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  1. Michael L. Anderson (2007). Massive Redeployment, Exaptation, and the Functional Integration of Cognitive Operations. Synthese 159 (3):329 - 345.
    Abstract: The massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH) is a theory about the functional topography of the human brain, offering a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other. Central to MRH is the claim that cognitive evolution proceeded in a way analogous to component reuse in software engineering, whereby existing components-originally developed to serve some specific purpose-were used for new purposes and combined to support new capacities, without disrupting their participation in existing programs. If the (...)
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  2. Daniel G. Blackburn (2002). Use of Phylogenetic Analysis to Distinguish Adaptation From Exaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):507-508.
    One important difference between adaptive and nonadaptive explanations can be found in the evolutionary sequence of structural and functional modifications. Phylogenetic analysis (cladistics) provides a powerful methodology for distinguishing exaptation from adaptation, by indicating whether character traits have predated, accompanied, or followed evolution of particular functions. Such analysis yields falsifiable hypotheses that can help to distinguish causal relationships from mere correlation.
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  3. William Michael Brown (2002). Development: The Missing Link Between Exaptationist and Adaptationist Accounts of Organismal Design. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):509-510.
    To understand adaptation (and exaptation), a more comprehensive view of development is required: one beyond a constraining force. Developmental plasticity may be an adaptation by natural selection simultaneously favored (or sometimes in conflict) at multiple levels of biological organization (e.g., cells, individuals, groups, etc.). To understand the interrelationships between developmental plasticity and adaptive evolution I borrow heavily from West-Eberhard (2003) and Frank (1995; 1997). Developmental plasticity facilitates evolution, results in particular patterns of evolutionary change, and may produce exaptations by design (...)
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  4. Charles Crawford (2002). Musings on the Concept of Exaptation and “Creationism”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):511-512.
    I claim that our desire to be special motivates us to suppose that if we were not God created, we must be self-created. I also claim that Stephen J Gould's claims about punctuated equilibrium, the absence of directional selection, and exaptations, when taken together, lead to kind of secular creationism. I introduce the notion of “adaptive effects” and argue that a focus on the actual physiological and psychological mechanisms that produce adaptations provides a way out of the exaptation dilemma.
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  5. Daniel C. Dennett (1998). Preston on Exaptation: Herons, Apples, and Eggs. Journal of Philosophy 95 (11):576-580.
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  6. Daniel C. Dennett (1998). Preston on Exaptation. Journal of Philosophy 95 (11):576 - 580.
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  7. Aurelio José Figueredo & Sarah Christine Berry (2002). “Just Not so Stories”: Exaptations, Spandrels, and Constraints. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):517-518.
    It is anthropomorphic to speak of Nature designing adaptations for a specific function, as if with conscious intent. Any effect constitutes an adaptive function if it contributes to survival and to reproduction. Natural selection is blind to what might have been the original function. Mutations arise by purest accident and are selected based on whatever fortuitous effects they might produce.
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  8. Stephen Jay Gould, The Exaptive Excellence of Spandrels as a Term and Prototype.
    In 1979, Lewontin and I borrowed the archi- tectural term “spandrel” (using the pendentives of San Marco in Venice as an example) to designate the class of forms and spaces that arise as necessary byproducts of another decision in design, and not as adaptations for direct utility in them- selves. This proposal has generated a large literature featur- ing two critiques: (i) the terminological claim that the span- drels of San Marco are not true spandrels at all and (ii) the (...)
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  9. Telmo Pievani (2003). Rhapsodic Evolution: Essay on Exaptation and Evolutionary Pluralism. World Futures 59 (2):63 – 81.
    Since formulating the theory of punctuated equilibria in 1972, a group of prominent evolutionary biologists, geneticists, and paleontologists have contributed towards a significant reinterpretation of the neo-Darwinian image of evolution that had consolidated during the second half of the twentieth century. We believe a research program, which we might define as "evolutionary pluralism" or "post-Darwinism," has been outlined, one that is centered on the discovery of the complexity and multiplicity of elements that work together to produce changes in our evolutionary (...)
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  10. James R. Roney & Dario Maestripieri (2002). The Importance of Comparative and Phylogenetic Analyses in the Study of Adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):525-525.
    Homology can provide strong evidence against exapted learning mechanism (ELM) explanations for psychological and behavioral traits. Homologous traits are constructed by commonly inherited developmental mechanisms. As such, demonstration of homology for a trait argues for its construction by an inherited rather than an exapted developmental process. We conclude that comparative evidence can play an important evidentiary role within evolutionary psychology.
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  11. Jeffry A. Simpson (2002). From Exploration to Justification: The Importance of “Special Design” Evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):528-529.
    The authors present a balanced critique of the adaptation/exaptation debate and specify some of the hard evidentiary criteria that are needed to advance our understanding of human evolution. Investigators must build more “special design” criteria into their theorizing and research. By documenting that certain traits meet these rigorous criteria, the evolutionary sciences will ultimately rest on a firmer theoretical foundation.
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  12. Eric Alden Smith (2002). The Fuzzy Zone Between Exaptation and Phenotypic Adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):529-530.
    The target article adopts an adaptationist research strategy that, while logically coherent, suffers from various limitations, including problems in reconstructing past selective environments, ambiguity in how narrowly to define adaptive problems or selection pressures, and an overemphasis on specialization in evolved psychological mechanisms. To remedy these problems, I support a more flexible approach involving phenotypic adaptation and cultural evolution.
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  13. Marco Solinas (2012). L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin. ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
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  14. Marco Solinas (2009). L'impronta dell'inutilità. Il tramonto delle cause finali nell'impianto evoluzionistico. Leussein (3/6):127-145.
  15. David P. Stump (2010). Reflection on Exaptation—More Missing Terms. Biological Theory 5 (1):15-17.
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  16. Nicholas S. Thompson (2002). Adaptation for, Exaptation As. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):531-532.
    The expression exapted as is offered as a substitute for the target article's exaptation for and exaptation to on the grounds that exapted as is less likely to foster the pernicious intuition that natural selection designs for future consequences.
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  17. Neil Van Leeuwen (2007). The Spandrels of Self-Deception: Prospects for a Biological Theory of a Mental Phenomenon. Philosophical Psychology 20 (3):329 – 348.
    Three puzzles about self-deception make this mental phenomenon an intriguing explanatory target. The first relates to how to define it without paradox; the second is about how to make sense of self-deception in light of the interpretive view of the mental that has become widespread in philosophy; and the third concerns why it exists at all. In this paper I address the first and third puzzles. First, I define self-deception. Second, I criticize Robert Trivers' attempt to use adaptionist evolutionary psychology (...)
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  18. Jerome C. Wakefield (2002). Why Specific Design is Not the Mark of the Adaptational. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):532-533.
    Andrews et al.'s analysis suffers from a series of conceptual confusions they inherit from Gould's work. Their proposal that adaptations can be distinguished from exaptations essentially by specific design criteria fails because exaptations are often maintained and secondarily adapted by natural selection and therefore, over evolutionary time, can come to have similar levels of design specificity to adaptations.
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  19. Daniel R. Wilson (1993). Autologous Clones. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (3).
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  20. William C. Wimsatt (2000). Heuristics Refound. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):766-767.
    Gigerenzer et al.'s is an extremely important book. The ecological validity of the key heuristics is strengthened by their relation to ubiquitous Poisson processes. The recognition heuristic is also used in conspecific cueing processes in ecology. Three additional classes of problem-solving heuristics are proposed for further study: families based on near-decomposability analysis, exaptive construction of functional structures, and robustness.
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