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Summary Matters of reproduction have always been important to feminists, since reproduction is central to gender justice. This field is necessarily interdisciplinary, and covers a variety of substantive issues. These range from the role of reproduction in patriarchal oppression, to abortion and women's autonomy, to the transformational power of reproductive technologies and practices such as surrogacy, gamete donation, and IVF. 
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  1. David M. Adams (2002). Book Review: Janet L. Dolgin. Families: Law, Gender and Difference and Defining the Family: Law, Technology, and Reproduction in an Uneasy Age. By New York: New York University Press, 1997. And David M. Estlund and Martha C. Nussbaum. Sex, Preference, and Family: Essays in Law and Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. [REVIEW] Hypatia 17 (3):254-256.
  2. Linda Alcoff (2008). Gender and Reproduction. Asian Journal of Women's Studies 14 (4):7-27.
    This paper provides a materialist approach to defining gender identity.
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  3. Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michalowska (forthcoming). “The Angel of the House” in the Realm of ART: Feminist Approach to Oocyte and Spare Embryo Donation for Research. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-7.
    The spectacular progress in assisted reproduction technology that has been witnessed for the past thirty years resulted in emerging new ethical dilemmas as well as the revision of some perennial ones. The paper aims at a feminist approach to oocyte and spare embryo donation for research. First, referring to different concepts of autonomy and informed consent, we discuss whether the decision to donate oocyte/embryo can truly be an autonomous choice of a female patient. Secondly, we argue the commonly adopted language (...)
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  4. Anita LaFrance Allen (1997). Book Review: Joan Callahan. Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law. Bloomington, In: Indiana University Press, 1995 and Laura Purdy. Reproducing Persons: Issues in Feminist Bioethics. And Kathy Rudy. Beyond Pro-Life and Pro-Choice. [REVIEW] Hypatia 12 (4):202-211.
  5. Elizabeth S. Anderson (2000). Why Commercial Surrogate Motherhood Unethically Commodifies Women and Children: Reply to McLachlan and Swales. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 8 (1):19-26.
    McLachlan and Swales dispute my arguments against commercial surrogatemotherhood. In reply, I argue that commercial surrogate contractsobjectionably commodify children because they regardparental rights over children not as trusts, to be allocated in the bestinterests of the child, but as like property rights, to be allocatedat the will o the parents. They also express disrespect for mothers, bycompromising their inalienable right to act in the best interest of theirchildren, when this interest calls for mothers to assert a custody rightin their children.
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  6. Elizabeth S. Anderson (1990). Is Women's Labor a Commodity? Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (1):71-92.
  7. Adrienne Asch & Gail Geller (forthcoming). Feminism, Bioethics and Genetics. Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction.
  8. S. Ashenden (2013). Reproblematising Relations of Agency and Coercion: Surrogacy. In Sumi Madhok, Anne Phillips & Kalpana Wilson (eds.), Gender, Agency, and Coercion. Palgrave Macmillan.
  9. Alison Bailey (2011). Reconceiving Surrogacy: Toward a Reproductive Justice Account of Indian Surrogacy. Hypatia 26 (4):715-741.
    My project here is to argue for situating moral judgments about Indian surrogacy in the context of Reproductive Justice. I begin by crafting the best picture of Indian surrogacy available to me while marking some worries I have about discursive colonialism and epistemic honesty. Western feminists' responses to contract pregnancy fall loosely into two interrelated moments: post-Baby M discussions that focus on the morality of surrogacy work in Western contexts, and feminist biomedical ethnographies that focus on the lived dimensions of (...)
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  10. Brenda M. Baker (1996). A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy. Hypatia 11 (2):34 - 48.
    Canada's Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies rejects all forms of surrogacy arrangement under the rubric of objecting to commercial surrogacy. Noncommercial surrogacy arrangements, however, can be defended against the commission's objections. They can be viewed as cases of giving a benefit or service to another in a way that expresses benevolence, and establishes a relationship between surrogates and prospective 'social' parents that allows mutual understanding and reciprocal personal interaction between them.
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  11. Amrita Banerjee (2014). Race and a Transnational Reproductive Caste System: Indian Transnational Surrogacy. Hypatia 29 (1):113-128.
    When it comes to discourses around women's labor in global contexts, we need feminist philosophical frameworks that take the intersections of gender, race, and global capitalism seriously in order to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of women's lives within global processes. Women of color feminist philosophy can bring much to the table in such discussions. In this essay, I theorize about a concrete instance of global women's labor: transnational commercial gestational surrogacy. By introducing a “racialized gender” analysis into the philosophical (...)
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  12. Amrita Banerjee (2011). Reorienting the Ethics of Transnational Surrogacy as a Feminist Pragmatist. The Pluralist 5 (3):107-127.
    The issue of surrogacy has received a great deal of attention in the West ever since the famous Baby M case in the latter part of the 1980s. Ethicists, psychologists, and legal experts have struggled with the meanings and implications of this practice, especially in its commercial form. In contemporary times, however, the phenomenon of surrogacy has assumed new dimensions as it travels across national borders in the context of globalization. As a transnational phenomenon, it is now marketed as an (...)
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  13. Pauline B. Bart (1995). Seizing the Means of Reproduction. In Penny A. Weiss & Marilyn Friedman (eds.), Feminism and Community. Temple University Press. 105.
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  14. Françoise Baylis (2009). Forthcoming. Nonhuman Animal Eggs for Assisted Human Reproduction: A Woman's Choice. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2).
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  15. Dana Belu, Sylvia Burrow & Elizabeth Soliday (2012). Introduction: Feminism, Autonomy, and Reproductive Technology. Techne 16 (1):1-2.
  16. Leslie Bender (1997). Feminism & Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (1):58-61.
  17. Laura Benkov (1996). Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law: Feminist Perspectives (Book). Ethics and Behavior 6 (3):265 – 267.
  18. Rosalie Ber (2000). Ethical Issues in Gestational Surrogacy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):153-169.
    The introduction of contraceptive technologies hasresulted in the separation of sex and procreation. Theintroduction of new reproductive technologies (mainlyIVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to theseparation of procreation and sex, but also to there-definition of the terms mother and family.For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguishbetween:1. the genetic mother – the donor of the egg;2. the gestational mother – she who bears and gives birth to the baby;3. the social mother – the woman who raises the (...)
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  19. Suze G. Berkhout (2008). Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice 34 (1):95-117.
  20. Rosemary Betterton (2006). Promising Monsters: Pregnant Bodies, Artistic Subjectivity, and Maternal Imagination. Hypatia 21 (1):80-100.
    : This paper engages with theories of the monstrous maternal in feminist philosophy to explore how examples of visual art practice by Susan Hiller, Marc Quinn, Alison Lapper, Tracey Emin, and Cindy Sherman disrupt maternal ideals in visual culture through differently imagined body schema. By examining instances of the pregnant body represented in relation to maternal subjectivity, disability, abortion, and "prosthetic" pregnancy, it asks whether the "monstrous" can offer different kinds of figurations of the maternal that acknowledge the agency and (...)
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  21. Laura Bier (2010). " The Family Is a Factory": Gender, Citizenship, and the Regulation of Reproduction in Postwar Egypt. Feminist Studies 36 (2):404-432.
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  22. Susan Bordo (1997). The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity. In Katie Conboy Nadia Medina (ed.), Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory. 90--113.
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  23. Sarah-Vaughn Brakman & Sally J. Scholz (2006). Adoption, ART, and a Re-Conception of the Maternal Body: Toward Embodied Maternity. Hypatia 21 (1):54-73.
    : We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies). As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed to rethink maternal bodies through the lens of feminist embodiment. Feminist embodied maternity, as we call it, stresses the particularity of experience through subjective embodiment. A feminist embodied maternity emphasizes (...)
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  24. Nuket Ornek Buken & Serap Sahinoglu (2012). Gender, Infertitlity, Motherhood, and Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Turkey. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):218-232.
    In Turkey, as in many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in a woman’s life and is associated with a lot of stigma by society. In other words, female infertility and having a baby using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) have to be taken into consideration with respect to gender, motherhood, social factors, religion and law. Yet if a woman chooses to use ART she has to deal with the consequences of her decision, such as being ostracized (...)
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  25. Sylvia Burrow (2012). Reproductive Autonomy and Reproductive Technology. Techné 16 (1):31-45.
    This paper presents a relational account of autonomy showing that a technological imperative impedes autonomy through undermining women’s capacity to resist use of technology in the context of labor and birth. A technological imperative encourages dependence on technology for reassurance whenever possible through creating a (i) separation of maternal and fetal interests; and (ii) perceived need to use technology whenever possible. In response I offer an account of how women might promote autonomy through cultivating self-trust and self-confidence. Autonomy is not (...)
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  26. Joan C. Callahan (ed.) (1995). Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law: Feminist Perspectives. Indiana University Press.
    The. Metamorphosis. of. Motherhood. Patricia. Smith. Motherhood, as traditionally understood, is obsolete. It is not yet as obsolete as, say, knighthood, but it is moving just as inevitably in the same direction. No one wants to admit that, but it is ...
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  27. Joan C. Callahan (1990). Christine Overall, Ethics and Human Reproduction: A Feminist Analysis Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 10 (10):421-423.
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  28. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2011). No More Larking Around! Why We Need Male LARCs. Hastings Center Report 41 (5):22-26.
    Modern contraceptives—especially long-acting, reversible contraceptives, or LARCs—are typically seen as a boon for humanity and for women, the majority of their users, in particular. But the disparity between the number and types of female and male LARCs is problematic for at least two reasons: first, because it forces women to assume most of the financial and health-related responsibilities of contraception, and second, because men’s reproductive autonomy is diminished by it. In order to understand how to change our current contraceptive arrangement, (...)
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  29. Licia Carlson & Eva Feder Kittay (2009). Introduction: Rethinking Philosophical Presumptions in Light of Cognitive Disability. Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):307-330.
  30. Ruby Catsanos, Wendy Rogers & Mianna Lotz (2013). The Ethics of Uterus Transplantation. Bioethics 27 (2):65-73.
    Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants (...)
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  31. Amanda R. Clarke (2011). Beyond Reproduction: Women's Health, Activism, and Public Policy. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):159-164.
    In the current political climate, understanding women’s health is necessary to achieve progressive and equitable health care reform. Women access the healthcare system more frequently and in greater numbers than men, and are more likely to vote at the polls.1 Yet politicians, corporations, activists, and patients continue to disagree on the scope and definition of women’s health. In her book Beyond Reproduction: Women’s Health, Activism, and Public Policy, Karen L. Baird offers a retrospective analysis of the women’s health movement in (...)
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  32. Amanda R. Clarke (2011). Beyond Reproduction: Women's Health, Activism, and Public Policy. Karen L. Baird. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):159-164.
  33. Susan L. Crockin (2010). Legal Conceptions: The Evolving Law and Policy of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Embryo litigation -- Access to ART treatment : insurance and discrimination -- General professional liability litigation -- Paternity and donor insemination -- Maternity and egg donation -- Traditional and gestational surrogacy arrangements -- Posthumous reproduction : access and parentage -- Same-sex parentage and ART -- Genetics (PGD) and ART -- ART-related embryonic stem cell legal developments -- ART-related adoption litigation -- ART-related fetal litigation and abortion-related litigation.
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  34. Jennifer Damelio & Kelly Sorensen (2008). Enhancing Autonomy in Paid Surrogacy. Bioethics 22 (5):269–277.
    The gestational surrogate – and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular – is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the (...)
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  35. David DeGrazia (2011). Kaczor , Christopher . The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice .New York: Routledge, 2011. Pp. 246. $39.95 (Paper). [REVIEW] Ethics 121 (3):665-669.
  36. D. Dickenson (1997). Reproduction, Ethics and the Law: Feminist Perspectives. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):329-329.
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  37. Patrice DiQuinzio (2007). Reconceiving Pregnancy and Childcare: Ethics, Experience, and Reproductive Labor by Amy Mullin. Hypatia 22 (3):204-209.
  38. Patrice DiQuinzio (2007). Reconceiving Pregnancy and Childcare: Ethics, Experience, and Reproductive Labor (Review). Hypatia 22 (3):204-209.
  39. Susan Dodds & Karen Jones (1989). Surrogacy and Autonomy. Bioethics 3 (1):1–17.
  40. Anne Donchin (2009). Toward a Gender-Sensitive Assisted Reproduction Policy. Bioethics 23 (1):28-38.
    The recent case of the UK woman who lost her legal struggle to be impregnated with her own frozen embryos, raises critical issues about the meaning of reproductive autonomy and the scope of regulatory practices. I revisit this case within the context of contemporary debate about the moral and legal dimensions of assisted reproduction. I argue that the gender neutral context that frames discussion of regulatory practices is unjust unless it gives appropriate consideration to the different positions women and men (...)
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  41. Anne Donchin (1997). Joan C. Callahan, Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law: Feminist Perspectives. [REVIEW] Human Studies 20 (4):459-466.
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  42. Anne Donchin (1989). Review: The Growing Feminist Debate Over the New Reproductive Technologies. [REVIEW] Hypatia 4 (3):136 - 149.
    A critical review of four recent works that reflect current conflicts and tensions among feminists regarding new reproductive technologies: In Search of Parenthood by Judith Lasker and Susan Borg; Ethics and Human Reproduction by Christine Overall; Made to Order, Patricia Spallone and Deborah Steinberg, eds. and Reproductive Technologies: Gender, Motherhood and Medicine, Michelle Stanworth, ed. Their positions are evaluated against the background of growing feminist dialogue about the future of reproduction and the bearing of reproductive innovations on such related (...)
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  43. Katherine Drabiak-Syed (2011). Currents in Contemporary Bioethics: Waiving Informed Consent to Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis? Problems with Paradoxical Negotiation in Surrogacy Contracts. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):559-564.
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  44. Mel Duffy (2011). Lesbian Women's Experiences of Being Different in Irish Health Care. In Gill Thomson, Fiona Dykes & Soo Downe (eds.), Qualitative Research in Midwifery and Childbirth Phenomenological Approaches. Routledge.
  45. Michael Eisenbach & Ilan Tur‐Kaspa (1999). Do Human Eggs Attract Spermatozoa? Bioessays 21 (3):203-210.
  46. Dion Farquhar (1996). The Other Machine: Discourse and Reproductive Technologies. Routledge.
    With technological advances in reproduction no longer confined to the laboratory or involving only the isolated individual, women and men are increasingly resorting to a variety of technologies unheard of a few decades ago to assist them in becoming parents. The public at large, and feminists as a group, are confused and divided over how to view these technologies and over what positions to take on the moral and legal dilemmas they give rise to. Farquhar argues that two perspectives have (...)
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  47. Susan Feldman (1992). Multiple Biological Mothers: The Case for Gestation. Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (1):98-104.
    It is now medically possible for a baby to have two biological mothers. A fertilized ovum from one woman can be implanted into a second woman for gestation in her uterus. In fact, there have been several such cases. The ova donor is the mother in the genetic sense: her genetic material,along with that of the sperm donor,appears in the developing baby. The uterine hostess is the birth mother: she gestates the fetus and gives birth to it. In essence, the (...)
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  48. Ruth L. Fischbach & John D. Loike (2014). Maternal–Fetal Cell Transfer in Surrogacy: Ties That Bind. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (5):35-36.
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  49. J. Foley (2012). Uterine Transplantation: A Step Too Far? Clinical Ethics 7 (4):193-198.
    The options currently available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy. Recently the option of uterine transplantation has been explored which would allow a woman to carry her own genetically related child. Although this type of transplant raises similar ethical considerations to other types of non-life-saving organ transplantation, such as facial tissue and limb, it also raises its own very unique considerations. In this paper, some of the considerations surrounding uterine transplantation, such as informed consent and an individual's (...)
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  50. Véronique Fournier & Marta Spranzi (2013). The French Bioethics Debate: Norms, Values and Practices. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):41-44.
    In 1994, France passed bioethics laws regulating assisted reproductive technologies, organ donations and prenatal diagnosis. These laws were based upon a few principles considered as fundamental: the anonymity and gratuity of all donations concerning the elements of the human body, free and informed consent, and the interdiction of all commercial transactions on the human body. These laws have been the object of heated debates which continue to this day. On the basis on a few clinical ethics studies conducted by the (...)
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