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Summary Matters of reproduction have always been important to feminists, since reproduction is central to gender justice. This field is necessarily interdisciplinary, and covers a variety of substantive issues. These range from the role of reproduction in patriarchal oppression, to abortion and women's autonomy, to the transformational power of reproductive technologies and practices such as surrogacy, gamete donation, and IVF. 
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  1. David M. Adams (2002). Book Review: Janet L. Dolgin. Families: Law, Gender and Difference and Defining the Family: Law, Technology, and Reproduction in an Uneasy Age. By New York: New York University Press, 1997. And David M. Estlund and Martha C. Nussbaum. Sex, Preference, and Family: Essays in Law and Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. [REVIEW] Hypatia 17 (3):254-256.
  2. Sussan O. Adeusi, Olujide A. Adekeye & Lisa O. Ebere, Predictors of Maternal Health As Perceived By Pregnant Women In Eti-Osa, Lagos State, Nigeria.
    This study was an attempt to examine predictors of maternal health as perceived by pregnant women in Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos State. The study adopted the survey design. The Maternal Health Scale , a self designed scale consisting of 25 items was administered to 100 pregnant women in three selected hospitals. Three hypotheses were formulated for the study and they were all sustained. Cultural practices was the most potent predictor of maternal health . Consequent upon these findings, there is need (...)
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  3. María Isabel Peña Aguado (2002). Chantal Maillard: Filosofía de Los Días Críticos. Die Philosophin 13 (26):95-97.
  4. Norhayati Ahmad (2003). Assisted Reproduction - Islamic Views On The Science Of Procreation. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 13 (2):59-60.
    The field of assisted reproduction is one of the fastest growing areas in medicine. The development of new and sophisticated techniques all aim to give reproductive technologists and scientists a better understanding of reproductive biology. The development of new techniques may also be able to improve the chances of an infertile couple towards achieving a pregnancy. However the ethics and legality of assisted reproductive technology must not be brushed aside. Islamic scholars whose reference basis resides in the Holy Quran and (...)
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  5. Linda Alcoff (2008). Gender and Reproduction. Asian Journal of Women's Studies 14 (4):7-27.
    This paper provides a materialist approach to defining gender identity.
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  6. Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michalowska (forthcoming). “The Angel of the House” in the Realm of ART: Feminist Approach to Oocyte and Spare Embryo Donation for Research. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-7.
    The spectacular progress in assisted reproduction technology that has been witnessed for the past thirty years resulted in emerging new ethical dilemmas as well as the revision of some perennial ones. The paper aims at a feminist approach to oocyte and spare embryo donation for research. First, referring to different concepts of autonomy and informed consent, we discuss whether the decision to donate oocyte/embryo can truly be an autonomous choice of a female patient. Secondly, we argue the commonly adopted language (...)
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  7. Anita LaFrance Allen (1997). Book Review: Joan Callahan. Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law. Bloomington, In: Indiana University Press, 1995 and Laura Purdy. Reproducing Persons: Issues in Feminist Bioethics. And Kathy Rudy. Beyond Pro-Life and Pro-Choice. [REVIEW] Hypatia 12 (4):202-211.
  8. Elizabeth S. Anderson, Why Commercial Surrogate Motherhood Unethically Commodifies Women and Children: Reply to McLachlan and Swales. [REVIEW]
    McLachlan and Swales dispute my arguments against commercial surrogatemotherhood. In reply, I argue that commercial surrogate contractsobjectionably commodify children because they regardparental rights over children not as trusts, to be allocated in the bestinterests of the child, but as like property rights, to be allocatedat the will o the parents. They also express disrespect for mothers, bycompromising their inalienable right to act in the best interest of theirchildren, when this interest calls for mothers to assert a custody rightin their children.
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  9. Elizabeth S. Anderson (1990). Is Women's Labor a Commodity? Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (1):71-92.
  10. Adrienne Asch & Gail Geller (forthcoming). Feminism, Bioethics and Genetics. Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction.
  11. S. Ashenden (2013). Reproblematising Relations of Agency and Coercion: Surrogacy. In Sumi Madhok, Anne Phillips & Kalpana Wilson (eds.), Gender, Agency, and Coercion. Palgrave Macmillan
  12. Alison Bailey (2011). Reconceiving Surrogacy: Toward a Reproductive Justice Account of Indian Surrogacy. Hypatia 26 (4):715-741.
    My project here is to argue for situating moral judgments about Indian surrogacy in the context of Reproductive Justice. I begin by crafting the best picture of Indian surrogacy available to me while marking some worries I have about discursive colonialism and epistemic honesty. Western feminists' responses to contract pregnancy fall loosely into two interrelated moments: post-Baby M discussions that focus on the morality of surrogacy work in Western contexts, and feminist biomedical ethnographies that focus on the lived dimensions of (...)
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  13. Brenda M. Baker (1996). A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy. Hypatia 11 (2):34 - 48.
    Canada's Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies rejects all forms of surrogacy arrangement under the rubric of objecting to commercial surrogacy. Noncommercial surrogacy arrangements, however, can be defended against the commission's objections. They can be viewed as cases of giving a benefit or service to another in a way that expresses benevolence, and establishes a relationship between surrogates and prospective 'social' parents that allows mutual understanding and reciprocal personal interaction between them.
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  14. Amrita Banerjee (2014). Race and a Transnational Reproductive Caste System: Indian Transnational Surrogacy. Hypatia 29 (1):113-128.
    When it comes to discourses around women's labor in global contexts, we need feminist philosophical frameworks that take the intersections of gender, race, and global capitalism seriously in order to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of women's lives within global processes. Women of color feminist philosophy can bring much to the table in such discussions. In this essay, I theorize about a concrete instance of global women's labor: transnational commercial gestational surrogacy. By introducing a “racialized gender” analysis into the philosophical (...)
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  15. Amrita Banerjee (2010). Reorienting the Ethics of Transnational Surrogacy as a Feminist Pragmatist. The Pluralist 5 (3):107-127.
    The issue of surrogacy has received a great deal of attention in the West ever since the famous Baby M case in the latter part of the 1980s. Ethicists, psychologists, and legal experts have struggled with the meanings and implications of this practice, especially in its commercial form. In contemporary times, however, the phenomenon of surrogacy has assumed new dimensions as it travels across national borders in the context of globalization. As a transnational phenomenon, it is now marketed as an (...)
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  16. Jennifer Bard (2006). Review of Judith Daar, Reproductive Technologies and the Law. [REVIEW] Am. J. Bioethics 2006.
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  17. Pauline B. Bart (1995). Seizing the Means of Reproduction. In Penny A. Weiss & Marilyn Friedman (eds.), Feminism and Community. Temple University Press 105.
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  18. Françoise Baylis (2009). Forthcoming. Nonhuman Animal Eggs for Assisted Human Reproduction: A Woman's Choice. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2).
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  19. Françoise Baylis & Jocelyn Downie (2014). Introduction. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):1-9.
    Transnational reproductive travel is a largely unfettered multibillion-dollar global industry that flourishes, in part, by capitalizing on differences in legal regimes, wages and standards of living, and cultural and ethical norms. Indeed, as Scott Carney explains with respect to the commercialization of human eggs for third-party reproduction, “internationalization has made oversight laughable. … [R]egulators are dogs with no teeth” . While professional organizations can introduce guidelines and nation-states can introduce laws, the fact is that patients can travel to places where (...)
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  20. Dana Belu, Sylvia Burrow & Elizabeth Soliday (2012). Introduction: Feminism, Autonomy, and Reproductive Technology. Techne 16 (1):1-2.
  21. Leslie Bender (1997). Feminism & Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 25 (1):58-61.
  22. Laura Benkov (1996). Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law: Feminist Perspectives (Book). Ethics and Behavior 6 (3):265 – 267.
  23. Rosalie Ber (2000). Ethical Issues in Gestational Surrogacy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):153-169.
    The introduction of contraceptive technologies hasresulted in the separation of sex and procreation. Theintroduction of new reproductive technologies (mainlyIVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to theseparation of procreation and sex, but also to there-definition of the terms mother and family.For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguishbetween:1. the genetic mother – the donor of the egg;2. the gestational mother – she who bears and gives birth to the baby;3. the social mother – the woman who raises the (...)
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  24. Suze G. Berkhout (2008). Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice 34 (1):95-117.
  25. Rosemary Betterton (2006). Promising Monsters: Pregnant Bodies, Artistic Subjectivity, and Maternal Imagination. Hypatia 21 (1):80-100.
    : This paper engages with theories of the monstrous maternal in feminist philosophy to explore how examples of visual art practice by Susan Hiller, Marc Quinn, Alison Lapper, Tracey Emin, and Cindy Sherman disrupt maternal ideals in visual culture through differently imagined body schema. By examining instances of the pregnant body represented in relation to maternal subjectivity, disability, abortion, and "prosthetic" pregnancy, it asks whether the "monstrous" can offer different kinds of figurations of the maternal that acknowledge the agency and (...)
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  26. Rosemary Betterton (2006). Promising Monsters: Pregnant Bodies, Artistic Subjectivity, and Maternal Imagination. Hypatia 21 (1):80-100.
  27. Swasti Bhattacharyya (2002). Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology in a Pluralistic World: A Development and Application of a Hindu Ethic. Dissertation, University of Southern California
    Reproductive technology is in the forefront of medical research and contemporary bioethical debates. In the United States, ethical issues involved are often framed by conflicts among legal, scientific, and religious perspectives. The primary religious voices influencing these North American discussions are those grounded in various Jewish and Christian traditions. However, this country is known for its religious and cultural diversity. This diversity of worldviews presents challenges that the field of bioethics needs to address. My goal is to inform and contribute (...)
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  28. Laura Bier (2010). " The Family Is a Factory": Gender, Citizenship, and the Regulation of Reproduction in Postwar Egypt. Feminist Studies 36 (2):404-432.
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  29. Susan Bordo (1997). The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity. In Katie Conboy Nadia Medina (ed.), Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory. 90--113.
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  30. Sarah-Vaughn Brakman & Sally J. Scholz (2006). Adoption, ART, and a Re-Conception of the Maternal Body: Toward Embodied Maternity. Hypatia 21 (1):54-73.
    : We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies). As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed to rethink maternal bodies through the lens of feminist embodiment. Feminist embodied maternity, as we call it, stresses the particularity of experience through subjective embodiment. A feminist embodied maternity emphasizes (...)
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  31. Laura Briggs (2010). Reproductive Technology: Of Labor and Markets. Feminist Studies 36 (2):359-374.
  32. Sylvia Burrow (2012). Reproductive Autonomy and Reproductive Technology. Techne 16 (1):31-45.
    This paper presents a relational account of autonomy showing that a technological imperative impedes autonomy through undermining women’s capacity to resist use of technology in the context of labor and birth. A technological imperative encourages dependence on technology for reassurance whenever possible through creating a (i) separation of maternal and fetal interests; and (ii) perceived need to use technology whenever possible. In response I offer an account of how women might promote autonomy through cultivating self-trust and self-confidence. Autonomy is not (...)
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  33. Ann J. Cahill, Kathryn J. Norlock & Byron J. Stoyles (2015). Editors' Introduction. Journal of Social Philosophy 46 (1):1-8.
    Existing accounts of meaning in reproductive contexts, especially those put forward in debates concerning abortion, tend to focus on the (moral) status of the fetus. This issue on miscarriage, pregnancy loss, and fetal death accomplishes a shift this conversation, in the direction of pushing past embryo-centric value judgments. To put it bluntly, the miscarried embryo is not the one who has to live with the experience. The essays in this special issue are a significant addition to the scarce literature on (...)
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  34. Joan Callahan (1990). Christine Overall, Ethics and Human Reproduction: A Feminist Analysis. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 10:421-423.
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  35. Joan C. Callahan (ed.) (1995). Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law: Feminist Perspectives. Indiana University Press.
    The. Metamorphosis. of. Motherhood. Patricia. Smith. Motherhood, as traditionally understood, is obsolete. It is not yet as obsolete as, say, knighthood, but it is moving just as inevitably in the same direction. No one wants to admit that, but it is ...
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  36. Joan C. Callahan (1994). Feminism and Reproductive Technologies. Journal of Clinical Ethics 5 (1):75.
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  37. Joan C. Callahan (1990). Christine Overall, Ethics and Human Reproduction: A Feminist Analysis Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 10 (10):421-423.
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  38. Joan Callahan, Laura Purdy & Kathy Rudy (1997). Reproduction, Ethics, and the Law. Hypatia 12 (4):202-211.
  39. V. J. Callan (1986). Single Women, Voluntary Childlessness and Perceptions About Life and Marriage. Journal of Biosocial Science 18 (4):479-487.
  40. Angela Campbell, Conceiving Parents Through Law.
    Who a child’s parents are is a question that might be answered differently by a jurist than by the child concerned. Law directs us to look at particular rules to determine parentage. Yet these rules might not reflect actual relationships within families that extend care, nurturing and support to children, particularly when conception has occurred through assisted procreation. This work is prompted by the discordance between legal and social locations of parenthood in these contexts. Examining Canadian common law and Quebec (...)
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  41. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2011). No More Larking Around! Why We Need Male LARCs. Hastings Center Report 41 (5):22-26.
    Modern contraceptives—especially long-acting, reversible contraceptives, or LARCs—are typically seen as a boon for humanity and for women, the majority of their users, in particular. But the disparity between the number and types of female and male LARCs is problematic for at least two reasons: first, because it forces women to assume most of the financial and health-related responsibilities of contraception, and second, because men’s reproductive autonomy is diminished by it. In order to understand how to change our current contraceptive arrangement, (...)
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  42. Licia Carlson & Eva Feder Kittay (2009). Introduction: Rethinking Philosophical Presumptions in Light of Cognitive Disability. Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):307-330.
  43. Cynthia Carver (1989). The New-And-Debatable-Reproductive Technologies. In Christine Overall (ed.), The Future of Human Reproduction. Women's Press
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  44. Ruby Catsanos, Wendy Rogers & Mianna Lotz (2013). The Ethics of Uterus Transplantation. Bioethics 27 (2):65-73.
    Human uterus transplantation is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as (...)
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  45. R. A. Charo (1995). Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Regulatory Issues. Encyclopedia of Bioethics 4:2241-2248.
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  46. E. Chelo (2001). Assisted Reproduction: Historical Background. Global Bioethics 14:69.
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  47. Amanda R. Clarke (2011). Beyond Reproduction: Women's Health, Activism, and Public Policy. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):159-164.
    In the current political climate, understanding women’s health is necessary to achieve progressive and equitable health care reform. Women access the healthcare system more frequently and in greater numbers than men, and are more likely to vote at the polls.1 Yet politicians, corporations, activists, and patients continue to disagree on the scope and definition of women’s health. In her book Beyond Reproduction: Women’s Health, Activism, and Public Policy, Karen L. Baird offers a retrospective analysis of the women’s health movement in (...)
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  48. Amanda R. Clarke (2011). Beyond Reproduction: Women's Health, Activism, and Public Policy. Karen L. Baird. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):159-164.
  49. Susan L. Crockin (2010). Legal Conceptions: The Evolving Law and Policy of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Embryo litigation -- Access to ART treatment : insurance and discrimination -- General professional liability litigation -- Paternity and donor insemination -- Maternity and egg donation -- Traditional and gestational surrogacy arrangements -- Posthumous reproduction : access and parentage -- Same-sex parentage and ART -- Genetics (PGD) and ART -- ART-related embryonic stem cell legal developments -- ART-related adoption litigation -- ART-related fetal litigation and abortion-related litigation.
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  50. G. K. D. Crozier, Jennifer L. Johnson & Christopher Hajzler (2014). At the Intersections of Emotional and Biological Labor: Understanding Transnational Commercial Surrogacy as Social Reproduction. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):45-74.
    This paper focuses on how surrogacy is to be valued in the transnational context, and what it means for surrogacy to be considered a form of paid, social reproductive labor. By social reproduction, we refer to the social processes and activities, such as child rearing and caring for dependents, that are necessary to uphold a productive society. Since these are complex and nuanced questions, and ones that are likely to need different answers in different countries and social contexts, this paper (...)
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