About this topic
Summary

Feminist philosophy both critiques and contributes to all fields of philosophy. It has moved beyond its original insight that gendered power deeply colors the methods and substance of philosophy.  Today feminist philosophers construct work that builds on an understanding of power, privilege and oppression in the complex relationships among gender, race, sexuality, class/caste, ability, nation, age, and coloniality.  Thus, the field is in a good position to assist any philosopher in understanding that power, privilege, and social identities are philosophically important and impact the ways we do ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, politics, or any other field of philosophy.

Key works

Key work in feminist philosophy has been done in virtually all areas of philosophy. Please see individual subcategory entries  under "Feminist Philosophy" for key works by area and topic.

Introductions

The following collections offer concise overviews of different subfields and topics in feminist philosophy: Alcoff & Kittay 2007 (The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy); Fricker & Hornsby 2000 (The Cambridge Companion to Feminism and Philosophy); Jaggar & Young 1998 (A Companion to Feminist Philosophy);  and Stone 2007 (An Introduction to Feminist Philosophy).

Additional anthologies and collections of key readings include: Cudd & Andreasen 2005 (Feminist Theory: A Philosophical Anthology); Hackett & Haslanger 2006 (Theorizing Feminisms); Bailey & Cuomo 2008 (The Feminist Philosophy Reader); and Guy-Sheftal 1995 (Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought).

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History/traditions: Feminist Philosophy
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  1. Christa Davis Acampora (2003). Body Talk: Philosophical Reflections on Sex and Gender (Review). Hypatia 18 (3):212-215.
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  2. Brooke Ackerly, Alison Ainley, Linda Alcoff, Ellen Armour, Stella Gonzalez Arnal, Margaret Atherton, Amy Baehr, Bat-Ami Bar On, Robert Bernasconi & Carol Bigwood (forthcoming). Thanks to Reviewers 2006. Hypatia.
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  3. David M. Adams (2002). Families: Law, Gender and Difference. Hypatia 17 (3):254-256.
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  4. David M. Adams (2002). Review: Families: Law, Gender and Difference. [REVIEW] Hypatia 17 (3):254 - 256.
  5. Katherine H. Adams (2002). At the Table with Arendt: Toward a Self-Interested Practice of Coalition Discourse. Hypatia 17 (1):1-33.
    : This article draws from Hannah Arendt's theory of "inter-est" to formulate a model of coalition discourse that can coarticulate difference and commonality and approach them as mutually nourishing conditions rather than as polarities. By disrupting the normative fantasies of unified, a priori subjectivity and universal truth, interest-based discourse facilitates political interactions that neither rely on sameness nor reify difference to the exclusion of connection.
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  6. Kathryn Pyne Addelson (1994). Feminist Philosophy and the Women's Movement. Hypatia 9 (3):216 - 224.
    Feminist philosophy is now an established subdiscipline, but it began as an effort to transform the profession. Academics and activists worked together to make the new courses, and feminist theory was tested in the streets. As time passed, the "second wave" receded, but core elements of feminist theory were preserved in the academy. How can feminist philosophers today continue the early efforts of changing profession and the society, hand in hand with women outside the academy.
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  7. Liane Aiwanger (2002). Feministische Philosophie in Spanien. Die Philosophin 13 (26):116-121.
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  8. Liane Aiwanger & Susanna Jäger (2009). Rethinking University-Ergebnisse der Internationalen Frauenuniversität. Die Philosophin 13 (26):116 - 121.
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  9. Linda Alcoff (1987). Justifying Feminist Social Science. Hypatia 2 (3):107 - 127.
    In this paper I set out the problem of feminist social science as the need to explain and justify its method of theory choice in relation to both its own theories and those of androcentric social science. In doing this, it needs to avoid both a positivism which denies the impact of values on scientific theory-choice and a radical relativism which undercuts the emancipatory potential of feminist research. From the relevant literature I offer two possible solutions: the Holistic and the (...)
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  10. Natalie Alexander (1992). Piecings From a Second Reader. Hypatia 7 (2):177-187.
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  11. Tangren Alexander (1992). Lesbian Slip. Hypatia 7 (4):14-30.
  12. Amy Allen (2008). Power and the Politics of Difference: Oppression, Empowerment, and Transnational Justice. Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 156-172.
    This paper examines Young’s conception of power, arguing that it is incomplete, in at least two ways. First, Young tends to equate the term power with the narrower notions of ‘oppression’ and ‘domination’. Thus, Young lacks a satisfactory analysis of individual and collective empowerment. Second, as Young herself admits, it is not obvious that her analysis of power can be useful in the context of thinking about transnational justice. Allen concludes by considering one way in which Young’s analysis of power (...)
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  13. Amy Allen (2007). The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents, and Citizens (Review). Hypatia 22 (2):200-204.
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  14. Amy Allen (1998). Rethinking Power. Hypatia 13 (1):21 - 40.
    This paper argues that feminists have yet to develop a satisfactory account of power. Existing feminist accounts of power tend to have a one-sided emphasis either on power as domination or on power as empowerment. This conceptual one-sided-ness must be overcome if feminists are to develop an account complex enough to illuminate women's diverse experiences with power. Such an account is sketched here.
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  15. Anita L. Allen (2009). The Poetry of Genetics: On the Pitfalls of Popularizing Science. Hypatia 24 (4):247 - 257.
    The role genetic inheritance plays in the way human beings look and behave is a question about the biology of human sexual reproduction, one that scientists connected with the Human Genome Project dashed to answer before the close of the twentieth century. This is also a question about politics, and, it turns out, poetry, because, as the example of Lucretius shows, poetry is an ancient tool for the popularization of science. "Popularization" is a good word for successful efforts to communicate (...)
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  16. Jeffner Allen (1988). Poetic Politics: How the Amazons Took the Acropolis. Hypatia 3 (2):107 - 122.
    This paper explores the poetic politics of lesbian and feminist writing, the textual violence that writing exercises and the amazon intertext it creates. In this particular essay, Jeffner Allen takes as her point of departure the writing of Hélène Cixous and Monique Wittig.
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  17. Paul Amar (forthcoming). Inverting Agamben: Gendered Popular Sovereignty and the |[Lsquo]|Natasha Wars|[Rsquo]| of Cairo. Contemporary Political Theory.
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  18. Celia Amorós, Ana Uriarte & Linda López McAlister (1994). Cartesianism and Feminism. What Reason Has Forgotten; Reasons for Forgetting. Hypatia 9 (1):147 - 163.
    This paper recovers and pays homage to the arguments in support of the equality of the sexes developed by the Seventeenth Century Cartesian philosopher François Poullain de la Barre (1647-1723).
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  19. Elizabeth Anderson (2009). Toward a Non-Ideal, Relational Methodology for Political Philosophy: Comments on Schwartzman's "Challenging Liberalism". Hypatia 24 (4):130 - 145.
  20. Judith Andre (2008). Burdened Virtues Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles (Review). Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 193-196.
  21. Barbara S. Andrew (2001). Identity Without Selfhood: Bisexuality and Simone de Beauvoir (Review). Hypatia 16 (3):161-163.
  22. Evelyn Annuß (1998). Judith Butler: Exitable Speech/The Psychic Life of Power. Die Philosophin 21:84-90.
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  23. Anna Antonopoulos (1991). Writing the Mystic Body: Sexuality and Textuality in the Écriture-Féminine of Saint Catherine of Genoa. Hypatia 6 (3):185 - 207.
    This paper looks to evolve a discourse about the body in medieval women's mystical experience via an understanding of the life and work of Saint Catherine of Genoa as écriture-féminine. Drawing upon Catherine's resolution of binarism through the articulation of sexuality and textuality, I argue that the female mystic's experience of the body as site of struggle helps move beyond analysis of a binary experience to a politics of speaking the body directly.
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  24. Louise M. Antony (1995). Is Psychological Individualism a Piece of Ideology? Hypatia 10 (3):157 - 174.
    I analyze and criticize Naomi Scheman's argument for the claim that psychological individualism-the thesis that psychological states are entities or particulars over which psychological theories may quantify-has no legitimate philosophical backing and is instead an element of patriarchal ideology. I conclude that Scheman's argument is flawed and that her thesis is false. Psychological individualism is perfectly compatible with and may even be required by feminist political theory.
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  25. Ann Ardis (1992). Presence of Mind, Presence of Body: Embodying Positionality in the Classroom. Hypatia 7 (2):167 - 176.
    This essay focuses on how we embody the language we speak: how an audience "reads" the body of a speaker as it both constructs the positionality of that speaking subject and construes that subject's discursive authority. Building on the work of Linda Brodkey and Michelle Fine, I explore what is at stake when university students harass a faculty member by accusing that teacher of not embodying authority in the proper form (body).
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  26. Katherine Arens (1995). Between Hypatia and Beauvoir: Philosophy as Discourse. Hypatia 10 (4):46 - 75.
    Two studies of women in philosophy, Michéle Le Doeuff's biography of Simone de Beauvoir Hipparchia's Choice (1991) and Fritz Mauthner's historical novel Hypatia (1892), question what kind of power and authority are available to philosophers. Mauthner's philosophy of language expands on Le Doeuff to outline how philosophy acts parallel to other sociohistorical discourses, relying on public consensus and on the negotiation of stereotypes to create a viable speaking subject for the female philosopher.
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  27. Fidelma Ashe (2006). The Virgin Mary Complex: Feminism and Northern Ireland Politics. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 9 (4):147-164.
  28. Maternal Moral Authority (2008). Soran reader. Hypatia 23 (1-2):132.
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  29. Maryann Ayim (1991). In Praise of Clutter as a Necessary Part of the Feminist Perspective. Hypatia 6 (2):211 - 215.
    A comment on Susan Wendell's paper "Oppression and Victimization; Choice and Responsibility" that appeared in Hypatia 5(3).
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  30. Kathleen B. Jones (1997). Introduction. Hypatia 12 (4):1-5.
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  31. Susan Babbitt (2001). Book Review: Jerilyn Fisher and Ellen S. Silber. Analyzing the Different Voice: Feminist Psychological Theory and Literary Texts. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. [REVIEW] Hypatia 16 (1):91-94.
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  32. Susan E. Babbitt (2006). Reading Across Borders: Storytelling and Knowledges of Resistance (Review). Hypatia 21 (3):203-206.
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  33. Susan E. Babbitt (2003). Women and Autobiography (Review). Hypatia 18 (3):215-218.
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  34. Susan E. Babbitt (2001). Analyzing the Different Voice: Feminist Psychological Theory and Literary Texts (Review). Hypatia 16 (1):91-94.
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  35. Susan E. Babbitt (1994). Identity, Knowledge, and Toni Morrison's "Beloved": Questions About Understanding Racism. Hypatia 9 (3):1 - 18.
    In discussing Drucilla Cornell's remarks about Toni Morrison's Beloved, I consider epistemological questions raised by the acquiring of understanding of racism, particularly the deep-rooted racism embodied in social norms and values. I suggest that questions about understanding racism are, in part, questions about personal and political identities and that questions about personal and political identities are often, importantly, epistemological questions.
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  36. H. E. Baber (1987). What Women Want. Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (1):57-64.
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  37. Amy Baehr (2002). Women's Voices, Women's Rights: Oxford Amnesty Lectures 1996 (Review). Hypatia 17 (1):197-200.
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  38. Amy R. Baehr (2009). Conservatism, Feminism, and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. Hypatia 24 (2):101 - 124.
    This paper is a philosophical reconstruction of Elizabeth Fox-Genovese's thinking about women and feminism, and an inquiry into whether there is a conservative form of feminism. The paper argues that Fox-Genovese's endorsement of conventional social forms (like traditional marriage, motherhood, and sexual morality) contrasts strongly with feminism's criticism of these forms, and feminism's claim that they should be transformed. The paper concludes, however, that one need not call Fox-Genovese's thought "feminist" to recognize it as serious advocacy on behalf of women (...)
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  39. Amy R. Baehr (2003). A Feminist Liberal Approach to Hate Crime Legislation. Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (1):134–152.
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  40. Annette C. Baier (1995). A Note on Justice, Care, and Immigration Policy. Hypatia 10 (2):150 - 152.
    Should a "caring" immigration policy give special treatment to would-be immigrants who are near neighbors? It is argued that, while those on our borders requesting entry have some special claim, it should not drown out the claims of more distant applicants for citizenship.
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  41. Alison Bailey (2005). The Philosopher Queen: Feminist Essays on War, Love, and Knowledge (Review). Hypatia 20 (3):218-221.
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  42. Alison Bailey (1994). Mothering, Diversity, and Peace Politics. Hypatia 9 (2):188-198.
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  43. Cathryn Bailey (2009). Anna Julia Cooper, Visionary Black Feminist: A Critical Introduction. By VIVIAN M. MAY. Hypatia 24 (1):185-188.
  44. Cathryn Bailey (2009). Embracing the Icon: The Feminist Potential of the Trans Bodhisattva, Kuan Yin. Hypatia 24 (3):178 - 196.
    I explore how the Buddhist icon Kuan Yin is emerging as a point of identification for trans people and has the potential to resolve a tension within feminism. As a figure that slips past the male/female binary, Kuan Yin explodes the dichotomy between universal and particular in a way that captures the pragmatist and feminist emphasis on doing justice to concrete, particular lives without becoming stuck in an essentialist quagmire.
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  45. Gale S. Baker (1987). Is Equality Enough? Hypatia 2 (1):63 - 65.
    I am concerned that, in our quest to end discrimination, we as feminists may be concentrating too much on equality and ignoring more basic issues of social justice. I argue that we must not lose sight of where we as a society are going in the effort to make sure we all get there together. The primary goal, after all, is not simply for women to get what men have, but justice for all.
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  46. Isaac D. Balbus (2002). Having and Raising Children: Unconventional Families, Hard Choices, Social Good (Review). Hypatia 17 (2):162-165.
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  47. Bat-Ami Bar On (1996). Introduction. Hypatia 11 (4):1-4.
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  48. Bat‐ami Bar On (1994). Meditations on National Identity. Hypatia 9 (2):40-62.
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  49. Kerstin Barndt (1990). Feministische Theorie - Philosophie - Universität. Die Philosophin 1 (1):118-121.
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  50. Sandra Bartky (1993). Reply to Commentators on "Femininity and Domination". Hypatia 8 (1):192 - 196.
    Sandra Bartky's reply to the paper in the Symposium on her book Femininity and Domination.
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