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  1. John Aldrich & Anna Staszewska (2007). The Experiment in Macroeconometrics. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (2):143-166.
    This paper examines the experiment in macroeconometrics, the different forms it has taken and the rules that have been proposed for its proper conduct. Here an ?experiment? means putting a question to a model and getting an answer. Different types of experiment are distinguished and the justification that can be provided for a particular choice of experiment is discussed. Three types of macroeconometric modelling are considered: the Cowles (system of equations) approach, the vector autoregressive model approach and the computational experiment. (...)
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  2. Gunnar Andersson (1991). The Tower Experiment and the Copernican Revolution. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (2):143 – 152.
    Abstract During the Copernican revolution the supporters of the Ptolemaic theory argued that the tower experiment refuted the Copernican hypothesis of the (diurnal) motion of the earth, but was in agreement with the Ptolemaic theory. In his defence of the Copernican theory Galileo argued that the experiment was in agreement both with Copernican and Ptolemaic theory. The reason for these different views of the same experiment was not that the two theories were incommensurable, as Paul Feyerabend argues, but that Galileo (...)
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  3. Theodore Arabatzis (2008). Experiment. In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge. 159--170.
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  4. Theodore Arabatzis, Hidden Entities and Experimental Practice: Towards a Two-Way Traffic Between History and Philosophy of Science.
    In this paper I investigate the prospects of integrated history and philosophy of science, by examining how philosophical issues concerning experimental practice and scientific realism can enrich the historical investigation of the careers of "hidden entities", entities that are not accessible to unmediated observation. Conversely, I suggest that the history of those entities has important lessons to teach to the philosophy of science. My overall aim is to illustrate the possibility of a fruitful two-way traffic between history and philosophy of (...)
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  5. Tudor Baetu (2012). Filling in the Mechanistic Details: Two-Variable Experiments as Tests for Constitutive Relevance. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):337-353.
    This paper provides an account of the experimental conditions required for establishing whether correlating or causally relevant factors are constitutive components of a mechanism connecting input (start) and output (finish) conditions. I argue that two-variable experiments, where both the initial conditions and a component postulated by the mechanism are simultaneously manipulated on an independent basis, are usually required in order to differentiate between correlating or causally relevant factors and constitutively relevant ones. Based on a typical research project molecular biology, a (...)
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  6. Davis Baird (1999). Internal History and the Philosophy of Experiment. Perspectives on Science 7 (3):383-407.
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  7. C. J. Barnard (2011). Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects. Pearson.
  8. C. J. Barnard (1993). Asking Questions in Biology: Design, Analysis, and Presentation in Practical Work. Longman Scientific & Technical.
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  9. I. Bij (forthcoming). Gedachte-Experiment Over Toekomstig Onderwijs. Idee.
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  10. Christine Blättler (2010). Das Experiment im Spannungsfeld von Freiheit und Zwang. Probierstein und Versuchkunst bei Kant. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 58 (6):873-888.
    In contrast to the common notion of experiments as a means for testing theories, Science Studies currently emphasize the explorative character of experiments, thus elevating their systematic epistemological relevance. Consequently the experiment has become another challenge to Reichenbach′s distinction between discovery and justification, which has been valid in the philosophy of science for several decades. Repeatedly the experiment has served as an epistemological paradigm in philosophy. Engaging with recent positions in Science Studies the paper investigates Kant′s understanding of the use, (...)
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  11. James Bogen (2002). Experiment and Observation. In Peter K. Machamer & Michael Silberstein (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Blackwell. 128--148.
  12. Giovanni Boniolo (1992). Theory and Experiment. The Case of Eötvös' Experiments. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (4):459-486.
    By analysing the historical case of the proportionality between inertia and gravitation, it is possible to reconstruct one of the most relevant moments in the history of physics, that is to say, the one linked with Eötvös' experiments. At the same time, this reconstruction offers the opportunity to carry out philosophical considerations about the relationship between theory and experiment and about the concept of incommensurability.
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  13. Rudolf Brajčić (2002). Philosophical Experiment. Disputatio Philosophica 4 (1):177-180.
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  14. Matthew J. Brown, Inquiry and Evidence: From the Experimenter's Regress to Evidence-Based Policy.
    In the first part of this paper, I will sketch the main features of traditional models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that I regard as doing more harm than good. I will then proceed to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, which I will call DYNAMIC EVIDENTIAL FUNCTIONALISM. I will demonstrate its application to an illuminating example of scientific inquiry, and defend it from some likely objections. In the second part, (...)
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  15. Matthew J. Brown (2012). John Dewey's Logic of Science. Hopos 2 (2):258-306.
    In recent years, pragmatism in general and John Dewey in particular have been of increasing interest to philosophers of science. Dewey's work provides an interesting alternative package of views to those which derive from the logical empiricists and their critics, on problems of both traditional and more recent vintage. Dewey's work ought to be of special interest to recent philosophers of science committed to the program of analyzing ``science in practice.'' The core of Dewey's philosophy of science is his theory (...)
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  16. Matthew J. Brown (2009). Science and Experience: A Deweyan Pragmatist Philosophy of Science. Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    I resolve several pressing and recalcitrant problems in contemporary philosophy of science using resources from John Dewey's philosophy of science. I begin by looking at Dewey's epistemological and logical writings in their historical context, in order to understand better how Dewey's philosophy disappeared from the limelight, and I provide a reconstruction of his views. Then, I use that reconstruction to address problems of evidence, the social dimensions of science, and pluralism. Generally, mainstream philosophers of science with an interest in Dewey (...)
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  17. Marco Buzzoni (2007). Zum Verhältnis Zwischen Experiment Und Gedankenexperiment in den Naturwissenschaften. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 38 (2):219 - 237.
    On the relation between experiment and thought experiment in the natural sciences. To understand the reciprocal autonomy and complementarity of thought and real experiment, it is necessary to distinguish between a ‘positive’ (empirical or formal) and a transcendental perspective. Empirically and formally, real and thought experiments are indistinguishable. However, from a reflexive-transcendental viewpoint thought experiment is at the same time irreducible and complementary to real experiment. This is due to the fact that the hypothetical-anticipatory moment is in principle irreducible to (...)
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  18. V. C. C. (1956). Experiment and Theory in Physics. Review of Metaphysics 10 (2):358-358.
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  19. Guy Carden & Thomas G. Dieterich (1980). Introspection, Observation, and Experiment: An Example Where Experiment Pays Off. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:583 - 597.
    The standard methodology for testing theories about syntax and semantics, which has been attacked both by philosophers and by sociolinguists, depends heavily on the personal introspection of the professionals. An improved data-collection methodology is proposed and an extended example of its application to a long-standing data dispute on a question of theoretical interest is given.
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  20. M. Chirimuuta (2013). Extending, Changing, and Explaining the Brain. Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):613-638.
    This paper addresses concerns raised recently by Datteri (Biol Philos 24:301–324, 2009) and Craver (Philos Sci 77(5):840–851, 2010) about the use of brain-extending prosthetics in experimental neuroscience. Since the operation of the implant induces plastic changes in neural circuits, it is reasonable to worry that operational knowledge of the hybrid system will not be an accurate basis for generalisation when modelling the unextended brain. I argue, however, that Datteri’s no-plasticity constraint unwittingly rules out numerous experimental paradigms in behavioural and systems (...)
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  21. Instructions Conference, Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation: A Challenge to Philosophy of Science (Pittsburgh; October 15-17, 2010).
    Conference instructions for [2010] Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation: A Challenge to Philosophy of Science (Pittsburgh; October 15-17, 2010).
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  22. Thomas A. Cowan (1959). Experience and Experiment. Philosophy of Science 26 (2):77-83.
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  23. J. M. Denucé (1969). Het Experiment in de Biologie. Philosophica 7.
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  24. Hugo Dingler (1931). Das Experiment. Philosophical Review 40 (3):307-308.
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  25. Lefteris Farmakis (2006). Establishing the Epistemology Experiment. Metascience 15 (2):307-310.
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  26. Uljana Feest (2014). Phenomenal Experiences, First-Person Methods, and the Artificiality of Experimental Data. Philosophy of Science 81:927-939.
    This paper argues that whereas philosophical discussions of first-person methods often turn on the veridicality of first-person reports, more attention should be paid to the experimental circumstances under which the reports are generated, and to the purposes of designing such experiments. After pointing to the ‘constructedness’ of first-person reports in the science of perception, I raise questions about the criteria by which to judge whether the reports illuminate something about the nature of perception. I illustrate this point with a historical (...)
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  27. Bas C. Van Fraassen (1980). Theory Construction and Experiment: An Empiricist View. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:663 - 678.
    This paper focuses on the empiricism/realism debate. The initial portion of the paper is a short sketch of the nature of the enterprise of philosophy of science. What are taken as empiricist views on theory construction and experiment are described. The paper concludes with a simple recasting of the main points at issue in the empiricism/realism debate.
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  28. Allan Franklin (2007). Experiment in Physics. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  29. Allan Franklin (1990). Experiment, Right or Wrong. Cambridge University Press.
    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory (...)
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  30. Allan Franklin (1984). The Epistemology of Experiment. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (4):381-390.
  31. L. R. Franklin (2005). Exploratory Experiments. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):888-899.
    Philosophers of experiment have acknowledged that experiments are often more than mere hypothesis-tests, once thought to be an experiment's exclusive calling. Drawing on examples from contemporary biology, I make an additional amendment to our understanding of experiment by examining the way that `wide' instrumentation can, for reasons of efficiency, lead scientists away from traditional hypothesis-directed methods of experimentation and towards exploratory methods.
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  32. Peter Gibbins (1981). Putnam on the Two-Slit Experiment. Erkenntnis 16 (2):235 - 241.
  33. Robin Giles (1979). The Concept of a Proposition in Classical and Quantum Physics. Studia Logica 38 (4):337 - 353.
    A proposition is associated in classical mechanics with a subset of phase space, in quantum logic with a projection in Hilbert space, and in both cases with a 2-valued observable or test. A theoretical statement typically assigns a probability to such a pure test. However, since a pure test is an idealization not realizable experimentally, it is necessary — to give such a statement a practical meaning — to describe how it can be approximated by feasible tests. This gives rise (...)
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  34. Trish Glazebrook (1998). Heidegger on the Experiment. Philosophy Today 42 (3):250-261.
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  35. David Gooding (1990). Experiment and the Making of Meaning Human Agency in Scientific Observation and Experiment.
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  36. Ronald Michael Green (1997). Nhgri's Intramural Ethics Experiment. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (2):181-189.
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  37. Frederick Grinnell (2011). Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meet Objectivity and Logic. Oxford University Press.
    This book describes how scientists bring their own interests and passions to their work, illustrates the dynamics between researchers and the research community ...
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  38. Ian Hacking (1992). Book Review:The Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences David Gooding, Trevor Pinch, Simon Schaffer; Experiment, Right or Wrong Allan Franklin. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 59 (4):705-.
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  39. Rom Harré (2010). Equipment for an Experiment. Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):30-38.
    Science is as much defined by the local “instrumentarium,” the equipment available to an experimenter at a particular time and place, as by its discoveries and theories. Instruments are devices for detecting and measuring natural phenomena, linked causally to those aspects of nature they are used to record. Some are inorganic, made of glass and metal, while others are organic, the bodies and body parts of living or once living plants and animals. In contrast, pieces of apparatus are quite different (...)
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  40. Patrick A. Heelan (1992). Experiment as Fulfillment of Theory. In D. P. Chattopadhyaya, Lester E. Embree & Jitendranath Mohanty (eds.), Phenomenology and Indian Philosophy. Indian Council of Philosophical Research in Association with Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. 169--184.
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  41. Spencer Phillips Hey (forthcoming). Theory Testing and Implication in Clinical Trials. Philosophy of Science 2014.
    John Worrall (2010) and Nancy Cartwright (2011) argue that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are "testing the wrong theory." RCTs are designed to test inferences about the causal relationships in the study population, but this does not guarantee a justified inference about the causal relationships in the more diverse population in clinical practice. In this essay, I argue that the epistemology of theory testing in trials is more complicated than either Worrall's or Cartwright's accounts suggest. I illustrate this more complex theoretical (...)
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  42. Spencer Phillips Hey (2014). Heuristics and Meta-Heuristics in Scientific Judgment. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axu045.
    Despite the increasing recognition that heuristics may be involved in myriad scientific activities, much about how to use them prudently remains obscure. As typically defined, heuristics are efficient rules or procedures for converting complex problems into simpler ones. But this increased efficiency and problem-solving comes at the cost of a systematic bias. As Wimsatt (1980, 2007) showed, biased modeling heuristics can conceal errors, leading to poor decisions or inaccurate models. This liability to produce errors presents a fundamental challenge to the (...)
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  43. Spencer Phillips Hey & Charles Weijer (2013). Assay Sensitivity and the Epistemic Contexts of Clinical Trials. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):1-17.
    In February 2010, the World Medical Association hosted an international symposium on the ethics of placebo controls in clinical trials (WMA 2010). Despite years of debate, ethicists, clinical trialists, and policy makers remain divided over the ethical acceptability of using placebos in research when a proven, effective treatment is available. The protracted nature of this problem is due, at least in part, to a perceived conflict between the opposing demands placed on clinical research by science and ethics. A good, scientifically (...)
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  44. David P. Hill, Barry Smith, Monica S. McAndrews-Hill & Judith A. Blake (2008). Gene Ontology Annotations: What They Mean and Where They Come From. BMC Bioinformatics( 9 (Suppl 5):S2.
    The computational genomics community has come increasingly to rely on the methodology of creating annotations of scientific literature using terms from controlled structured vocabularies such as the Gene Ontology (GO). We here address the question of what such annotations signify and of how they are created by working biologists. Our goal is to promote a better understanding of how the results of experiments are captured in annotations in the hope that this will lead to better representations of biological reality through (...)
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  45. Pierre Hillion (1999). The Wilsons' Experiment. Apeiron 6:1-8.
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  46. William Ernest Hocking (1955). Experiment in Education. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (3):424-426.
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  47. W. J. (1996). The Evidential Significance of Thought Experiment in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):233-250.
    The most promising way to regard thought experiment is as a species of experiment, alongside concrete experiment. Of the authors who take this view, many portray thought experiment as possessing evidential significance intrinsically. In contrast, concrete experiment is nowadays most convincingly portrayed as acquiring evidential significance in a particular area of science at a particular time in consequence of the persuasive efforts of scientists. I argue that the claim that thought experiment possesses evidential significance intrinsically is contradicted by the history (...)
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  48. Frank James (1991). Experiment and the Making of Meaning: Human Agency in Scientific Observation and Experiment. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 24 (3):386-388.
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  49. Michel Janssen, The Trouton Experiment and E Mc2 =.
    In the Fall of 1900, Frederick T. Trouton started work on an ingenious experiment in his laboratory at Trinity College in Dublin. The purpose of the experiment was to detect the earth’s presumed motion through the ether, the 19th century medium thought to carry light waves and electric and magnetic fields. The experiment was unusual in that, unlike most of these so-called ether drift experiments, it was not an experiment in optics. Trouton tried to detect ether drift by charging and (...)
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  50. G. Julnes (2004). Experiment, Overview. In Kimberly Kempf-Leonard (ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Measurement. Elsevier. 1--885.
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