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Summary Feminist epistemology examines the political and ethical dimensions of knowing, particularly as these dimensions pertain to power relations along axes of oppression such as sex, gender, race, class, (dis)ability, and sexuality.  
Key works

Feminist epistemologists examine social, political, and ethical aspects of knowing using a wide range of approaches.  Moreover, many of the key works in feminist epistemology draw on and contribute to more than one approach to epistemology making any straightforward cataloging of key works deceptive. Provided one keep in mind that any given author's work may fit perfectly well in more than one category, the following should give the reader a sense of the range of key contributions in feminist epistemology: feminist empiricism (e.g. Longino 1990 and Nelson 1990), feminist naturalized epistemology (Rooney 1998 and Code 2006), feminist standpoint theory (Harding 2004 and Collins 1991/2008), decolonial and Woman of Color feminist theories (Lugones 2003 and Narayan 1988), feminist phenomenology (Alcoff 2000 and Alcoff 2006), and feminist postmodernism (Haraway 2010).  Early works considered such topics as the nature of objectivity (Harding 1995), epistemic communities (Nelson 1993), and the role of values in knowing (Longino 1987). Recent topics within the field include: trust and epistemic agency (Jones 2012 and Dotson 2011), epistemologies of ignorance (Sullivan & Tuana 2007 and Tuana & Sullivan 2006), and epistemic injustice (Fricker 2007 and Medina 2012).

Introductions Alcoff and Potter's edited volume Feminist Epistemologies is one of the earliest and now classic collections of work in feminist epistemology. It contains key essays within the field.  For book length introductions see: Harding 1991 and Tanesini 1999.  Encyclopedia introductions include: Janack 2004 and Anderson unknown
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  1. Alison Adam (2002). Gender/Body/Machine. Ratio 15 (4):354–375.
    This article considers the question of embodiment in relation to gender and whether there are models of artificial intelligence (AI) which can enrol a concept of gender in their design. A central concern for feminist epistemology is the role of the body in the making of knowledge. I consider how this may inform a critique of the AI project and the related area of artificial life (A-Life), the latter area being of most interest in this paper. I explore briefly the (...)
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  2. Alison Adam (2000). Deleting the Subject: A Feminist Reading of Epistemology in Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 10 (2):231-253.
    This paper argues that AI follows classical versions of epistemology in assuming that the identity of the knowing subject is not important. In other words this serves to `delete the subject''. This disguises an implicit hierarchy of knowers involved in the representation of knowledge in AI which privileges the perspective of those who design and build the systems over alternative perspectives. The privileged position reflects Western, professional masculinity. Alternative perspectives, denied a voice, belong to less powerful groups including women. Feminist (...)
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  3. Karen C. Adkins (2002). The Real Dirt: Gossip and Feminist Epistemology. Social Epistemology 16 (3):215 – 232.
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  4. Kristoffer Ahlstrom (2005). Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory. SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):79-92.
    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding's Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation of FST into VSE, considering that (i) a substantial common ground can be found; (ii) the claims that go beyond this common ground are logically compatible; and (iii) the generality of VSE not only does justice to (...)
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  5. Linda Martin Alcoff, The Problem of Speaking for Others.
    This was published in Cultural Critique (Winter 1991-92), pp. 5-32; revised and reprinted in Who Can Speak? Authority and Critical Identity edited by Judith Roof and Robyn Wiegman, University of Illinois Press, 1996; and in Feminist Nightmares: Women at Odds edited by Susan Weisser and Jennifer Fleischner, (New York: New York University Press, 1994); and also in Racism and Sexism: Differences and Connections eds. David Blumenfeld and Linda Bell, Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.
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  6. Linda Martin Alcoff (2003). Review of Arnold Davidson, The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (9).
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  7. Linda Martin Alcoff (2000). On Judging Epistemic Credibility: Is Social Identity Relevant? In Naomi Zack (ed.), On Judging Epistemic Credibility: Is Social Identity Relevant? Wiley-Blackwell. 235-262.
  8. Linda Martin Alcoff (2000). “Merleau-Ponty and Feminist Theory on Experience.”. In Fred Evans Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Chiasm, Merleau-Ponty's Notion of Flesh.
  9. Linda Martin Alcoff (1998). Real Knowing : A Response to My Critics. Social Epistemology 12 (3):289 – 305.
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  10. Linda Alcoff & Eva Feder Kittay (eds.) (2007). The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
    The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy is a definitive introduction to the field, consisting of 15 newly-contributed essays that apply philosophical methods and approaches to feminist concerns. Offers a key view of the project of centering women’s experience. Includes topics such as feminism and pragmatism, lesbian philosophy, feminist epistemology, and women in the history of philosophy.
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  11. Linda Alcoff & Elizabeth Potter (eds.) (1993). Feminist Epistemologies. Routledge.
    This is the first collection by influential feminist theorists to focus on the heart of traditional epistemology, dealing with such issues as the nature of knowledge and objectivity from a gender perspective.
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  12. Ben Almassi (2013). A Defense of Ignorance: Its Value for Knowers and Roles in Feminist and Social Epistemologies. By Cynthia Townley. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2011. [REVIEW] Hypatia 28 (1):215-217.
  13. Elizabeth Anderson, Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science.
    Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science studies the ways in which gender does and ought to influence our conceptions of knowledge, the knowing subject, and practices of inquiry and justification. It identifies ways in which dominant conceptions and practices of knowledge attribution, acquisition, and justification systematically disadvantage women and other subordinated groups, and strives to reform these conceptions and practices so that they serve the interests of these groups. Various practitioners of feminist epistemology and philosophy of science argue that dominant (...)
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  14. Elizabeth Anderson (1995). Feminist Epistemology: An Interpretation and a Defense. Hypatia 10 (3):50 - 84.
    Feminist epistemology has often been understood as the study of feminine "ways of knowing." But feminist epistemology is better understood as the branch of naturalized, social epistemology that studies the various influences of norms and conceptions of gender and gendered interests and experiences on the production of knowledge. This understanding avoids dubious claims about feminine cognitive differences and enables feminist research in various disciplines to pose deep internal critiques of mainstream research.
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  15. Elizabeth Anderson (1995). Knowledge, Human Interests, and Objectivity in Feminist Epistemology. Philosophical Topics 23 (2):27-58.
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  16. Louise M. Antony (2000). Situating Feminist Epistemology. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2000:31-40.
    I understand feminist epistemology to be epistemology put at the service of feminist politics. That is, a feminist epistemology is dedicated to answering the many questions about knowledge that arise in the course of feminist efforts to understand and transform patriarchal structures, questions such as: Why have so many intellectual traditions denigrated the cognitive capacities of women? Are there gender differences in epistemic capacities or strategies, and what would be the implications for epistemology if there were? I argue here that (...)
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  17. Louise M. Antony (1995). Symposium: Feminist Epistemology: Comment on Naomi Scheman. Metaphilosophy 26 (3):191-198.
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  18. Louise M. Antony & Charlotte Witt (eds.) (2002). A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity. Westview Press.
    A book of tremendous influence when it first appeared, A Mind of One's Own reminded readers that the tradition of Western philosophy-- in particular, the ideals of reason and objectivity-- has come down to us from white males, nearly all of whom are demonstrably sexist, even misogynist. In this second edition, the original authors continue to ask, What are the implications of this fact for contemporary feminists working within this tradition? The second edition pursues this question about the value of (...)
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  19. Y. A. P. Audrey (2010). Feminism and Carnap's Principle of Tolerance. Hypatia 25 (2):437-454.
    The logical empiricists often appear as a foil for feminist theories. Their emphasis on the individualistic nature of knowledge and on the value-neutrality of science seems directly opposed to most feminist concerns. However, several recent works have highlighted aspects of Carnap's views that make him seem like much less of a straightforwardly positivist thinker. Certain of these aspects lend themselves to feminist concerns much more than the stereotypical picture would imply.
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  20. Guy Axtell, (2011) Responsibilism: A Proposed Shared Research Program.
    Originally titled “Institutional, Group, and Individual Virtue,” this was my paper for an Invited Symposium on "Intersections between Social, Feminist, and Virtue Epistemologies," APA Pacific Division Meeting, April 2011, San Diego. -/- Abstract: This paper examines recent research on individual, social, and institutional virtues and vices; the aim is to explore and make proposals concerning their inter-relationships, as well as to highlight central questions for future research with the study of each. More specifically, the paper will focus on how these (...)
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  21. Susan Babbitt (2006). Book Review: Shari Stone-Mediatore. Reading Across Borders: Storytelling and Knowledges of Resistance. Newyork: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. [REVIEW] Hypatia 21 (3):203-206.
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  22. Susan E. Babbitt (2006). Reading Across Borders: Storytelling and Knowledges of Resistance (Review). Hypatia 21 (3):203-206.
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  23. Susan E. Babbitt (1994). Identity, Knowledge, and Toni Morrison's "Beloved": Questions About Understanding Racism. Hypatia 9 (3):1 - 18.
    In discussing Drucilla Cornell's remarks about Toni Morrison's Beloved, I consider epistemological questions raised by the acquiring of understanding of racism, particularly the deep-rooted racism embodied in social norms and values. I suggest that questions about understanding racism are, in part, questions about personal and political identities and that questions about personal and political identities are often, importantly, epistemological questions.
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  24. Harriet Baber (1994). The Market for Feminist Epistemology. The Monist 77 (4):403-423.
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  25. Alison Bailey (2010). On Intersectionality and the Whiteness of Feminist Philosophy. In George Yancy (ed.), THE CENTER MUST NOT HOLD: WHITE WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS ON THE WHITENESS OF PHILOSOPHY. Lexington Books.
    In this paper I explore some possible reasons why white feminists philosophers have failed to engage the radical work being done by non-Western women, U.S. women of color and scholars of color outside of the discipline. -/- Feminism and academic philosophy have had lots to say to one another. Yet part of what marks feminist philosophy as philosophy is our engagement with the intellectual traditions of the white forefathers. I’m not uncomfortable with these projects: Aristotle, Foucault, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Quine, Austin, (...)
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  26. Alison Bailey (2007). Strategic Ignorance. In Shannon Sullivan & Nancy Tuana (eds.), Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance. State Univ of New York Pr. 77--94.
    I want to explore strategic expressions of ignorance against the background of Charles W. Mills's account of epistemologies of ignorance in The Racial Contract (1997). My project has two interrelated goals. I want to show how Mills's discussion is restricted by his decision to frame ignorance within the language and logic of social contract theory. And, I want to explain why Maria Lugones's work on purity is useful in reframing ignorance in ways that both expand our understandings of ignorance and (...)
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  27. Alison Bailey (1998). Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a Theory of White Character Formation. Hypatia 13 (3).
    This essay explores how the social location of white traitorous identities might be understood. I begin by examining some of the problematic implications of Sandra Harding's standpoint framework description of race traitors as 'becoming marginal.' I argue that the location of white traitors might be better understood in terms of their 'decentering the center.' I distinguish between 'privilege-cognizant' and 'privilege-evasive' white scripts. Drawing on the work of Marilyn Frye and Anne Braden, I offer an account of the contrasting perceptions and (...)
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  28. Alison Bailey (1995). Mothering, Diversity and Peace: Comments on Sara Ruddick's Feminist Maternal Peace Politics. Journal of Social Philosophy 26 (1):162-182.
    Sara Ruddick's contemporary philosophical account of mothering reconsiders the maternal arguments used in the women's peace movements of the earlier part of this century. The culmination of this project is her 1989 book, Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. Ruddick's project is ground-breaking work in both academic philosophy and feminist theory. -/- In this chapter, I first look at the relationship between the two basic components of Ruddick's argument in Maternal Thinking: the "practicalist conception of truth" (PCT) and feminist (...)
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  29. Kelly H. Ball (2013). &Quot;more or Less Raped&Quot;: Foucault, Causality, and Feminist Critiques of Sexual Violence. Philosophia 3 (1):14.
  30. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2007). Some Suggestions for Developing an Africanist Phenomenological Philosophy of Science. In M. P. Banchetti-Robino & C. Headley (eds.), Shifting the Geography of Reason: Gender, Science and Religion. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  31. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino & Clevis Headley (eds.) (2007). Shifting the Geography of Reason: Gender, Science and Religion. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  32. Karen Barad (2006). Posthumanist Performativity : Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter. In Deborah Orr (ed.), Belief, Bodies, and Being: Feminist Reflections on Embodiment. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  33. Drucilla K. Barker (1998). Dualisms, Discourse, and Development. [REVIEW] Hypatia 13 (3):83 - 94.
    This essay reviews a body of literature on feminism, development, and knowledge construction. This literature rejects essentialist constructions of women, challenges the universality of the Western scientific method, and creates a discursive space for reconstructing the dualisms embedded in the modern worldview. It suggests that an understanding of knowledge systems other than the modern one can aid us in constructing epistemologies that result in less dominating ways of producing knowledge.
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  34. Ingrid Bartsch (2005). Is Science Multicultural? Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies (Review). Hypatia 14 (1):132-135.
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  35. David Basinger (1992). Feminism and Epistemology. Journal of Philosophical Research 17:29-37.
    There have been many calls recently for philosophers to rethink what philosophy is and how it should be practiced. Among the most vocal critics is an influential group of feminist philosophers who argue that since current philosophical activity is based primarily on a conception of reason that is both inherently inadequate and oppressive to women, it is imperative that our understanding of the nature and practice of philosophy be significantly modified. I argue that this criticism is fundamentally misguided. Specifically, it (...)
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  36. Nancy Bauer (1999; rpt 2004). First Philosophy, The Second Sex, and the Third Wave. In Raynova Yvanka & Moser Susanne (eds.), Simone de Beauvoir: 50 Jahre nach dem Anderen Geschlecht. Peter Lang.
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  37. How Ecological Should Epistemology Be (2008). Richmond Campbell. Hypatia 23 (1-2):161.
  38. Lisa A. Bergin (2002). Testimony, Epistemic Difference, and Privilege: How Feminist Epistemology Can Improve Our Understanding of the Communication of Knowledge. Social Epistemology 16 (3):197 – 213.
  39. Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Maibom (2012). Introduction. In Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Lene Maibom (eds.), Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
  40. Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Lene Maibom (eds.) (2012). Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
  41. Jane Braaten (1990). Towards a Feminist Reassessment of Intellectual Virtue. Hypatia 5 (3):1 - 14.
    This paper presents an argument for reconceptualizing (human) intelligence as intellectual virtue, and makes some proposals as to how we would understand intellectual virtue if feminist values were taken into account. Several abilities are identified which are closely connected to one aim that is common to most feminists: the building of communities in which well-being is possible.
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  42. Peggy Zeglin Brand (2006). Feminist Art Epistemologies: Understanding Feminist Art. Hypatia 21 (3):166-189.
    : Feminist art epistemologies (FAEs) greatly aid the understanding of feminist art, particularly when they serve to illuminate the hidden meanings of an artist's intent. The success of parodic imagery produced by feminist artists (feminist visual parodies, FVPs) necessarily depends upon a viewer's recognition of the original work of art created by a male artist and the realization of the parodist's intent to ridicule and satirize. As Brand shows in this essay, such recognition and realization constitute the knowledge of a (...)
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  43. Evelyn Brister (2009). Feminist Epistemology, Contextualism, and Philosophical Skepticism. Metaphilosophy 40 (5):671-688.
    Abstract: This essay explores the relation between feminist epistemology and the problem of philosophical skepticism. Even though feminist epistemology has not typically focused on skepticism as a problem, I argue that a feminist contextualist epistemology may solve many of the difficulties facing recent contextualist responses to skepticism. Philosophical skepticism appears to succeed in casting doubt on the very possibility of knowledge by shifting our attention to abnormal contexts. I argue that this shift in context constitutes an attempt to exercise unearned (...)
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  44. Ann Brooks (1997). Postfeminisms: Feminism, Cultural Theory, and Cultural Forms. Routledge.
    Once seen as synonymous with "anti-feminism" postfeminism is now understood as the theoretical meeting ground between feminism and anti-foundationalist movements such as postmodernism, post-structuralism and post-colonialsm. In this clear exposition of some of the major debates, theorists and practitioners, Ann Brooks shows how feminism is being redefined for the twenty first century. Individual chapters look at postfeminism in relation to feminist epistemology, Foucault, psychoanalytic theory and semiology, postmodernism and postcolonialism, cultural politics, popular culture, film and media, and sexuality and identity. (...)
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  45. Eloise A. Buker (1990). Feminist Social Theory and Hermeneutics: An Empowering Dialectic? Social Epistemology 4 (1):23 – 39.
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  46. Judith Butler (1991). Response. Social Epistemology 5 (4):345 – 348.
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  47. William Cain & Ellen Messer-Davidow (1990). Dialogue on Feminism and Academic Change. Social Epistemology 4 (1):41 – 55.
  48. W. Scott Cameron (2005). The Genesis and Justification of Feminist Standpoit Theory in Hegel and Lukacs. Dialogue and Universalism 15 (3-4):19-42.
  49. Kirsten Campbell (2004). Jacques Lacan and Feminist Epistemology. Routledge.
    In this ground breaking new book, Kirsten Campbell takes up the debate, but instead of asking what feminist politics is or should be, she examines how feminism changes the ways we understand ourselves and others. Using Lacanian psychoanalysis as a starting point, Campbell examines contemporary feminism's turn to accounts of feminist "knowing" to create new conceptions of the political, before going on to develop a theory of that feminist knowing as political practice in itself.
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  50. Richmond Campbell (1994). The Virtues of Feminist Empiricism. Hypatia 9 (1):90 - 115.
    Despite the emergence of new forms of feminist empiricism, there continues to be resistance to the idea that feminist political commitment can be integral to hypothesis testing in science when that process adheres strictly to empiricist norms and is grounded in a realist conception of objectivity. I explore the virtues of such feminist empiricism, arguing that the resistance is, in large part, due to the lingering effects of positivism.
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