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  1. R. A. (1955). Reality: A Selection. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 9 (1):165-165.
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  2. Scott Aaronson, Evolution of Mutating Software.
    We propose using random walks in software space as abstract formal models of biological evolution. The goal is to shed light on biological creativity using toy models of evolution that are simple enough to prove theorems about them. We consider two models: a single mutating piece of software, and a population of mutating software. The fitness function is taken from a well known problem in computability theory that requires an unlimited amount of creativity, the Busy Beaver problem. (Talk given Friday (...)
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  3. Corey Abel (2009). Oakeshottian Modes at the Crossroads of the Evolution Debates. Zygon 44 (1):197-222.
    I examine Michael Oakeshott's theory of modes of experience in light of today's evolution debates and argue that in much of our current debate science and religion irrelevantly attack each other or, less commonly but still irrelevantly, seek out support from the other. An analysis of Oakeshott's idea of religion finds links between his early holistic theory of the state, his individualistic account of religious sensibility, and his theory of political, moral, and religious authority. Such analysis shows that a modern (...)
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  4. Francisco Aboitiz (1990). Behavior, Body Types and the Irreversibility of Evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 38 (2):91-101.
    A functional approach to evolutionary morphology is emphasized in this paper. This perspective differs from the current structuralist trend, which emphasizes the constraining role of developmental paths. In addition, the present approach agrees with the adaptationist paradigm. It is further argued that three types of phenomena are better understood in this light: i.- the existence of evolutionary trends, ii.- the maintenance of certain structural features within a given taxon, and iii.- the irreversibility of evolution.
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  5. Francisco Aboitiz, Daniver Morales & Juan Montiel (2003). An Interdisciplinary Approach to Brain Evolution: A Long Due Debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):572-576.
    A dorsalization mechanism is a good candidate for the evolutionary origin of the isocortex, producing a radial and tangential expansion of the dorsal pallium (and perhaps other structures that acquired a cortical phenotype). Evidence suggests that a large part of the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) of reptiles and birds derives from the embryonic ventral pallium, whereas the isocortex possibly derives mostly from the dorsal pallium. In early mammals, the development of olfactory-hippocampal associative networks may have been pivotal in facilitating the (...)
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  6. Francisco Aboitiz, Daniver Morales & Juan Montiel (2003). The Evolutionary Origin of the Mammalian Isocortex: Towards an Integrated Developmental and Functional Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):535-552.
    The isocortex is a distinctive feature of mammalian brains, which has no clear counterpart in the cerebral hemispheres of other amniotes. This paper speculates on the evolutionary processes giving rise to the isocortex. As a first step, we intend to identify what structure may be ancestral to the isocortex in the reptilian brain. Then, it is necessary to account for the transformations (developmental, connectional, and functional) of this ancestral structure, which resulted in the origin of the isocortex. One long-held perspective (...)
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  7. Ralph Abraham (1988). Mathematics and Evolution: A Manifesto. World Futures 23 (4):237-261.
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  8. Marshall Abrams (2013). Populations and Pigeons: Prosaic Pluralism About Evolutionary Causes. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):294-301.
    and was correct to conclude that the way a biological population is described should affect conclusions about whether natural selection occurs, but wrong to conclude that natural selection is therefore not a cause. After providing a new argument that ignored crucial biological details, I give a biological illustration that motivates a fairly extreme dependence on description. I argue that contrary to an implication of , biologists allow much flexibility in describing populations, as contemporary research on recent human evolution shows. Properly (...)
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  9. Marshall Abrams (2012). Implications of Use of Wright's for the Role of Probability and Causation in Evolution. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):596-608.
    Sewall Wright ’s FST is a mathematical test widely used in empirical applications to characterize genetic and other differences between subpopulations, and to identify causes of those differences. Cockerham and Weir’s popular approach to statistical estimation of FST is based on an assumption sometimes formulated as a claim that actual populations tested are sampled from.
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  10. Marshall Abrams (2007). How Do Natural Selection and Random Drift Interact? Philosophy of Science 74 (5):666-679.
    One controversy about the existence of so called evolutionary forces such as natural selection and random genetic drift concerns the sense in which such “forces” can be said to interact. In this paper I explain how natural selection and random drift can interact. In particular, I show how population-level probabilities can be derived from individual-level probabilities, and explain the sense in which natural selection and drift are embodied in these population-level probabilities. I argue that whatever causal character the individual-level probabilities (...)
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  11. Marshall Abrams (2006). Infinite Populations and Counterfactual Frequencies in Evolutionary Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (2):256-268.
    One finds intertwined with ideas at the core of evolutionary theory claims about frequencies in counterfactual and infinitely large populations of organisms, as well as in sets of populations of organisms. One also finds claims about frequencies in counterfactual and infinitely large populations—of events—at the core of an answer to a question concerning the foundations of evolutionary theory. The question is this: To what do the numerical probabilities found throughout evolutionary theory correspond? The answer in question says that evolutionary probabilities (...)
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  12. Marshall Abrams (2005). Teleosemantics Without Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):97-116.
    Ruth Millikan and others advocate theories which attempt to naturalize wide mental content (e.g. beliefs.
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  13. Peter A. Abrams (2001). Viewpoint is Also Held by Many Current-Day Evolu-Tionary Biologists (Eg, Dawkins and Krebs 1979; Vermeij 1994). Predation Can Be Regarded as the Most Basic in-Teraction Between Populations. Herbivory and Par. [REVIEW] In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. 277.
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  14. Paulo Abrantes & Charbel Niño El-Hani (2009). Gould, Hull, and the Individuation of Scientific Theories. Foundations of Science 14 (4):295-313.
    When is conceptual change so significant that we should talk about a new theory, not a new version of the same theory? We address this problem here, starting from Gould’s discussion of the individuation of the Darwinian theory. He locates his position between two extremes: ‘minimalist’—a theory should be individuated merely by its insertion in a historical lineage—and ‘maximalist’—exhaustive lists of necessary and sufficient conditions are required for individuation. He imputes the minimalist position to Hull and attempts a reductio : (...)
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  15. A. D' Abro (1950). The Evolution of Scientific Thought From Newton to Einstein. [New York]Dover Publications.
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  16. Marcus Abundis, Towards a Unified Field Theory of Human Behavior. Integral World.
    This paper develops a new structural psychology, and therein proposes a specific model for the scientific study of consciousness. The presented model uses Earth's geologic history of mass-extinction & recovery (evolutionary dynamics) in determining humanity’s adaptive response (conscious and non-conscious traits). It argues humanity adaptively mirrors Earth’s basic evolutionary dynamics, in a “mythologizing of natural adversity” as foundation for all human knowledge – a process that continues well into the modern era. The intellectual lineage used to develop this model includes: (...)
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  17. P. Acot (2002). Pierre-Henri Gouyon, Les Harmonies de la Nature a l'Epreuve de la Biologie, Evolution Et Biodiversite. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (3/4):542-542.
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  18. Gregory Dale Adamson (1999). Henri Bergson: Evolution, Time and Philosophy. World Futures 54 (2):135-162.
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  19. R. Adamson (1893). Book Review:The Evolution of Religion. Edward Caird. [REVIEW] Ethics 4 (1):101-.
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  20. C. J. Adcock (1931). The Evolution of Existence. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):134 – 138.
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  21. Mauro Adenzato (2000). Gene-Culture Coevolution Does Not Replace Standard Evolutionary Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):146-146.
    Though the target article is not without fertile suggestions, at least two problems limit its overall validity: (1) the extended gene-culture coevolutionary framework is not an alternative to standard evolutionary theory; (2) the proposed model does not explain how much time is necessary for selective pressure to determine the stabilization of a new aspect of the genotype.
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  22. Jerry Adler & John Carey, Enigmas of Evolution.
    n 1902, 70 million years after it tripped lightly through the Mesozoic forests in search of meat, the skeleton of a 20-foothightyrannosaurus was dynamited out of a sandstone bluff near Hell Creek, Mont. Wrapped in burlap and plaster and shipped back to New York, the bones were painstakingly reassembled by fossil curator Barnum Brown of the American Museum of Natural History. It was there, one day in 1947, that they happened to scare the bejesus out of 5-year-old Stephen Jay Gould. (...)
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  23. Mortimer J. Adler (1974). On Reading F. F. Centore's Review of "The Problem of Evolution". [REVIEW] The Thomist 38 (2):389.
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  24. Pieter R. Adriaens & Andreas De Block (2006). The Evolution of a Social Construction: The Case of Male Homosexuality. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (4):570-585.
  25. D. Aerts & L. Gabora (forthcoming). Towards a General Theory of Evolution. Foundations of Science.
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  26. Mireille Affa'A. Mindzie (2010). Intervention and Protection in African Crisis Situations: Evolution and Ethical Challenges. Criminal Justice Ethics 29 (2):174-193.
  27. Mireille Affa'A. Mindzie (2010). Intervention and Protection in African Crisis Situations: Evolution and Ethical Challenges. Criminal Justice Ethics 29 (2):174-193.
  28. Evandro Agazzi & Alberto Cordero (eds.) (1991). Philosophy and the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  29. Encarnación Aguilar Criado (ed.) (2010). Darwin En Sevilla: Antonio Machado y Núñez y Los Darwinistas Sevillanos. Universidad de Sevilla, Secretariado de Publicaciones.
    Con motivo del bicentenario del nacimiento de Darwin, esta obra realiza un recorrido por la Teoría de la Evolución a partir del patrimonio bibliográfico y científico de la Universidad de Sevilla. Sus autores muestran la vigencia actual de esta teoría y el papel de Antonio Machado y Núñez, destacado darwinista de la Sevilla de finales del XIX.
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  30. Jacob B. Agus (1973). The Evolution of Jewish Thought. New York,Arno Press.
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  31. Fuentes Agustin (2006). Evolution is Important but It is Not Simple: Defining Cultural Traits and Incorporating Complex Evolutionary Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):355.
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  32. Paul S. Agutter & Denys N. Wheatley (1999). Foundations of Biology: On the Problem of “Purpose” in Biology in Relation to Our Acceptance of the Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (1):3-23.
    For many years, biology was largely descriptive (natural history), but with its emergence as a scientific discipline in its own right, a reductionist approach began, which has failed to be matched by adequate understanding of function of cells, organisms and species as whole entities. Every effort was made to explain biological phenomena in physico-chemical terms.It is argued that there is and always has been a clear distinction between life sciences and physical sciences, explicit in the use of the word biology. (...)
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  33. Sivaswamy Aiyer & S. P. (1935). Evolution of Hindu Moral Ideals. [Calcutta]Calcutta University.
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  34. Gerard A. J. M. Jagers Op Akkerhuis & Nico van Straalen (1999). Operators, the Lego-Bricks of Nature: Evolutionary Transitions From Fermions to Neural Networks. World Futures 53 (4):329-345.
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  35. Keyvan Alasti (forthcoming). Theory of Evolution and Historical Explanation in Biology. Philosophical Investigations.
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  36. Miri Albahari (1999). Objective Colours and Evolutionary Value: A Reply to Dedrick. Dialogue 38 (1):99-108.
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  37. Hartley B. Alexander (1906). The Evolution of Ideals. International Journal of Ethics 16 (3):311-332.
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  38. J. McKenzie Alexander (2006). The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure, Brian Skyrms. Cambridge University Press, 2004, 149 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):441-448.
  39. J. McKenzie Alexander, The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure [Book Review].
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  40. J. McKenzie Alexander, The Evolutionary Foundations of Human Altruism.
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  41. J. McKenzie Alexander (2003). Random Boolean Networks and Evolutionary Game Theory. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1289-1304.
    Recent years have seen increased interest in the question of whether it is possible to provide an evolutionary game theoretic explanation for certain kinds of social norms. These explanatory approaches often rely on the fact that, in certain evolutionary models, the basin of attraction of "fair" or "just" strategies occupies a certain percentage of the state space. I sketch a proof of a general representation theorem for a large class of evolutionary game theoretic models played on a social network, in (...)
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  42. J. McKenzie Alexander, Evolutionary Game Theory.
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  43. J. McKenzie Alexander (2000). Evolutionary Explanations of Distributive Justice. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):490-516.
    Evolutionary game theoretic accounts of justice attempt to explain our willingness to follow certain principles of justice by appealing to robustness properties possessed by those principles. Skyrms (1996) offers one sketch of how such an account might go for divide-the-dollar, the simplest version of the Nash bargaining game, using the replicator dynamics of Taylor and Jonker (1978). In a recent article, D'Arms et al. (1998) criticize his account and describe a model which, they allege, undermines his theory. I sketch a (...)
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  44. J. McKenzie Alexander, Marc Ebner & Richard Watson, Co-Evolutionary Dynamics on a Deformable Landscape.
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  45. Jason Alexander & Brian Skyrms, The (Spatial) Evolution of the Equal Split.
    The replicator dynamics have been used to study the evolution of a population of rational agents playing the Nash bargaining game, where an individual's "fitness" is determined by an individual's success in playing the game. In these models, a population whose initial conditions was randomly chosen from the space of population proportions converges to a state of fair division approximately 62% of the time. (Higher rates of convergence to final states of fair division can be obtained by introducing artificial correlations (...)
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  46. S. Alexander (1892). Natural Selection in Morals. International Journal of Ethics 2 (4):409-439.
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  47. S. Alexander (1892). Book Review:Riddles of the Sphinx: A Study in the Philosophy of Evolution Troglodyte. [REVIEW] Ethics 2 (2):267-.
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  48. Alexander Alland Jr (1989). Affect and Aesthetics in Human Evolution. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47 (1):1-14.
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  49. Barry Allen (2010). The Genial Gene: Deconstructing Darwinian Selfishness. Common Knowledge 16 (3):559-559.
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  50. Colin Allen (2000). The Evolution of Rational Demons. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):742-742.
    If fast and frugal heuristics are as good as they seem to be, who needs logic and probability theory? Fast and frugal heuristics depend for their success on reliable structure in the environment. In passive environments, there is relatively little change in structure as a consequence of individual choices. But in social interactions with competing agents, the environment may be structured by agents capable of exploiting logical and probabilistic weaknesses in competitors' heuristics. Aspirations toward the ideal of a demon reasoner (...)
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