About this topic
Summary Feminist ethics covers a range of gender-specific social justice and moral questions.  This sub-discipline is concerned with the values and virtues of both the individual and the community via feminist and woman-centered approaches and responses to mainstream ethics and moral theory, especially liberalism and communitarianism.  More specifically, feminist ethics spans traditional ethics and political philosophy, the public and private domains, and individual vs. community analyses to demonstrate the extent and importance of private values in the public sphere and vice versa.  Additionally, this field aims to highlight deficiencies in philosophies (potentially, conceivably, explicitly) connected to matters of justice due to theoretical and practical gender-based exclusion.  One core goal of this sub-discipline is to broaden philosophical inclusiveness beyond gender concerns by paying attention to and emphasizing issues related to privilege, power, and intersectionality. 
Key works There are a number of anthologies that best represent the contemporary research in Feminist Ethics.  See: Calhoun 2004 (Setting the Moral Compass: Essays by Women Philosophers), DesAutels & Waugh 2001 (Feminists Doing Ethics), Meyers 1997 (Feminists Rethink the Self), Calhoun 2006 (Moral Psychology: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory), and Bushnell et al 1995 (Nagging Questions).  Divergent canonical texts include Walker 2007, Anderson 1999, Held 2006, Lugones 1987, and Narayan 1995.
Introductions Lindemann 2005 (An Invitation to Feminist Ethics); Card 1999 (Feminist Ethics and Politics); Wisnant et al 2010 (Global Feminist Ethics).
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  1. Richard F. . Storrow (2011). The Ethics of Exclusion in Infertility Care. Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 2 (4).
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  2. Julia J. Aaron (2004). Recent Contributions to Feminist Ethics. Hypatia 19 (2):201-208.
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  3. Julia J. Aaron (2004). Book Review: Elizabeth Porter. Recent Contributions to Feminist Ethics: A Review of Feminist Perspectives on Ethics Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, 1999); James Sterba. Three Challenges to Ethics; and Janna Thompson. Discourse and Knowledge. [REVIEW] Hypatia 19 (2):201-208.
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  4. Teresa Abada & Eric Y. Tenkorang (2012). Women's Autonomy and Unintended Pregnancies in the Philippines. Journal of Biosocial Science 44 (6):703-718.
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  5. Ruth Abbey (1996). Beyond Misogyny and Metaphor: Women in Nietzsche's Middle Period. Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (2):233-256.
    This article proposes a third way of reading Nietzsche's remarks on women, one that goes beyond misogyny and metaphor. Taking the depiction of women in the works of the middle period at face value shows that these works neither entirely demean women nor exclude them from the higher life. Nietzsche's middle period comprises HAH (1879-80, which includes "Assorted Opinions and Maxims" and "The Wanderer and His Shadow"), D (1881) and GS (1882). The works of this period do not disqualify women (...)
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  6. Pamela Abbott & Claire Wallace (eds.) (1991). Gender, Power, and Sexuality. Macmillan.
  7. Emily Abel (1981). Collective Protest and the Meritocracy: Faculty Women and Sex Discrimination. Feminist Studies 7 (3):505.
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  8. Richard Abels & Ellen Harrison (1979). The Participation of Women in Languedocian Catharism. Mediaeval Studies 41 (1):215-251.
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  9. Berit Åberg (2008). Explanations of Internal Sex Segregation in a Male Dominated Profession : The Police Force. In Anna G. Jónasdóttir & Kathleen B. Jones (eds.), The Political Interests of Gender Revisited: Redoing Theory and Research with a Feminist Face. United Nations University Press.
  10. Tineke A. Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Guy Am Widdershoven, Minke Goldsteen & Marian A. Verkerk (2005). Two Women with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers: Conflicting Normative Expectations. Nursing Ethics 12 (5):479-492.
    It is not uncommon that nurses are unable to meet the normative expectations of chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate Walker’s expressive-collaborative view of morality to interpret the normative expectations of two women with multiple sclerosis. Both women present themselves as autonomous persons who make their own choices, but who also have to rely on others for many aspects of their lives, for example, to find a new balance between work and social contacts (...)
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  11. Lynn Abrams & Elizabeth Harvey (1996). Gender Relations in German History Power, Agency and Experience From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century.
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  12. Marisa Maqueda Abreu, Is Criminal Law a Solution to Violence Against Women?
    This article analises the powerful influence of the feminist thought during the long period of criminal reforms iniciated in Spain in the late 80s and still going on today. The complexity and diversity of points of view inside the feminist movement have contributed to a deep debate on the suitability of criminal law for offering solutions to the violence suffered by women. The perverse effects generated by the growing complicity of a certain feminist sector with the governmental powers, in a (...)
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  13. Martha Ackelsberg (2005). Women's Community Activism and the Rejection of 'Politics': Some Dilemmas of Popular Democratic Movements. In Marilyn Friedman (ed.), Women and Citizenship. Oup Usa. 67--90.
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  14. Martha Ackelsberg (2001). Conceiving Politics? Women's Activism And DemocracyIn A Time Of Retrenchment. Feminist Studies 27:391-418.
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  15. Denise Ackerman & Catholic Institute for International Relations (2002). Tamar's Cry Re-Reading an Ancient Text in the Midst of an Hiv/Aids Pandemic. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  16. Felicia Ackerman (2002). "Always to Do Ladies, Damosels, and Gentlewomen Succour": Women and the Chivalric Code in Malory's Morte Darthur. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 26 (1):1–12.
    I am indebted to many people, especially Dorsey Armstrong, Shannon French, and Kenneth Hodges, for helpful discussions of this material. An early version of this essay was read at the Thirty-Sixth International Congress on Medieval Studies.This essay is dedicated to the glorious memory of Nina Lindsey.
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  17. Timothy Adair (2008). HIV Status and Age at First Marriage Among Women in Cameroon. Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (5):743-760.
    Summary Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20–29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital (...)
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  18. Alison Adam (2002). Gender/Body/Machine. Ratio 15 (4):354–375.
    This article considers the question of embodiment in relation to gender and whether there are models of artificial intelligence (AI) which can enrol a concept of gender in their design. A central concern for feminist epistemology is the role of the body in the making of knowledge. I consider how this may inform a critique of the AI project and the related area of artificial life (A-Life), the latter area being of most interest in this paper. I explore briefly the (...)
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  19. Alison Adam (2002). Cyberstalking and Internet Pornography: Gender and the Gaze. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 4 (2):133-142.
    This paper is based on the premise that the analysis of some cyberethics problems would benefit from a feminist treatment. It is argued that both cyberstalking and Internet child pornography are two such areas which have a `gendered' aspect which has rarely been explored in the literature. Against a wide ranging feminist literature of potential relevance, the paper explores a number of cases through a focused approach which weaves together feminist concepts of privacy and the gaze.
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  20. Alison Adam (2000). Deleting the Subject: A Feminist Reading of Epistemology in Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 10 (2):231-253.
    This paper argues that AI follows classical versions of epistemology in assuming that the identity of the knowing subject is not important. In other words this serves to `delete the subject''. This disguises an implicit hierarchy of knowers involved in the representation of knowledge in AI which privileges the perspective of those who design and build the systems over alternative perspectives. The privileged position reflects Western, professional masculinity. Alternative perspectives, denied a voice, belong to less powerful groups including women. Feminist (...)
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  21. Alison Adam & Jacqueline Ofori-Amanfo (2000). Does Gender Matter in Computer Ethics? Ethics and Information Technology 2 (1):37-47.
  22. Carol J. Adams (1994). Bringing Peace Home: A Feminist Philosophical Perspective on the Abuse of Women, Children, and Pet Animals. Hypatia 9 (2):63 - 84.
    In this essay, I connect the sexual victimization of women, children, and pet animals with the violence manifest in a patriarchal culture. After discussing these connections, I demonstrate the importance of taking seriously these connections because of their implications for conceptual analysis, epistemology, and political, environmental, and applied philosophy. My goal is to broaden our understanding of issues relevant to creating peace and to provide some suggestions about what must be included in any adequate feminist peace politics.
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  23. Carol J. Adams (1994). Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum.
    In just a few years, the book became an underground classic. Neither Man Nor Beast takes Adams' thought one step further.
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  24. Jane Adams (1995). Individualism, Efficiency, and Domesticity: Ideological Aspects of the Exploitation of Farm Families and Farm Women. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (4):2-17.
    A complex conjuncture of ideological constructions obscured and rationalized the systematic exploitation of farm women. First, farming and homemaking, to which people cling in an attempt to avert the alienation of wage labor, provide a basis for evaluating one's labor in terms that, ironically, makes them vulnerable to super-exploitation. Second, agrarian ideologies, with their strongly patriarchal bias, did not allow women to understand themselves as public actors. Modernizing elite ideologies, specifically the equation of entrepreneurial individualism and efficiency with “progress” and (...)
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  25. Nancy Adamson, Linda Briskin & Margaret Mcphail (1988). Feminist Organizing for Change the Contemporary Women's Movement in Canada. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  26. Ronald Aday & Lori Farney (2014). Malign Neglect: Assessing Older Women's Health Care Experiences in Prison. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (3):359-372.
    The problem of providing mandated medical care has become commonplace as correctional systems in the United States struggle to manage unprecedented increases in its aging prison population. This study explores older incarcerated women’s perceptions of prison health care policies and their day-to-day survival experiences. Aggregate data obtained from a sample of 327 older women (mean age = 56) residing in prison facilities in five Southern states were used to identify a baseline of health conditions and needs for this vulnerable group. (...)
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  27. Kathryn Pyne Addelson (1994). Moral Passages: Toward a Collectivist Moral Theory. Routledge.
    In Moral Passages, Kathryn Pyne Addelson presents an original moral theory suited for contemporary life and its moral problems. Her basic principle is that knowledge and morality are generated in collective action, and she develops it through a critical examination of theories in philosophy, sociology and women's studies, most of which hide the collective nature and as a result hide the lives and knowledge of many people. At issue are the questions of what morality is, and how moral theories (whether (...)
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  28. Kathryn Pyne Addelson (1991). Impure Thoughts: Essays on Philosophy, Feminism, & Ethics. Temple University Press.
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  29. Naomi Adelson (2008). Discourses of Stress, Social Inequities, and the Everyday Worlds of First Nations Women in a Remote Northern Canadian Community. Ethos 36 (3):316-333.
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  30. Oluwaseun Adeola Adenugba (2012). Transcending Gender and Sex: Ethical Implications for Identities, Ambiguities and Interrelations. Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 3 (1).
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  31. Peter Adey (2012). Claudia Aradau and Rens Van Munster, Politics of Catastrophe: Genealogies of the Unknown. Radical Philosophy 176:53.
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  32. Michael Bamidele Adeyemi & Richard Tabulawa (1993). AIDS and Related Issues: The Views of Junior Secondary Teachers in Botswana. Educational Studies 19 (2):227-234.
    Two hundred and four teachers responded to a questionnaire which sought information on their support, or not, for the teaching of AIDS‐related topics in schools, the isolation of AIDS‐infected students from schools, and their preference for three AIDS prevention messages as prepared by the Botswana Ministry of Health. Results indicated that the vast majority of the teachers favoured the teaching of AIDS‐related topics to students and the use of condoms while all of them frowned at the isolation of AIDS‐infected students (...)
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  33. Jonathan E. Adler (1989). Particullary, Gilligan, and the Two-Levels View: A Reply. Ethics 100 (1):149-156.
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  34. Sarah Adler-Milstein (2010). Women and the Apparel Industry in the Dominican Republic. Clr James Journal 16 (1):203-227.
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  35. Gwen Adshead (2011). Same but Different: Constructions of Female Violence in Forensic Mental Health. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (1):41-68.
    We are more alike than we are different.In male prisons, the agency and antisocial mindset of violent offenders is taken seriously in the pursuit of rehabilitation. Male offenders are expected to own full agency for their cruelty and violence to others, and to explore it in supported rehabilitative group-work programs. Such programs have been shown to be highly effective for some offenders and relate to a process of engaging with a new pro-social identity and taking responsibility for leading a "good (...)
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  36. Haleh Afshar (1998). Islam and Feminisms an Iranian Case-Study. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  37. Bina Agarwal (1992). Gender and the Environment: Lessons From India. Feminist Studies 18:138.
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  38. Bina Agarwal (1992). The Gender and Environment Debate: Lessons From India. Feminist Studies 18 (1):119.
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  39. Vijay Agnew (1996). Resisting Discrimination Women From Asia, Africa and the Caribbean and the Women's Movement in Canada. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  40. Leila Ahmed (1992). Women and Gender in Islam Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  41. Sherry Ahrentzen (1997). The Meaning of Home Workplaces for Women. In John Paul Jones, Heidi J. Nast & Susan M. Roberts (eds.), Thresholds in Feminist Geography: Difference, Methodology, and Representation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 77--92.
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  42. Sarah Jane Aiston (2011). Equality, Justice and Gender: Barriers to the Ethical University for Women. Ethics and Education 6 (3):279 - 291.
    Academic women experience working in higher education differently to their male counterparts. This article argues that the unequal position of women academics is unethical, irrespective of whether one takes a consequentialist or deontological ethical position. By drawing on a range of international studies, the article explores the reasons for this inequity, suggesting that the ?cult of individual responsibility?, the positioning of women academics as ?other? and the impact of having a family are significant factors. Having identified the reasons why university (...)
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  43. Ramin Akbari & Leila Tajik (2012). Second-Language Teachers' Moral Knowledge Base: A Comparison Between Experienced and Less Experienced, Male and Female Practitioners. Journal of Moral Education 41 (1):39-59.
    The second-language teacher education community has become increasingly interested in the moral dimensions of teaching. Herein ELT practitioners? ?moral knowledge base?, as a window into their mental lives, has not received the attention it deserves. The present study was conducted to document likely differences between the frequencies of pedagogical and moral thought units of male and female, experienced and less experienced teachers, and to look deeply into participants? moral thought categories. Forty teachers participated in the project. Data were collected through (...)
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  44. Suzanne Akbari (2008). Troubled Vision: Gender, Sexuality, and Sight in Medieval Text and Image. [REVIEW] The Medieval Review 4.
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  45. Supriya Akerkar (1995). Theory and Practice of Women's Movement in India a Discourse Analysis. Institute of Social Studies.
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  46. Don Akhilomen & Idjakpo Onos Godwin (2011). Gender Inequality and the Scourge of Hiv/Aids the Bahai Religio-Philosophical Solution. Journal of Dharma 36 (4):367-382.
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  47. Nadje Sadig Al-ali (2000). Secularism, Gender and the State in the Middle East the Egyptian Women's Movement. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  48. Nadje Sadig Al-ali & United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (2002). The Women's Movement in Egypt, with Selected References to Turkey. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
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  49. Ihsan Al-Issa (1980). The Psychopathology of Women. Prentice-Hall.
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  50. Alia Al-Saji (2010). The Racialization of Muslim Veils: A Philosophical Analysis. Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (8):875-902.
    This article goes behind stereotypes of Muslim veiling to ask after the representational structure underlying these images. I examine the public debate leading to the 2004 French law banning conspicuous religious signs in schools and French colonial attitudes to veiling in Algeria, in conjunction with discourses on the veil that have arisen in other western contexts. My argument is that western perceptions and representations of veiled Muslim women are not simply about Muslim women themselves. Rather than representing Muslim women, these (...)
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