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Summary Feminist theoretical works on rape and sexual violence focus on several key questions: 1) What defines rape and sexual violence? 2) What are the meanings of rape and sexual violence?  How are those meanings influenced by social, historical, and political contexts? 3) How do rape and sexual violence intersect with and perpetuate various systems of inequality, including those centered on race, gender, sexual orientation, ability, and others? 4) How do anti-rape efforts undermine, or, perhaps, perpetuate elements of a rape culture?
Key works Susan Brownmiller's Against Our Will (1975) offered an early version of the feminist argument that rape is primarily about power rather than sex.  Catharine MacKinnon countered this theory in her work Toward a Feminist Theory of State, where she argued that rape is the logical extension of a phallocentric, patriarchal system of sexual inequality.  Contemporary works include Susan Brison's Aftermath (the first feminist philosophical work that integrated first-person narrative of a sexual assault), Ann Cahill's Rethinking Rape (which argues against both Brownmiller's and MacKinnon's models), Louise du Toit's A Philosophical Investigation of Rape (which frames sexual violence as an assault on feminine subjectivity), and Debra Bergoffen's Contesting the Politics of Genocidal Rape (which analyzes decisions in international law that established rape as a violation of human dignity).  
Introductions See the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's entry on "Feminist Perspectives on Rape" (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-rape/) for an excellent introduction to the topic.
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  1. Andrew Aberdein (1998). Persuasive Definition. In H. V. Hansen, C. W. Tindale & A. V. Colman (eds.), Argumentation and Rhetoric. Vale.
    Charles Stevenson introduced the term 'persuasive definition’ to describe a suspect form of moral argument 'which gives a new conceptual meaning to a familiar word without substantially changing its emotive meaning’. However, as Stevenson acknowledges, such a move can be employed legitimately. If persuasive definition is to be a useful notion, we shall need a criterion for identifying specifically illegitimate usage. I criticize a recent proposed criterion from Keith Burgess-Jackson and offer an alternative.
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  2. Carol J. Adams (1994). Bringing Peace Home: A Feminist Philosophical Perspective on the Abuse of Women, Children, and Pet Animals. Hypatia 9 (2):63 - 84.
    In this essay, I connect the sexual victimization of women, children, and pet animals with the violence manifest in a patriarchal culture. After discussing these connections, I demonstrate the importance of taking seriously these connections because of their implications for conceptual analysis, epistemology, and political, environmental, and applied philosophy. My goal is to broaden our understanding of issues relevant to creating peace and to provide some suggestions about what must be included in any adequate feminist peace politics.
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  3. Linda Martin Alcoff (2010). Rorty's Anti-Representationalism in the Context of Sexual Violence. In Marianne Janack (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Richard Rorty. Pennsylvania State University Press.
  4. Linda Martín Alcoff (2009). Discourses of Sexual Violence in a Global Framework. Philosophical Topics 37 (2):123-139.
    In this paper I make a preliminary analysis of Western (or global North) discourses on sexual violence, focusing on the important concepts of “consent” and “victim.” The concept of “consent” is widely used to determine whether sexual violence has occurred, and it is the focal point of debates over the legitimacy of statutory offenses and over the way we characterize sex work done under conditions involving economic desperation. The concept of “victim” is shunned by many feminists and nonfeminists alike for (...)
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  5. Scott A. Anderson (2005). Sex Under Pressure: Jerks, Boorish Behavior, and Gender Hierarchy. [REVIEW] Res Publica 11 (4):349-369.
    Pressuring someone into having sex would seem to differ in significant ways from pressuring someone into investing in one’s business or buying an expensive bauble. In affirming this claim, I take issue with a recent essay by Sarah Conly (‘Seduction, Rape, and Coercion’, Ethics, October 2004), who thinks that pressuring into sex can be helpfully evaluated by analogy to these other instances of using pressure. Drawing upon work by Alan Wertheimer, the leading theorist of coercion, she argues that so long (...)
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  6. David Archard (2007). Is It Rape? On Acquaintance Rape and Taking Women's Consent Seriously - by Joan McGregor, Making Sense of Sexual Consent - by Mark Cowling & Paul Reynolds, the Logic of Consent, the Diversity and Deceptiveness of Consent as a Defence to Criminal Conduct - by Peter Westen, and Consent to Sexual Relations - by Lan Wertheimer. Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):209–221.
  7. David Archard (2007). The Wrong of Rape. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (228):374–393.
    If rape is evaluated as a serious wrong, can it also be defined as non-consensual sex (NCS)? Many do not see all instances of NCS as seriously wrongful. I argue that rape is both properly defined as NCS and properly evaluated as a serious wrong. First, I distinguish the hurtfulness of rape from its wrongfulness; secondly, I classify its harms and characterize its essential wrongfulness; thirdly, I criticize a view of rape as merely ‘sex minus consent’; fourthly, I criticize mistaken (...)
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  8. Nafsika Athanassoulis (2002). The Role of Consent in Sado-Masochistic Practices. Res Publica 8 (2):141-155.
    In 1993 the Law Lords upheld the original conviction of five men under the 1861 Offences Against the Person Act for participating in sado-masochistic practices. Although the five men were fully consenting adults, the Law Lords held that consent did not constitute a defence to acts of violence within a sado-masochistic context. This paper examines the judgements in this case and argues that sado-masochistic practices are no different from the known exceptions cited by the court to the idea that consent (...)
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  9. H. E. Baber (1987). How Bad Is Rape? Hypatia 2 (2):125 - 138.
    I argue that to be compelled to do routine work is to be gravely harmed. Indeed, that pink-collar work is a more serious harm to women (...)than rape. My purpose is to urge politically active feminists and feminist organizations to arrange their priorities accordingly and devote most of their resources to working for the elimination of sex segregation in employment. (shrink)
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  10. Kelly H. Ball (2013). &Quot;more or Less Raped&Quot;: Foucault, Causality, and Feminist Critiques of Sexual Violence. philoSOPHIA 3 (1):14.
  11. Vivian Berger (1988). Review Essay/Not so Simple Rape. Criminal Justice Ethics 7 (1):69-81.
    Susan Estrich, Real Rape Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1987, 160 pp.
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  12. Debra Bergoffen (2011). Contesting the Politics of Genocidal Rape: Affirming the Dignity of the Vulnerable Body. Routledge.
    -/- Rape, traditionally a spoil of war, became a weapon of war in the ethnic cleansing campaign in Bosnia. The ICTY Kunarac court responded by transforming wartime rape from an ignored crime into a crime against humanity. In its judgment, the court argued that the rapists violated the Muslim women’s right to sexual self-determination. Announcing this right to sexual integrity, the court transformed women’s vulnerability from an invitation to abuse into a mark of human dignity. This close reading of the (...)
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  13. Debra Bergoffen (2011). Exploiting the Dignity of the Vulnerable Body: Rape as a Weapon of War. Philosophical Papers 38 (3):307-325.
    When the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia convicted the Bosnian Serb soldiers who used rape as a weapon of war of violating the human right to sexual self determination and of crimes against humanity, it transformed vulnerability from a mark of feminine weakness to a shared human condition. The court's judgment directs us to note the ways in which the exploitation of our bodied vulnerability is an assault on our dignity. It alerts us to the ways in which (...)
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  14. Debra Bergoffen (2003). Toward a Politics of the Vulnerable Body. Hypatia 18 (1):116-134.
    On February 22, 2001, three Bosnian Serb soldiers were found guilty of crimes against humanity. Their offense? Rape. This is the first time that rape has been prosecuted and condemned as a crime against humanity. Appealing to Jacques Derrida's democracy of the perhaps and Judith Butler's politics of performative contradiction, I see this judgment inaugurating a politics of the vulnerable body which challenges current understandings of evil, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
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  15. Debra B. Bergoffen (2003). February 22, 2001: Toward a Politics of the Vulnerable Body. Hypatia 18 (1):116-134.
    : On February 22, 2001, three Bosnian Serb soldiers were found guilty of crimes against humanity. Their offense? Rape. This is the first time that rape has been prosecuted and condemned as a crime against humanity. Appealing to Jacques Derrida's democracy of the perhaps and Judith Butler's politics of performative contradiction, I see this judgment inaugurating a politics of the vulnerable body which challenges current understandings of evil, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
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  16. Don Berkich (2011). A Heinous Act. Philosophical Papers 38 (3):381-399.
    Intuitively, rape is seriously morally wrong in a way simple assault is not. Yet philosophical disputes about the features of rape that make it the heinous act it is invite a general account of the difference between (mere) wrong-making characteristics and heinous-making characteristics. In this paper I propose just such an account and use it to refute some accounts of the wrongness of rape and refine others. Given these analyses, I close by developing and defending an account of a particularly (...)
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  17. Susan Brison (2002). Aftermath: Violence and the Remaking of a Self. Princeton University Press.
    Violence and the Remaking of a Self Susan J. Brison. Political activism (including lobbying for new legislation, speaking out, educating others, helping survivors) can also help to undo the double bind of self-blame versus helplessness.
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  18. Susan T. Brison (1993). Surviving Sexual Violence: A Philosophical Perspective. Journal of Social Philosophy 24 (1):5-22.
  19. Kristin Bumiller (1996). In an Abusive State: Now Neoliberalism Appropriated the Feminist Movement Against Sexual Violence. Hypatia 11 (4):77-91.
    Domestic violence discourse challenges cultural acceptance of male violence against women, yet it is often constituted by gendered, racialized, and class-based hierarchies.Transformative efforts have not escaped traces of these hierarchies. Emancipatory ideals guiding 1970s feminist activism have collided with conservative impulses to maintain and strengthen family relationships. Crime control discourse undermines critiques of dominance through its focus on individual men. Domestic violence discourse exemplifies both resistance to and replication of hierarchies of power.
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  20. Keith Burgess-Jackson (2000). A Crime Against Women: Calhoun on the Wrongness of Rape. Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (3):286–293.
  21. Keith Burgess-Jackson (ed.) (1999). A Most Detestable Crime: New Philosophical Essays on Rape. Oxford University Press.
    This collection of original essays by leading philosophers probes the philosophical aspects of rape in all of its manifestations: act, crime, practice, and institution. Among the issues examined are the nature of rape; the wrongfulness and harmfulness of rape; the relation of rape to racism, sexism, classism, and other forms of oppression; and the legitimacy of various rape-law doctrines. Each contributor advances a novel argument and seeks to disentangle the conceptual, evaluative, and empirical issues that arise in connection with the (...)
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  22. Keith Burgess-Jackson (1995). Rape and Persuasive Definition. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 25 (3):415 - 454.
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  23. Ann J. Cahill (2011). Overcoming Objectification. Routledge.
    Objectification is a foundational concept in feminist theory, used to analyze such disparate social phenomena as sex work, representation of women's bodies, and sexual harassment. However, there has been an increasing trend among scholars of rejecting and re-evaluating the philosophical assumptions which underpin it. In this work, Cahill suggests an abandonment of the notion of objectification, on the basis of its dependence on a Kantian ideal of personhood. Such an ideal fails to recognize sufficiently the role the body plays in (...)
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  24. Ann J. Cahill (2011). In Defense of Self-Defense. Philosophical Papers 38 (3):363-380.
    Some feminist theorists have argued that emphasizing women's self-defense mistakenly emphasizes women's behavior and choices rather than male aggression as a cause of sexual violence. I argue here that such critiques of self-defense are misguided, and do not sufficiently take into account the ways in which feminist self-defense courses can constitute embodied transformations of the meanings of femininity and rape. While certainly not sufficient to counter a rape culture by themselves, self-defense courses should remain a crucial element in feminist anti-rape (...)
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  25. Ann J. Cahill (2001). Rethinking Rape. Cornell University Press.
    Rape, claims Ann J. Cahill, affects not only those women who are raped, but all women who experience their bodies as rapable and adjust their actions and self-images accordingly. Rethinking Rape counters legal and feminist definitions of rape as mere assault and decisively emphasizes the centrality of the body and sexuality in a crime which plays a crucial role in the continuing oppression of women.
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  26. Ann J. Cahill (2000). Foucault, Rape, and the Construction of the Feminine Body. Hypatia 15 (1):43-63.
    : In 1977, Michel Foucault suggested that legal approaches to rape define it as merely an act of violence, not of sexuality, and therefore not distinct from other types of assaults. I argue that rape can not be considered merely an act of violence because it is instrumental in the construction of the distinctly feminine body. Insofar as the threat of rape is ineluctably, although not determinately, associated with the development of feminine bodily comportment, rape itself holds a host of (...)
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  27. Laurie Calhoun (1997). On Rape: A Crime Against Humanity. Journal of Social Philosophy 28 (1):101-109.
  28. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2009). Cultural Memory, Empathy, and Rape. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 16 (1):25-42.
    Assuming a relational understanding of the self, I argue that empathy is necessary for individual and cultural recovery from rape. However, gender affects our ability to listen with empathy to rape survivors. For women, the existence of cultural memories discourages empathy either by engendering fear of their own future rape or by provoking sympathy rather than empathy. For men, the lack of cultural memories makes rape what Arendt calls an "unreality," thus diminishing the possibility for empathy. Although empathetic listeningpresents gender (...)
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  29. Claudia Card (2009). In an Abusive State: How Neoliberalism Appropriated the Feminist Movement Against Sexual Violence. By Kristin Bumiller. Hypatia 24 (2):205-208.
  30. Claudia Card (2008). The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):176-189.
  31. Claudia Card (2004). The Atrocity Paradigm Revisited. Hypatia 19 (4):212 - 222.
    This essay reflects on issues raised by commentators regarding my book, The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil (Oxford 2002). They are (1) Robin Schott's observation of the tension between my discussion of forgiveness and of castration fantasies; (2) Bat-Ami Bar On's questions regarding whether evil is ethical, political, or both; (3) Adam Morton's queries regarding the relative seriousness of evils and injustices; and (4) María Pía Lara's concerns regarding what is valuable in Kant's ethics.
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  32. Claudia Card (2002). The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. Oxford University Press.
    What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible (...)
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  33. Claudia Card (1997). Addendum to "Rape as a Weapon of War". Hypatia 12 (2):216 - 218.
    Learning about martial sex crimes against men has made me rethink some of my ideas about rape as a weapon of war and how to respond to it. Such crimes can be as racist as they are sexist and, in the case of male victims, may be quite simply racist.
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  34. Claudia Card (1996). Rape as a Weapon of War. Hypatia 11 (4):5 - 18.
    This essay examines how rape of women and girls by male soldiers works as a martial weapon. Continuities with other torture and terrorism and with civilian rape are suggested. The inadequacy of past philosophical treatments of the enslavement of war captives is briefly discussed. Social strategies are suggested for responding and a concluding fantasy offered, not entirely social, of a strategy to change the meanings of rape to undermine its use as a martial weapon.
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  35. Mary E. Carr & Alda L. Moettus (2010). Developing a Policy for Sexual Assault Examinations on Incapacitated Patients and Patients Unable to Consent. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):647-653.
    Sexual assault examinations consist of a medical evaluation and forensic evidence collection. Usually the patient signs a consent form allowing the examination to occur. Occasionally circumstances exist that render a patient unable to give consent for this examination. Such circumstances include young age, mental health disease, cognitive delay, or drug/alcohol ingestion. This article provides suggestions for developing a policy allowing a sexual assault examination to be conducted without patient consent. A sample of such a policy is provided.
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  36. Diana Fritz Cates (2010). Experiential Narratives of Rape and Torture. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):43-66.
    Many Guatemalan women suffered extreme sexual violence during the latter half of the twentieth century. Learning of this violence can evoke hatred in persons who love and respect women—hatred for the men who perpetrated the violence and also for other men around the world who victimize women in this way. Hatred is a common response to a perceived evil, and it might in some cases be a fitting response, but it is important to subject one's emotions to critical moral reflection. (...)
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  37. Jennifer A. Chandler, Alexandra Mogyoros, Tristana Martin Rubio & Eric Racine (2013). Another Look at the Legal and Ethical Consequences of Pharmacological Memory Dampening: The Case of Sexual Assault. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):859-871.
    Research on the use of propranolol as a pharmacological memory dampening treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder is continuing and justifies a second look at the legal and ethical issues raised in the past. We summarize the general ethical and legal issues raised in the literature so far, and we select two for in-depth reconsideration. We address the concern that a traumatized witness may be less effective in a prosecution emerging from the traumatic event after memory dampening treatment. We analyze this (...)
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  38. Eric Chwang (2009). A Defense of Subsequent Consent. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):117-131.
    Subsequent consent can be morally efficacious. First, it licenses nostalgia and dismissiveness no more than its prior cousin does. Second, it's coherent because linked to the mental state of not minding. Third, it's just as vulnerable to bilking as prior consent is, as is clear once we distinguish between basing moral assessments on expectations versus on actual outcomes. Fourth, mind control is illegitimate because it short circuits the subject's will, not because its consent is subsequent. Finally, our intuitions about rape (...)
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  39. Lorraine Code (2011). A New Epistemology of Rape? Philosophical Papers 38 (3):327-345.
    In this essay I take issue with entrenched conceptions of individual autonomy for how they block understandings of the implications of rape in patriarchal cultures both 'at home' and in situations of armed conflict. I focus on human vulnerability as it manifests in sedimented assumptions about violence against women as endemic to male-female relations, thwarting possibilities of knowing the specific harms particular acts of rape enact well enough to render intelligible their far-reaching social-political-moral implications. Taking my point of departure from (...)
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  40. Sarah Conly (2004). Seduction, Rape, and Coercion. Ethics 115 (1):96-121.
    In Tess of the d’Urbervilles, the innocent Tess is the object of Alec d’Urberville’s dishonorable intentions. Alec uses every wile he can think of to seduce the poor and ignorant Tess, who works keeping hens in his mother’s house: he flatters her, he impresses her with a show of wealth, he gives help to her family to win her gratitude, and he reacts with irritation and indignation when she nonetheless continues to repulse his advances, causing her to feel shame at (...)
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  41. Jan Crosthwaite & Christine Swanton (1986). On the Nature of Sexual Harassment. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (sup1):91-106.
  42. Ann E. Cudd (2008). Rape and Enforced Pregnancy as Femicide: Comments on Claudia Card's “The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy”. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):190-199.
  43. Ann E. Cudd (2008). Comments: Rape and Enforced Pregnancy as Femicide. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (Supplement):190-199.
  44. Ann E. Cudd (1990). Enforced Pregnancy, Rape, and the Image of Woman. Philosophical Studies 60 (1-2):47 - 59.
  45. E. M. Curley (1976). Excusing Rape. Philosophy and Public Affairs 5 (4):325-360.
  46. C. D. & K. Haely (1999). Rape and the Reasonable Man. Law and Philosophy 18 (2):113-139.
    Standards of reasonability play an important role in some of the most difficult cases of rape. In recent years, the notion of the ``reasonable person'' has supplanted the historical concept of the ``reasonable man'' as the test of reasonability. Contemporary feminist critics like Catharine MacKinnon and Kim Lane Scheppele have challenged the notion of the reasonable person on the grounds that reasonability standards are ``gendered to the ground'' and so, in practice, the reasonable person is just the reasonable man in (...)
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  47. E. M. Dadlez, William L. Andrews, Courtney Lewis & Marissa Stroud (2009). Rape, Evolution, and Pseudoscience: Natural Selection in the Academy. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):75-96.
  48. Victoria Davion (1995). Rape, Group Responsibility and Trust. Hypatia 10 (2):153 - 156.
    In this paper I link the very interesting analysis of responsibility provided by Larry May and Robert Strikwerda in "Men in Groups: Collective Responsibility for Rape (May and Strikwerda 1994) to some strategies for helping women avoid rape. In addition, I call for some clarification on May and Strikwerda's claim that rapists are fully responsible for their actions and that it is largely a matter of luck which men actually turn out to be rapists.
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  49. Michael Davis (1984). Setting Penalties: What Does Rape Deserve? [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 3 (1):61 - 110.
    The paper is an application of the principle of just deserts (that is, retribution) to the setting of statutory penalties. The conclusion is that there should be no separate penalty for rape but that rape should be punished under the ordinary battery statutes. The argument has four parts. First, there is a description of the place of rape in a typical statutory scheme. Second, there is a consideration of possible justifications for giving rape the status it has in such a (...)
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  50. Louise du Toit (2011). Introduction: Meaning/s of Rape in War and Peace. Philosophical Papers 38 (3):285-305.
1 — 50 / 124