup Usa.
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  17. Lewis White Beck (1947). The Distinctive Traits of an Empirical Method. Journal of Philosophy 44 (13):337-344.
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  18. Marc Bekoff (2001). Science, Religion, Cooperation, and Social Morality. BioScience 51 (3):171.
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  19. Antoni Gomila Benejam (2000). Las razones de las personas primates. Laguna 7:381-385.
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  20. Jose Luis Bermudez (1997). Defending Intentionalist Accounts of Self-Deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):107-108.
    This commentary defends intentionalist accounts of self-deception against Mele by arguing that: (1) viewing self-deception on the model of other-deception is not as paradoxical as Mele makes out; (2) the paradoxes are not entailed by the view that self-deception is intentional; and (3) there are two problems for Mele's theory that only an intentionalist theory can solve.
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  21. Lorraine Besser-Jones (2014). Eudaimonic Ethics: The Philosophy and Psychology of Living Well. Routledge.
    In this book , Lorraine Besser-Jones develops a eudaimonistic virtue ethics based on a psychological account of human nature. While her project maintains the fundamental features of the eudaimonistic virtue ethical framework—virtue, character, and well-being—she constructs these concepts from an empirical basis, drawing support from the psychological fields of self-determination and self-regulation theory. Besser-Jones’s resulting account of "eudaimonic ethics" presents a compelling normative theory and offers insight into what is involved in being a virtuous person and "acting well." This original (...)
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  22. Michael H. Birnbaum (1974). The Nonadditivity of Personality Impressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (3):543.
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  23. Kaj Bjcsrkqvist, Barbara Bergbom & Nils G. Holm (1994). World-View and Personality. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 21 (1):185-207.
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  24. L. Blackman (2008). Affect, Relationality and the `Problem of Personality'. Theory, Culture and Society 25 (1):23-47.
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  25. Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe & Felix Warneken (forthcoming). The Developmental Origins of Fairness: The Knowledge–Behavior Gap. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  26. Stefaan Blancke & Johan De Smedt (2013). Evolved to Be Irrational?: Evolutionary and Cognitive Foundations of Pseudosciences. In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press.
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  27. Charlene Bolton, Ralph Bolton, Lorraine Gross, Amy Koel, Carol Michelson, Robert L. Munroe & Ruth H. Munroe (1976). Pastoralism and Personality. Ethos 4 (4):463-481.
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  28. A. Bonnett (2006). The Nostalgias of Situationist Subversion. Theory, Culture and Society 23 (5):23-48.
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  29. Robert F. Bornstein (1997). Varieties of Self-Deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):108-109.
    Mele's analysis of self-deception is persuasive but it might also be useful to consider the varieties of self-deception that occur in real-world settings. Instances of self-deception can be classified along three dimensions: implicit versus explicit, motivated versus process-based, and public versus private. All three types of self-deception have implications for the scientific research enterprise.
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  30. Luc Bovens, Situationist Charges Versus Personologist Defenses and the Issue of Skills.
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  31. Robert Boyd & Simon A. Levin, Punishment Sustains Large-Scale Cooperation in Prestate Warfare.
    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial (...)
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  32. Michael Bradie (2001). Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (1):235-238.
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  33. David Braun (2012). Character, and Beyond. In Gillian Russell Delia Graff Fara (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge. 9.
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  34. David Braun (1995). What is Character? Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (3):241--273.
  35. William H. Brenner (1999). Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 39 (1):103-104.
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  36. Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1943). Personality as a Metaphysical Principle. In , Personalism in Theology. Boston, Boston University Press.
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  37. Don Brothwell (1964). The Primates. The Eugenics Review 56 (1):48.
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  38. Conrad G. Brunk (1993). Varieties of Moral Personality. International Studies in Philosophy 25 (3):120-121.
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  39. John B. Campbell (1987). Student-Generated Personality Scales. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (4):277-279.
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  40. Avshalom Caspi & Brent W. Roberts (1990). Personality Continuity and Change Across the Life Course. In L. Pervin (ed.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. Guilford Press. 300--326.
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  41. Kwok Tung Cheung (2008). On a Recent Naturalism Debate in Business Ethics – From a Philosophy Point of View. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):889 - 898.
    William C. Frederick proposes a naturalistic business ethics. Many commentators focus on the issues of naturalistic fallacy, deprivation of freedom of the will, and possibility of important and universal moral values in business ethics. I argue that an ethics being naturalistic is not a worry. The issue of deprivation of free will is irrelevant. Yet there are urgent questions regarding the possibility of important and universal moral values, which may prevent Frederick’s view from getting off the ground.
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  42. Ellen Clarke (2014). Origins of Evolutionary Transitions. Journal of Biosciences 39 (2):303-317.
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  43. S. Clarke (2007). The Fundamental Attribution Error and Harman's Case Against Character Traits. South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):350-368.
    Gilbert Harman argues that the warrant for the lay attribution of character traits is completely undermined by the “fundamental attribution error” (FAE). He takes it to have been established by social psychologists, that the FAE pervades ordinary instances of lay person perception. However, examination of recent work in psychology reveals that there are good reasons to doubt that the effects observed in experimental settings, which ground the case for the FAE, pervade ordinary instances of person perception. Furthermore, it is possible (...)
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  44. Larry Cochran (1984). On the Categorization of Traits. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 14 (2):183–209.
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  45. A. Cohen & Re Shoup (1992). Dimensional Constraints in Response Selection-Evidence From the Flanker Task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):475-475.
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  46. P. H. Cook (1941). The Definition of Personality. II. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 19 (2):175 – 179.
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  47. William Forbes Cooley (1914). Llan's Space and Personality. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 11 (17):470.
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  48. Edwin Bingham Copeland (1928). Natural Conduct. Stanford University, Calif.,Stanford University Press.
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  49. Fiery Cushman, 1.1 Introduction.
    The thesis we develop in this essay is that all humans are endowed with a moral faculty. The moral faculty enables us to produce moral judgments on the basis of the causes and consequences of actions. As an empirical research program, we follow the framework of modern linguistics.1 The spirit of the argument dates back at least to the economist Adam Smith (1759/1976) who argued for something akin to a moral grammar, and more recently, to the political philosopher John Rawls (...)
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  50. Gerard J. Dalcourt (1976). The Pragmatist and Situationist Approach to Ethics. Thought 51 (2):135-146.
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