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  1. Bill Anglin & Stewart Goetz (1982). Evil is Privation. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (1):3 - 12.
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  2. Kenneth Baynes (2004). Understanding Evil. Constellations 11 (3):434-444.
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  3. Todd Calder (2003). The Apparent Banality of Evil: The Relationship Between Evil Acts and Evil Character. Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (3):364–376.
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  4. Claudia Card (2004). The Atrocity Paradigm Revisited. Hypatia 19 (4):212 - 222.
    This essay reflects on issues raised by commentators regarding my book, The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil (Oxford 2002). They are (1) Robin Schott's observation of the tension between my discussion of forgiveness and of castration fantasies; (2) Bat-Ami Bar On's questions regarding whether evil is ethical, political, or both; (3) Adam Morton's queries regarding the relative seriousness of evils and injustices; and (4) María Pía Lara's concerns regarding what is valuable in Kant's ethics.
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  5. Daniel Cohen (2009). Creating the Best Possible World: Some Problems From Parfit. Sophia 48 (2):143-150.
    It is sometimes argued that if God were to exist, then the actual world would be the best possible world. However, given that the actual world is clearly not the best possible world, then God doesn’t exist. In response, some have argued that the world could always be improved with the creation of new people and that there is thus no best possible world. I argue that this reasoning gives rise to an instance of Parfit’s mere addition paradox and should (...)
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  6. P. Cole (2002). Gordon Graham Evil and Christian Ethics. Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):75-76.
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  7. J. Angelo Corlett (2001). Surviving Evil: Jewish, African, and Native Americans. Journal of Social Philosophy 32 (2):207–223.
  8. Juan A. Estrada Díaz (2001). Teodicea y Sistemas Filosóficos: Para un cambio de modelo. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 57 (4):683 - 709.
    O presente artigo parte do princípio de que há uma relação intrínseca entre a metafísica e a teodkeia. A primeira é um sistema que oferece sentido, inteligibilidade, verdade e universalidade. O seu pressuposto fundamental é o de Parménides e o de Hegel, ou seja, a correspondência entre ser e pensamento, a racionalidade do real e a realidade do racional. Este é o ponto de partida da teologia natural grega, do teísmo cosmológico cristão, do teísmo antropológico moderno e das filosofias do (...)
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  9. Agnes Heller (2011). On Evils, Evil, Radical Evil and the Demonic. Critical Horizons 12 (1):15-27.
    This article explores the problem of evil from a post-metaphysical position. Distinguishing between good and evil remains no less a pressing task in a world after the "death of God".
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  10. Robin May Schott (2003). Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy (Review). Hypatia 18 (2):222-226.
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  11. Matthew R. Silliman (2004). Weighing Evils. Social Philosophy Today 20:129-136.
    Even if war, terrorism, and other acts of political violence are inherently wrong, in so radically imperfect a world as our own there remains a need, as Virginia Held suggests, to evaluate such acts so as to distinguish between degrees of their unjustifiability. This essay proposes a notion of deliberative democracy as one criterion for such a comparative evaluation. Expanding on an analysis of the psychologically terrorizing impact of violence borrowed from Hannah Arendt, I suggest that it is principally this (...)
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  12. Elizabeth V. Spelman (2007). Inclusive Feminism: A Third Wave Theory of Women's Commonality (Review). Hypatia 22 (3):201-204.
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  13. Elizabeth V. Spelman (2003). The Many Faces of Evil: Historical Perspectives (Review). Hypatia 18 (2):229-232.
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  14. Richard Swinburne (2002). Response to My Commentators. Religious Studies 38 (3):301-315.
    This is my response to the critical commentaries by Hasker, McNaughton and Schellenberg on my tetralogy on Christian doctrine. I dispute the moral principles invoked by McNaughton and Schellenberg in criticism of my theodicy and theory of atonement. I claim, contrary to Hasker, that I have taken proper account of the ‘existential dimension' of Christianity. I agree that whether it is rational to pursue the Christian way depends not only on how probable it is that the Christian creed is true (...)
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  15. George C. Thomas Iii (2001). Review Essay/Evil in an Indifferent Universe. Criminal Justice Ethics 20 (2):44-54.
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  16. George C. Thomas (2001). Review Essay / Evil in an Indifferent Universe. Criminal Justice Ethics 20 (2):44-54.
    Samuel H. Pillsbury, Judging Evil: Rethinking the Law of Murder and Manslaughter New York: New York University Press, 1998, vii + 264pp.
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  17. Laurence Thomas (1996). Becoming an Evil Society: The Self and Strangers. Political Theory 24 (2):271-294.
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  18. Nick Trakakis (2006). A Third (Meta-)Critique. Sophia 45 (2):139-142.
    I begin my third reply by answering some of the criticisms raised by Tierno against theodical attempts to account for the pervasiveness of moral evil. I then take the discussion to a meta-philosophical level, where I question the very way of thinking about God and evil implicit in Tierno’s critique and in much contemporary philosophy of religion.
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  19. Ewa Ziarek (2003). Review: Evil and Testimony: Ethics "After" Postmodernism. [REVIEW] Hypatia 18 (2):197 - 204.
Moral Evil
  1. Robert Merrihew Adams (1985). Involuntary Sins. Philosophical Review 94 (1):3-31.
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  2. Bat-Ami Bar On (2003). Terrorism, Evil, and Everyday Depravity. Hypatia 18 (1):157-163.
    : This essay expresses ambivalence about the use of the term "evil" in analyses of terrorism in light of the association of the two in speeches intended to justify the United States' "war on terrorism." At the same time, the essay suggests that terrorism can be regarded as "evil" but only when considered among a multiplicity of "evils" comparable to it, for example: rape, war crimes, and repression.
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  3. Linda A. Bell (2009). Challenging the Genteel Supports of Atrocities: A Response to "The Atrocity Paradigm". Hypatia 24 (1):123 - 140.
    Inspired by Card's focus on atrocities, I reflect on attitudes and behaviors that buttress and support evil. Surely, the frequent anti-Semitic sermons in German churches helped to form and later to support the views of both Nazis and those who accepted and cooperated with them. Similarly, lynching, rape, and abuse occur within societies whose structures and laws reflect dominant, generally "genteel" racism and sexism and, in turn, help create perpetrators and at least somewhat sympathetic onlookers.
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  4. Richard Brook (2007). Deontology, Paradox, and Moral Evil. Social Theory and Practice 33 (3):431-440.
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  5. Robert F. Brown (1991). God's Ability to Will Moral Evil. Faith and Philosophy 8 (1):3-20.
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  6. Roger Burggraeve (1999). Violence and the Vulnerable Face of the Other: The Vision of Emmanuel Levinas on Moral Evil and Our Responsibility. Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (1):29-45.
  7. Claudia Card (1990). Caring and Evil. Hypatia 5 (1):101-108.
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  8. Claudia Card (1990). Review: Caring and Evil. [REVIEW] Hypatia 5 (1):101 - 108.
    Nel Noddings, in Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education (1984), presents and develops an ethic of care as an alternative to an ethic that treats justice as a basic concept. I argue that this care ethic is unable to give an adequate account of ethical relationships between strangers and that it is also in danger of valorizing relationships in which carers are seriously abused.
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  9. Victoria Davion (2009). Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil. Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  10. Margaret Ann Denike (2003). The Devil's Insatiable Sex: A Genealogy of Evil Incarnate. Hypatia 18 (1):10-43.
    : This paper traces the political economy of the Christian concept of "evil" incarnate and its concomitant operations of sexual abjection and the repudiation of femininity, beginning with the early church's inaugural struggles to impose its monotheistic Law against maternal paganism. With attention to how "evil" has been deployed to sanction and sanctify the persecution of scapegoats, and particularly of heretics and witches, I examine the masculinist struggles for jurisdiction and control over women.
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  11. Frank B. Dilley (1990). The Free-Will Defence and Worlds Without Moral Evil. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 27 (1/2):1 - 15.
  12. David Forman (2012). Kant on Moral Freedom and Moral Slavery. Kantian Review 17 (1):1-32.
    Kant’s account of the freedom gained through virtue builds on the Socratic tradition. On the Socratic view, when morality is our end, nothing can hinder us from attaining satisfaction: we are self-sufficient and free since moral goodness is (as Kant says) “created by us, hence is in our power.” But when our end is the fulfillment of sensible desires, our satisfaction requires luck as well as the cooperation of others. For Kant, this means that happiness requires that we get other (...)
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  13. Jennifer L. Geddes (2003). Banal Evil and Useless Knowledge: Hannah Arendt and Charlotte Delbo on Evil After the Holocaust. Hypatia 18 (1):104-115.
    : Hannah Arendt's and Charlotte Delbo's writings about the Holocaust trouble our preconceptions about those who do evil and those who suffer evil. Their jarring terms "banal evil" and "useless knowledge" point to limitations and temptations facing scholars of evil. While Arendt helps us to resist the temptation to mythologize evil, Delbo helps us to resist the temptation to domesticate suffering.
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  14. Richard Greene & K. Silem Mohammed (eds.) (2006). The Undead and Philosophy. Open Court.
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  15. R. Hackforth (1946). Moral Evil and Ignorance in Plato's Ethics. Classical Quarterly 40 (3-4):118-.
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  16. Allan Hazlett (2012). Non-Moral Evil. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):18-34.
    There is, I shall assume, such a thing as moral evil (more on which below). My question is whether is also such a thing as non-moral evil, and in particular whether there are such things as aesthetic evil and epistemic evil. More exactly, my question is whether there is such a thing as moral evil but not such a thing as non-moral evil, in some sense that reveals something special about the moral, as opposed to such would-be non-moral domains as (...)
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  17. Jill Graper Hernandez (2010). Moral Evil and Leibniz's Form/Matter Defense of Divine Omnipotence. Sophia 49 (1):1-13.
    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that Leibniz’s form/matter defense of omnipotence is paradoxical, but not irretrievably so. Leibniz maintains that God necessarily must concur only in the possibility for evil’s existence in the world (the form of evil), but there are individual instances of moral evil that are not necessary (the matter of evil) with which God need not concur. For Leibniz, that there is moral evil in the world is contingent on God’s will (a dimension of (...)
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  18. Jon Vegar Hugaas (2010). Evil's Place in the Ethics of Social Work. Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (3):254-279.
    This article argues that the concept of evil is needed in normative ethics in general as well as in the professional ethics of social work. Attention is drawn to certain shortcomings in the classical theories of normative ethics when it comes to recognizing the profound destructiveness of certain types of acts that exceed the mere ?bad? or ?wrong? applied in the most common theories of moral philosophy. Having established the category of morally evil acts in general, the author turns to (...)
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  19. Louis Janssens (2000). Ontic Evil and Moral Evil. In Christopher Robert Kaczor (ed.), Proportionalism: For and Against. Marquette University Press.
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  20. Aurel Kolnai (1956). The Thematic Primacy of Moral Evil. Philosophical Quarterly 6 (22):27-42.
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  21. Norman Kretzmann (1988). God Among the Causes of Moral Evil. Philosophical Topics 16 (2):189-214.
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  22. María Pía Lara (2004). Claudia Card's. Hypatia 19 (4).
    : This paper deals with Claudia Card's important contributions to a theory of evil that steps out from traditional models of thinking about this problem (theodicies, metaphysical theories, etc.). Instead, our author seeks to explore important elements from other theorists (such as Kant and Nietzsche) in order to build up her ideas of what she calls the "atrocity paradigm." This critical essay focuses mainly in the spaces where Card's conclusions need to rethink the limits and constraints of her theory.
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  23. María Pía Lara (2004). Claudia Card's Atrocity Paradigm. Hypatia 19 (4):186 - 193.
    This paper deals with Claudia Card's important contributions to a theory of evil that steps out from traditional models of thinking about this problem (theodicies, metaphysical theories, etc.). Instead, our author seeks to explore important elements from other theorists (such as Kant and Nietzsche) in order to build up her ideas of what she calls the "atrocity paradigm." This critical essay focuses mainly in the spaces where Card's conclusions need to rethink the limits and constraints of her theory.
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  24. C. Stephen Layman (2003). Natural Evil: The Comparative Response. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 54 (1):1-23.
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  25. Alice MacLachlan (2009). Moral Powers and Forgivable Evils. In Kathryn Norlock & Andrea Veltman (eds.), Evil, Political Violence and Forgiveness: Essays in Honor of Claudia Card. Lexington.
    In The Atrocity Paradigm, Claudia Card suggests we forgiveness as a potentially valuable exercise of a victim's moral powers. Yet Card never makes explicit just what 'moral powers' are, or how to understand their grounding or scope. I draw out unacknowledged implications of her framework: namely, that others than the primary victim may forgive, and -- conversely -- that some victims may find themselves morally dis-empowered. Furthermore, talk of "moral powers" allows us to appropriately acknowledge the value of refusals to (...)
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  26. Eugene Marshall (forthcoming). Spinoza on Evil. In The History of Evil. Volume III: The History of Evil in the Early Modern Age (1450-1700). Acumen Press.
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  27. Johannes Baptist Metz (ed.) (1970). Moral Evil Under Challenge. [New York]Herder and Herder.
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  28. Moti Mizrahi (2014). The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil. Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential (not logical or incompatibility) problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making defense, are (...)
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  29. James F. Moore (2010). Evagrius Ponticus and Cognitive Science: A Look at Moral Evil and the Thoughts. By George Tsakiridis. Zygon 45 (4):1024-1025.
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  30. Adam Morton (2004). Inequity/Iniquity: Card on Balancing Injustice and Evil. Hypatia 19 (4):197-201.
    : Card argues that we should not give injustice priority over evil. I agree. But I think Card sets us up for some difficult balances, for example of small evils against middle-sized injustices. I suggest some ways of staying off the tightrope.
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  31. Yujin Nagasawa (2003). Moral Evil and Human Freedom: A Reply to Tierno. Sophia 42 (2):107-111.
    Many theists believe that the so-called ‘free will defence’ successfully undermines the antitheist argument from moral evil. However, in a recent issue of Sophia Joel Thomas Tierno provides the ‘adequacy argument’ in order to show an alleged difficulty with the free will defence. I argue that the adequacy argument fails because it equivocates on the notion of moral evil.
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