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Summary Ethical issues associated with AI are proliferating and rising to popular attention as intelligent machines become ubiquitous. For example, AIs can and do model aspects essential to moral agency and so offer tools for the investigation of consciousness and other aspects of cognition contributing to moral status (either ascribed or achieved). This has deep implications for our understanding of moral agency, and so of systems of ethics meant to account for and to provide for the development of such capacities. This raises the issue of responsible and/or blameworthy AIs operating openly in general society, with deep implications again for systems of ethics which must accommodate moral AIs. Consider also that human social infrastructure (e.g. energy grids, mass-transit systems) are increasingly moderated by increasingly intelligent machines. This alone raises many moral/ethical concerns. For example, who or what is responsible in the case of an accident due to system error, or due to design flaws, or due to proper operation outside of anticipated constraints? Finally, as AIs become increasingly intelligent, there seems some legitimate concern over the potential for AIs to manage human systems according to AI values, rather than as directly programmed by human designers. These issues often bare on the long-term safety of intelligent systems, and not only for individual human beings, but for the human race and life on Earth as a whole. These issues and many others are central to Ethics of AI. 
Key works Bostrom manuscriptMüller 2014
Introductions Müller 2013White 2015Gunkel 2012
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  1. Marcus Arvan (2014). A Unified Explanation of Quantum Phenomena? The Case for the Peer‐to‐Peer Simulation Hypothesis as an Interdisciplinary Research Program. Philosophical Forum 45 (4):433-446.
    In my 2013 article, “A New Theory of Free Will”, I argued that several serious hypotheses in philosophy and modern physics jointly entail that our reality is structurally identical to a peer-to-peer (P2P) networked computer simulation. The present paper outlines how quantum phenomena emerge naturally from the computational structure of a P2P simulation. §1 explains the P2P Hypothesis. §2 then sketches how the structure of any P2P simulation realizes quantum superposition and wave-function collapse (§2.1.), quantum indeterminacy (§2.2.), wave-particle duality (§2.3.), (...)
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  2. Theodore Bach (2011). Structure-Mapping: Directions From Simulation to Theory. Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):23-51.
    The theory of mind debate has reached a “hybrid consensus” concerning the status of theory-theory and simulation-theory. Extant hybrid models either specify co-dependency and implementation relations, or distribute mentalizing tasks according to folk-psychological categories. By relying on a non-developmental framework these models fail to capture the central connection between simulation and theory. I propose a “dynamic” hybrid that is informed by recent work on the nature of similarity cognition. I claim that Gentner’s model of structure-mapping allows us to understand simulation (...)
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  3. Luca Barlassina (2013). Simulation is Not Enough: A Hybrid Model of Disgust Attribution on the Basis of Visual Stimuli. Philosophical Psychology 26 (3):401-419.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the Theory-Theory (TT), mindreading is based on one's possession of a Theory of Mind. On the other hand, the Simulation Theory (ST) maintains that one arrives at the attribution of a mental state by simulating it in one's own mind. In this paper, I propose a ST-TT hybrid model of the ability to attribute disgust on the basis of visual stimuli such as facial expressions, body postures, etc. (...)
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  4. Archana Barua & Ananya Barua (2012). Gendering the Digital Body: Women and Computers. [REVIEW] AI and Society 27 (4):465-477.
    As we live in a culture where “everything can be commodified, measured and calculated and can be put in the competitive market for sale, detached from its roots and purpose,” there is need to redefine our humanness in terms of the changing nature of science, technology, and their deeper impact on human life. More than anything else, it is Information Technology that now has tremendous influence on all spheres of our life, and in a sense, IT has become the destiny (...)
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  5. Michael T. Black (1993). Consensus and Authenticity in Representation: Simulation as Participative Theatre. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (1):40-51.
    Representation was invented as an issue during the 17th century in response to specific developments in the technology of simulation. It remains an issue of central importance today in the design of information systems and approaches to artificial intelligence. Our cultural legacy of thought about representation is enormous but as inhibiting as it is productive. The challenge to designers of representative technology is to reshape this legacy by enlarging the politics rather than the technics of simulation.
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  6. Russell Blackford & Damien Broderick (eds.) (2014). Intelligence Unbound: The Future of Uploaded and Machine Minds. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Intelligence Unbound_ explores the prospects, promises, and potential dangers of machine intelligence and uploaded minds in a collection of state-of-the-art essays from internationally recognized philosophers, AI researchers, science fiction authors, and theorists. Compelling and intellectually sophisticated exploration of the latest thinking on Artificial Intelligence and machine minds Features contributions from an international cast of philosophers, Artificial Intelligence researchers, science fiction authors, and more Offers current, diverse perspectives on machine intelligence and uploaded minds, emerging topics of tremendous interest Illuminates the nature (...)
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  7. Nick Bostrom (2005). Transhumanist Values. Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (Supplement):3-14.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. [1] It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
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  8. Xindi Cai & I. I. Wunsch (2007). Computer Go: A Grand Challenge to AI. In Wlodzislaw Duch & Jacek Mandziuk (eds.), Challenges for Computational Intelligence. Springer 443--465.
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  9. Mar Cello Guarim (2011). Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate. In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press
  10. Christopher A. Chung & Michael Alfred (2009). Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (Seee). Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (2):189-199.
    Societal pressures, accreditation organizations, and licensing agencies are emphasizing the importance of ethics in the engineering curriculum. Traditionally, this subject has been taught using dogma, heuristics, and case study approaches. Most recently a number of organizations have sought to increase the utility of these approaches by utilizing the Internet. Resources from these organizations include on-line courses and tests, videos, and DVDs. While these individual approaches provide a foundation on which to base engineering ethics, they may be limited in developing a (...)
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  11. Luc Ciompi & Martin Baatz (2008). The Energetic Dimension of Emotions: An Evolution-Based Computer Simulation with General Implications. Biological Theory 3 (1):42-50.
    Viewed from an evolutionary standpoint, emotions can be understood as situation-specific patterns of energy consumption related to behaviors that have been selected by evolution for their survival value, such as environmental exploration, flight or fight, and socialization. In the present article, the energy linked with emotions is investigated by a strictly energy-based simulation of the evolution of simple autonomous agents provided with random cognitive and motor capacities and operating among food and predators. Emotions are translated into evolving patterns of energy (...)
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  12. Andy Clark (1996). Linguistic Anchors in the Sea of Thought? Pragmatics and Cognition 4 (1):93-103.
    Andy Clark is currently Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology program at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He is the author of two books MICROCOGNITION (MIT Press/Bradford Books 1989) and ASSOCIATIVE ENGINES (MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1993) as well as numerous papers and four edited volumes. He is an ex- committee member of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science and of the Society for Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior. Awards include a visiting Fellowship at (...)
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  13. Kenneth M. Colby, Peter M. Colby & Robert J. Stoller (1990). Dialogues in Natural Language with Guru, a Psychologic Inference Engine. Philosophical Psychology 3 (2 & 3):171 – 186.
    The aim of this project was to explore the possibility of constructing a psychologic inference engine that might enhance introspective self-awareness by delivering inferences about a user based on what he said in interactive dialogues about his closest opposite-sex relation. To implement this aim, we developed a computer program (guru) with the capacity to simulate human conversation in colloquial natural language. The psychologic inferences offered represent the authors' simulations of their commonsense psychology responses to expected user-input expressions. The heuristics of (...)
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  14. J. Decety (2002). Neurophysiological Evidence for Simulation and Action. In Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.), Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins
  15. Aaron Dewitt (2012). Group Agency and Epistemic Dependency. Episteme 9 (3):235-244.
    Modern epistemic questions have largely been focused around the individual and her ability to acquire knowledge autonomously. More recently epistemologists have begun to look more broadly in providing accounts of knowledge by considering its social context, where the individual depends on others for true beliefs. Hardwig explains the effect of this shift starkly, arguing that to reject epistemic dependency is to deny certain true beliefs widely held throughout society and, more specifically, it is to deny that science and scholarship can (...)
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  16. Jérôme Dokic (2002). Reply to 'the Scope and Limit of Mental Simulation'. In Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.), Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins
  17. Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.) (2002). Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins.
    CHAPTER Simulation theory and mental concepts Alvin I. Goldman Rutgers University. Folk psychology and the TT-ST debate The study of folk psychology, ...
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  18. Hubert Dreyfus, Heidegger and Foucault on the Subject, Agencycourses.
    of autonomous agency. Yet neither denies the importance of human freedom. In Heidegger's early work the subject is reinterpreted as Dasein -- a non autonomous, culturally bound (or thrown) way of being, that can yet change the field of possibilities in which it acts. In middle Heidegger, thinkers alone have the power to disclose a new world, while in later Heidegger, anyone is free to step back from the current world, to enter one of a plurality of worlds, and, thereby, (...)
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  19. Fady Farah & François Rousselot (2007). DARES: Documents Annotation and Recombining System—Application to the European Law. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):83-102.
    Accessing legislation via the Internet is more and more frequent. As a result, systems that allow consultation of law texts are becoming more and more powerful. This paper presents DARES, a generic system which can be adapted to any domain to handle documents production needs. It is based on an annotation engine which allows obtaining XML documents inputs as required by the system, and on an XML fragments recombining system. The latter operates using a fragment manipulation functions toolbox to generate (...)
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  20. Andreas Fischer, Assessment of Problem Solving Skills by Means of Multiple Complex Systems – Validity of Finite Automata and Linear Dynamic Systems.
    The assessment of highly domain-general problem solving skills is increasingly important as problem solving is increasingly demanded by modern workplaces and increasingly present in international large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. This thesis is about the computer-based assessment of problem solving skills based on Multiple Complex Systems : The main idea of the MCS approach is to present multiple computer-simulations of “minimally complex” problems in order to reliably assess certain problem solving skills. In each simulation, the (...)
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  21. Justin C. Fisher (2006). Does Simulation Theory Really Involve Simulation? Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):417 – 432.
    This paper contributes to an ongoing debate regarding the cognitive processes involved when one person predicts a target person's behavior and/or attributes a mental state to that target person. According to simulation theory, a person typically performs these tasks by employing some part of her brain as a simulation of what is going on in a corresponding part of the brain of the target person. I propose a general intuitive analysis of what 'simulation' means. Simulation is a particular way of (...)
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  22. Luciano Floridi (2004). Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information. Metaphilosophy 35 (4):554-582.
    The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research with its own field of investigation and methodology. This article, based on the Herbert A. Simon Lecture of Computing and Philosophy I gave at Carnegie Mellon University in 2001, analyses the eighteen principal open problems in PI. Section 1 introduces the analysis by outlining Herbert Simon's approach to PI. Section 2 discusses some methodological considerations about what counts as a good philosophical problem. The discussion centers on Hilbert's famous analysis (...)
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  23. Tom Froese (2007). On the Role of AI in the Ongoing Paradigm Shift Within the Cognitive Sciences. In M. Lungarella (ed.), 50 Years of AI. Springer-Verlag
    This paper supports the view that the ongoing shift from orthodox to embodied-embedded cognitive science has been significantly influenced by the experimental results generated by AI research. Recently, there has also been a noticeable shift toward enactivism, a paradigm which radicalizes the embodied-embedded approach by placing autonomous agency and lived subjectivity at the heart of cognitive science. Some first steps toward a clarification of the relationship of AI to this further shift are outlined. It is concluded that the success of (...)
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  24. Liane Gabora (2002). Amplifying Phenomenal Information: Toward a Fundamental Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (8):3-29.
    from non-conscious components by positing that consciousness is a universal primitive. For example, the double aspect theory of information holds that infor- mation has a phenomenal aspect. How then do you get from phenomenal infor- mation to human consciousness? This paper proposes that an entity is conscious to the extent it amplifies information, first by trapping and integrating it through closure, and second by maintaining dynamics at the edge of chaos through simul- taneous processes of divergence and convergence. The origin (...)
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  25. Ismo Kantola (2013). On the Re-Materialization of the Virtual. AI and Society 28 (2):189-198.
    The so-called new economy based on the global network of digitalized communication was welcomed as a platform of innovations and as a vehicle of advancement of democracy. The concept of virtuality captures the essence of the new economy: efficiency and free access. In practice, the new economy has developed into an heterogenic entity dominated by practices such as propagation of trust and commitment to standards and standard-like technological solutions; entrenchment of locally strategic subsystems; surveillance of unwanted behavior. Five empirical cases (...)
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  26. Willem A. Labuschagne & Johannes Heidema (2005). Natural and Artificial Cognition: On the Proper Place of Reason. South African Journal of Philosophy 24 (2):137-149.
    We explore the psychological foundations of Logic and Artificial Intelligence, touching on representation, categorisation, heuristics, consciousness, and emotion. Specifically, we challenge Dennett's view of the brain as a syntactic engine that is limited to processing symbols according to their structural properties. We show that cognitive psychology and neurobiology support a dual-process model in which one form of cognition is essentially semantical and differs in important ways from the operation of a syntactic engine. The dual-process model illuminates two important events in (...)
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  27. Jaron Lanier (1995). Agents of Alienation. Interactions 2 (3):76-81.
    In the conclusion to his article, `Consciousness as an engineering issue' , pp. 52-66), Donald Michie argues that the inclusion of intelligent computer systems in workgroups will lead to a blurring of the distinction between human and machine consciousness. He also refers to the increasing use of intelligent agent software in commercial applications. Given the exponential growth in the availability of on-line information through networked computer systems, AI routines are being developed to filter information, based on the user's own stated (...)
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  28. Jos Lehmann, Joost Breuker & Bob Brouwer (2004). Causation in AI and Law. Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (4):279-315.
    Reasoning about causation in fact is an essential element of attributing legal responsibility. Therefore, the automation of the attribution of legal responsibility requires a modelling effort aimed at the following: a thorough understanding of the relation between the legal concepts of responsibility and of causation in fact; a thorough understanding of the relation between causation in fact and the common sense concept of causation; and, finally, the specification of an ontology of the concepts that are minimally required for (automatic) common (...)
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  29. Hans Lenk (forthcoming). Ethics of Responsibilities Distributions in a Technological Culture. AI and Society.
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  30. Patrick Lin, Keith Abney & George Bekey, Robot Ethics: Mapping the Issues for a Mechanized World.
    As with other emerging technologies, advanced robotics brings with it new ethical and policy challenges. This paper will describe the flourishing role of robots in society—from security to sex—and survey the numerous ethical and social issues, which we locate in three broad categories: safety & errors, law & ethics, and social impact. We discuss many of these issues in greater detail in our forthcoming edited volume on robot ethics from MIT Press.
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  31. Patrick Lin, Keith Abney & George A. Bekey (eds.) (2011). Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. The MIT Press.
    Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society--and ethics--change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field. Starting (...)
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  32. Patrick Lin, George Bekey & Keith Abney (eds.) (2011). Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. MIT Press (MA).
    How might society--and ethics--change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field.
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  33. Alexandre Linhares (2005). An Active Symbols Theory of Chess Intuition. Minds and Machines 15 (2):131-181.
    The well-known game of chess has traditionally been modeled in artificial intelligence studies by search engines with advanced pruning techniques. The models were thus centered on an inference engine manipulating passive symbols in the form of tokens. It is beyond doubt, however, that human players do not carry out such processes. Instead, chess masters instead carry out perceptual processes, carefully categorizing the chunks perceived in a position and gradually building complex dynamic structures to represent the subtle pressures embedded in the (...)
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  34. Gert-Jan Lokhorst (2011). Erratum To: Computational Meta-Ethics. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 21 (3):475-475.
  35. Alan K. Mackworth (2011). Architectures and Ethics for Robots Constraint Satisfaction as a Unitary Design Framework. In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press 30--1.
  36. L. Magnani (ed.) (2009). Computational Intelligence.
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  37. Gunter Mahler (2004). The Partitioned Quantum Universe: Entanglement and the Emergence of Functionality. Mind and Matter 2 (2):67-89.
    Given that the world as we perceive it appears to be predominantly classical, how can we stabilize quantum effects? Given the fundamental description of our world is quantum mechanical, how do classical phenomena emerge? Answers can be found from the analysis of the scaling properties of modular quantum systems with respect to a given level of description. It is argued that, depending on design, such partitioned quantum systems may support various functions. Despite their local appearance these functions are emergent properties (...)
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  38. Carl Mahoney (2016). AI on the Go: Notes on the Current Development and Use of Artificial Intelligence. Australian Humanist, The 121:9.
    Mahoney, Carl Artificial intelligence is so widespread now, and so well embedded into our latest technology, that nearly all of us know it as AI. It is virtually impossible to fully catalogue its uses and applications because by now it has reached every corner of human activities. This is the premise on which I based a lecture to the Humanist Society of Victoria on October 22, 2015 entitled 'The Artificial Intelligence Debate'. The talk was followed by a spirited discussion at (...)
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  39. Heinz Mandl, Michael Balk, Markus Reiserer, Ludwig Hinkofer & Franci Kren, Evaluation of the Interactive Multimedia Business Simulation SPACE.
    This report presents the evaluation of the computer-based simulation SPACE – Simulating Project Auditing & Controlling Excellence – which is an interactive multiedia business simulation developed in partnership by Andersen Consulting and Siemens AG. The aims of SPACE are fostering self-directed learning and the acquisition of applicable knowledge in the economic domain regarding construction and solution projects of US GAAP. The evaluation was conducted in cooperation with the Institute of Educational Psychology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. The aim of the (...)
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  40. Marco Maratea, Luca Pulina & Francesco Ricca (2012). The Multi-Engine Asp Solver Me-Asp. In Luis Farinas del Cerro, Andreas Herzig & Jerome Mengin (eds.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence. Springer 484--487.
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  41. J. Margolis (1986). Information, Artificial, Intelligence, and the Praxical in Philosophy and Technology II. Information Technology and Computers in Theory and Practice. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 90:171-186.
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  42. Andreas Matthias, Algorithmic Moral Control of War Robots : Philosophical Questions.
    In a series of publications, Ronald Arkin and his team have proposed the concept of a deontologically programmed 'ethical governor,' which is supposed to effectively control and enforce the ethical use of lethal force by robots on the battlefield. This paper attempts to analyse the concept of an ethical governor in the context of a more general criticism of algorithmic robot morality implementations. It is argued that the metaphor of the ethical governor is dangerously misleading in multiple respects: the governor, (...)
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  43. Andreas Matthias, From Coder to Creator : Responsibility Issues in Intelligent Artifact Design.
    Creation of autonomously acting, learning artifacts has reached a point where humans cannot any more be justly held responsible for the actions of certain types of machines. Such machines learn during operation, thus continuously changing their original behaviour in uncontrollable (by the initial manufacturer) ways. They act without effective supervision and have an epistemic advantage over humans, in that their extended sensory apparatus, their superior processing speed and perfect memory render it impossible for humans to supervise the machine's decisions in (...)
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  44. Andreas Matthias (2004). The Responsibility Gap: Ascribing Responsibility for the Actions of Learning Automata. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 6 (3):175-183.
    Traditionally, the manufacturer/operator of a machine is held (morally and legally) responsible for the consequences of its operation. Autonomous, learning machines, based on neural networks, genetic algorithms and agent architectures, create a new situation, where the manufacturer/operator of the machine is in principle not capable of predicting the future machine behaviour any more, and thus cannot be held morally responsible or liable for it. The society must decide between not using this kind of machine any more (which is not a (...)
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  45. Tobias Matzner (2016). The Model Gap: Cognitive Systems in Security Applications and Their Ethical Implications. [REVIEW] AI and Society 31 (1):95-102.
    The use of cognitive systems like pattern recognition or video tracking technology in security applications is becoming ever more common. The paper considers cases in which the cognitive systems are meant to assist human tasks by providing information, but the final decision is left to the human. All these systems and their various applications have a common feature: an intrinsic difference in how a situation or an event is assessed by a human being and a cognitive system. This difference, which (...)
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  46. Gordon McCabe (2005). Universe Creation on a Computer. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (4):591-625.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the epistemology and metaphysics of universe creation on a computer. The paper begins with F.J.Tipler's argument that our experience is indistinguishable from the experience of someone embedded in a perfect computer simulation of our own universe, hence we cannot know whether or not we are part of such a computer program ourselves. Tipler's argument is treated as a special case of epistemological scepticism, in a similar vein to `brain-in-a-vat' arguments. (...)
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  47. John McCarthy (1996). Making Robots Conscious of Their Mental States. In S. Muggleton (ed.), Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Press
    In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will be wanted, some will not, and some abilities not possessed by humans have already been found feasible and (...)
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  48. Lee McCauley (2007). AI Armageddon and the Three Laws of Robotics. Ethics and Information Technology 9 (2):153-164.
    After 50 years, the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics capture the imagination of the general public while, at the same time, engendering a great deal of fear and skepticism. Isaac Asimov recognized this deep-seated misconception of technology and created the Three Laws of Robotics. The first part of this paper examines the underlying fear of intelligent robots, revisits Asimov’s response, and reports on some current opinions on the use of the Three Laws by practitioners. Finally, an argument against robotic (...)
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  49. Drew McDermott (2011). What Matters to a Machine. In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press 88--114.
  50. Michael McKenna (2005). The Relationship Between Autonomous and Morally Responsible Agency. In J. Stacey Taylor (ed.), Personal Autonomy: New Essays on Personal Autonomy and its Role in Contemporary Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press 205--34.
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