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  1. S. C. A. (1973). Morality in Evolution. Review of Metaphysics 27 (2):384-385.
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  2. Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) (2010). Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. The University of Chicago Press.
    An accessible survey, this collection will enlighten historians of science, their students, practicing scientists, and anyone interested in the relationship ...
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  3. Martin Amsteus (2012). The Origin of Foresight. World Futures 68 (6):390 - 405.
    The purpose of this article is to develop a framework for the origin of foresight. Following a review of arguments for foresight as genetically inherited versus environmentally acquired, the understanding of foresight is expanded through a behaviorist perspective and through an evolutionary perspective. The framework established makes it possible to deploy evolutionary logic to explain foresight as well as to enhance our understanding of foresight, both on individual (e.g., managerial) and aggregated (e.g., organizational) levels.
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  4. R. Amundsom (1999). Review. Darwinism's Struggle for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis of Natural Selection. J Gayon. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):761-767.
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  5. Myrdene Anderson & Devika Chawla (2008). Recycling Nonlinear Evolutionary Living Into Linear Developmental Lives. Semiotics:156-162.
  6. A. Ariew (2003). Natural Selection Doesn't Work That Way: Fodor on Adaptationism. Mind and Language 18 (5):447-477.
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  7. R. Arp (2006). The Environments of Our Hominin Ancestors, Tool-Usage, and Scenario Visualization. Biology and Philosophy 21 (1):95-117.
    In this paper, I give an account of how our hominin ancestors evolved a conscious ability I call scenario visualization that enabled them to manufacture novel tools so as to survive and flourish in the ever-changing and complex environments in which they lived. I first present the ideas and arguments put forward by evolutionary psychologists that the mind evolved certain mental capacities as adaptive responses to environmental pressures. Specifically, Steven Mithen thinks that the mind has evolved cognitive fluidity, viz., an (...)
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  8. Bradley Shavit Artson (2011). Co-Evolving: Judaism and Biology. Zygon 46 (2):429-445.
    Abstract. Biology has been able to systematize and order its vast information through the theory of evolution, offering the possibility of a more engaged dialogue and possible integration with religious insights and emotions. Using Judaism as a focus, this essay examines ways that contemporary evolutionary theory offers room for balancing freedom and constraint, serendipity and intentionality in ways fruitful to Jewish thought and expression. This essay then looks at a productive integration of Judaism and biology in the examples of co-evolution, (...)
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  9. Robin Attfield (2008). Creation and Evolution. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:41-47.
    It is not inconsistent to believe in both creation and in Darwinian evolution at the same time as rejecting creationism, and endorsing a realist stance about religious and scientific language. Belief in creation is argued to be every bit as defensible as Darwinism, and reconcilable with phenomena such as predation. If (as Richard Dawkins holds) evolution is the only possible pathway to life as we know it, then a life-loving creator would select this pathway. If it is not the only (...)
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  10. Pierfrancesco Basile (2014). Mind & Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False by Thomas Nagel. Process Studies 43 (1):111-114.
  11. Vincent Berdoulay & Olivier Soubeyran (2014). Adaptation, Science de la Durabilité Et Pensée Planificatrice. Natures Sciences Sociétés 22 (2):114-123.
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  12. Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero (2006). Phonological Change in Optimality Theory. In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 9--497.
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  13. Richard J. Blackwell (1973). The Adaptation Theory of Science. International Philosophical Quarterly 13 (3):319-334.
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  14. Frédéric Bouchard (2013). What Is a Symbiotic Superindividual and How Do You Measure Its Fitness? In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Mit Press. 243.
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  15. Frédéric Bouchard (2006). Fitness. In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. 310--315.
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  16. Peter J. Bowler (2009). The Eclipse of Pseudo-Darwinism? Reflections on Some Recent Developments in Darwin Studies. History of Science 47 (158):431-443.
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  17. Borden P. Bowne (1909). Darwin and Darwinism. Hibbert Journal 8:122.
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  18. Robert N. Brandon (1980). A Structural Description of Evolutionary Theory. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:427 - 439.
    The principle of natural selection is stated. It connects fitness values (actual reproductive success) with expected fitness values. The term 'adaptedness' is used for expected fitness values. The principle of natural selection explains differential fitness in terms of relative adaptedness. It is argued that this principle is absolutely central to Darwinian evolutionary theory. The empirical content of the principle of natural selection is examined. It is argued that the principle itself has no empirical biological content, but that the presuppositions of (...)
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  19. Robert Brandon & John Beatty (1984). The Propensity Interpretation of 'Fitness'--No Interpretation is No Substitute. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):342-347.
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  20. Daniel R. Brooks (2011). The Mastodon in the Room: How Darwinian is Neo-Darwinism? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):82-88.
    Failing to acknowledge substantial differences between Darwinism and neo-Darwinism impedes evolutionary biology. Darwin described evolution as the outcome of interactions between the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions, each relatively autonomous but both historically and spatially intertwined. Furthermore, he postulated that the nature of the organism was more important than the nature of the conditions, leading to natural selection as an inevitable emergent product of biological systems. The neo-Darwinian tradition assumed a creative rather than selective view (...)
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  21. F. F. Centore (1988). John Durant, Ed.: "Darwinism and Divinity". [REVIEW] The Thomist 52 (2):357.
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  22. P. D. Chapman (1967). The Survival of the Fittest. The Eugenics Review 59 (4):299.
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  23. S. F. Chenoweth, J. Hunt & H. D. Rundle (2012). Analyzing and Comparing the Geometry of Individual Fitness Surfaces. In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oup Oxford. 126--149.
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  24. Stephen F. Chenoweth, John Hunt & Howard D. Rundle (2012). Analyzing and Comparing the Geometry of Individual Fitness. In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oup Oxford. 126.
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  25. W. D. Christensen, John Collier & C. A. Hooker (forthcoming). Adaptiveness and Adaptation: There's More Than Selection. Biology and Philosophy. Submitted.
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  26. John Collier, Information Increase in Biological Systems: How Does Adaptation Fit?
    Progress has become a suspect concept in evolutionary biology, not the least because the core concepts of neo-Darwinism do not support the idea that evolution is progressive. There have been a number of attempts to account for directionality in evolution through additions to the core hypotheses of neo-Darwinism, but they do not establish progressiveness, and they are somewhat of an ad hoc collection. The standard account of fitness and adaptation can be rephrased in terms of information theory. From this, an (...)
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  27. Brandon P. Corbett (2007). The Effects of Nematode Infection and Mi-Mediated Resistance in Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) on Plant Fitness. Inquiry 8.
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  28. Leda Cosmides, Martin Daly, Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, W. D. Hamilton, Philip Kitcher, John Maynard Smith, Steven Pinker, Elliott Sober & Dan Sperber (1993). Conference on Evolution and the Human Sciences. Biology and Philosophy 8 (131):699-700.
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  29. Michael Cournoyea (2013). Ancestral Assumptions and the Clinical Uncertainty of Evolutionary Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):36-52.
    Evolutionary medicine (EM) is an emerging field of medical studies that uses evolutionary theory to explain the ultimate causes of health and disease. The field’s main objective is to reconceptualize bodily vulnerabilities and pathophysiologies as evolutionary tradeoffs—many the result of an evolutionary mismatch between our ancient genome and modern lifestyle. This conceptual shift allows EM to describe health and disease in terms of adaptive functions and to prescribe treatments that best complement our evolved bodies. The goal is to “transform the (...)
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  30. Henry Edward Crampton (1907). Uenther's Darwinism and the Problems of Life. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 4 (11):297.
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  31. A. Brito Cunhdaa (1991). Commentary on the Paper by H.C. Byerly and R.E. Michod, “Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1).
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  32. Richard Dawkins, Darwin and Darwinism.
    To most people through history it has always seemed obvious that the teeming diversity of life, the uncanny perfection with which living organisms are equipped to survive and multiply, and the bewildering complexity of living machinery, can only have come about through divine creation. Yet repeatedly it has occurred to isolated thinkers that there might be an alternative to supernatural creation.
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  33. Helen De Hoop (2003). Scrambling in Dutch: Optionality and Optimality. In Simin Karimi (ed.), Word Order and Scrambling. Blackwell Pub..
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  34. Gabriel De Kolosváry (1936). Reflexions Sur l'„Adaptation” Des Organismes Dans Les Grottes. Acta Biotheoretica 2 (1):19-22.
    The phenomena of adaptation, observed on cave-dwelling organisms, fitting themselves to the particular conditions of the caves, must not be explained in lamarckistish sense. They are phenomena of general organical reductions. As primary inducements, they compel some species, which have been made helpless in consequence of happening reductions to retire themselves spontaneously in caves. Trogloditism is therefore no cause of the peculiar decay of notorious cave-dwellers, on the contrary, it is the last stage of incessant phenomena, induced by reductions . (...)
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  35. Da de MontoyaPeck, N. L. Montoya & C. P. Montoya (2009). A Transdisciplinary Perspective Concerning the Origin of the Species: The Migratory Theory of Genetic Fitness. World Futures 65 (3):166-175.
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  36. William Dembski, Fitness Among Competitive Agents: A Brief Note.
    The upshot of the No Free Lunch theorems is that averaged over all fitness functions, evolutionary computation does no better than blind search (see Dembski 2002, ch 4 as well as Dembski 2005 for an overview). But this raises a question: How does evolutionary computation obtain its power since, clearly, it is capable of doing better than blind search? One approach is to limit the fitness functions (see Igel and Toussaint 2001). Another, illustrated in David Fogel’s work on automated checker (...)
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  37. David J. Depew (2011). Adaptation as Process: The Future of Darwinism and the Legacy of Theodosius Dobzhansky. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):89-98.
    Conceptions of adaptation have varied in the history of genetic Darwinism depending on whether what is taken to be focal is the process of adaptation, adapted states of populations, or discrete adaptations in individual organisms. I argue that Theodosius Dobzhansky’s view of adaptation as a dynamical process contrasts with so-called “adaptationist” views of natural selection figured as “design-without-a-designer” of relatively discrete, enumerable adaptations. Correlated with these respectively process and product oriented approaches to adaptive natural selection are divergent pictures of organisms (...)
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  38. Penelope Deutscher (2004). The Descent of Man and the Evolution of Woman. Hypatia 19 (2):35-55.
    : This paper addresses the appropriation of theories of evolution by nineteenth-century feminists, focusing on the critical response to Darwin's The Descent of Man by Eliza Burt Gamble (The Evolution of Woman, 1893) and Antoinette Brown Blackwell (The Sexes Throughout Nature, 1875) and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's social evolutionism. For Gilman, evolutionism was a revolutionary resource for feminism, one of its greatest hopes. Gamble and Blackwell revisit Darwin's data with the aim of locating, amidst his ostensive conclusions to the contrary, his (...)
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  39. John Dewey (2009). The Influence of Darwinism on Philosophy. In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy After Darwin: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Princeton University Press. 55.
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  40. Michael R. Dietrich, C. Robertson McClung & Mark A. McPeek (2001). Darwinian Evolution Across the Disciplines. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (3/4):339 - 340.
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  41. Theodosius Dobzhansky (1963). Natural Selection and Fitness. The Eugenics Review 55 (2):129.
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  42. Gabriel Dover (1987). Evolution: No Old Synthesis and No New Paradigm. Bioessays 6 (4):187-188.
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  43. Catherine Driscoll (2015). Neither Adaptive Thinking nor Reverse Engineering: Methods in the Evolutionary Social Sciences. Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):59-75.
    In this paper I argue the best examples of the methods in the evolutionary social sciences don’t actually resemble either of the two methods called “Adaptive Thinking” or “Reverse Engineering” described by evolutionary psychologists. Both AT and RE have significant problems. Instead, the best adaptationist work in the ESSs seems to be based on and is aiming at a different method that avoids the problems of AT and RE: it is a behavioral level method that starts with information about both (...)
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  44. Catherine Driscoll (2006). The Bowerbirds and the Bees: Miller on Art, Altruism, and Sexual Selection. Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):507 – 526.
    Geoffrey Miller argues that we can account for the evolution of human art and altruism via the action of sexual selection. He identifies five characteristics supposedly unique to sexual adaptations: fitness indicating cost; involvement in courtship; heritability; variability; and sexual differentiation. Miller claims that art and altruism possess these characteristics. I argue that not only does he not demonstrate that art and altruism possess these characteristics, one can also explain the origins of altruism via a form of group selection and (...)
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  45. Eugene Earnshaw-Whyte (2012). Increasingly Radical Claims About Heredity and Fitness. Philosophy of Science 79 (3):396-412.
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  46. Horace L. Fairlamb (2007). Darwinism and Its Discontents (Review). Symploke 15 (1):398-399.
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  47. Gustave A. Feingold (1914). The Fitness of the Environment for the Continuity of Consciousness. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 11 (16):436-441.
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  48. Jerry Fodor (2008). Against Darwinism. Mind and Language 23 (1):1–24.
    Darwinism consists of two parts: a phylogenesis of biological species (ours included) and the claim that the primary mechanism of the evolution of phenotypes is natural selection. I assume that Darwin’s account of phylogeny is essentially correct; attention is directed to the theory of natural selection. I claim that Darwin’s account of evolution by natural selection cannot be sustained. The basic problem is that, according to the consensus view, evolution consists in changes of the distribution of phenotypic traits in populations (...)
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  49. Charles B. Goodhart (1960). Biological Fitness in Man. The Eugenics Review 52 (2):83.
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  50. Stephen Jay Gould, I. The Panda's Thumb.
    FEW HEROES LOWER their sights in the prime of their lives; triumph leads inexorably on, often to destruction. Alexander wept because he had no new worlds to conquer; Napoleon, overextended, sealed his doom in the depth of a Russian winter. But Charles Darwin did not follow the Origin of Species (1859) with a general defense of natural selection or with its evident extension to human evolution (he waited until 1871 to publish The Descent of Man). Instead, he wrote his most (...)
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