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  1. Ernest Adams (1992). Formalizing the Logic of Positive, Comparative, and Superlative. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (1):90-99.
  2. Maria Aloni & Bruno Jacinto (2014). Knowing Who: How Perspectives and Contexts Interact. In Frank Lihoreau & Manuel Rebuschi (eds.), Epistemology, Context and Formalism. Synthese Library.
  3. Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete (2010). Approximating the Limit: The Interaction Between Quasi 'Almost' and Some Temporal Connectives in Italian. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (2):51 - 115.
    This paper focuses on the interpretation of the Italian approximative adverb quasi 'almost' by primarily looking at cases in which it modifies temporal connectives, a domain which, to our knowledge, has been largely unexplored thus far. Consideration of this domain supports the need for a scalar account of the semantics of quasi (close in spirit to Hitzeman's semantic analysis of almost, in: Canakis et al. (eds) Papers from the 28th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 1992). When paired with (...)
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  4. Scott AnderBois (2012). Focus and Uninformativity in Yucatec Maya Questions. Natural Language Semantics 20 (4):349-390.
    Crosslinguistically, questions frequently make crucial use of morphosyntactic elements which also occur outside of questions. Chief among these are focus, disjunctions, and wh-words with indefinite semantics. This paper provides a compositional account of the semantics of wh-, alternative, and polar questions in Yucatec Maya (YM), which are composed primarily of these elements. Key to the account is a theory of disjunctions and indefinites (extending work by others) which recognizes the inherently inquisitive nature of these elements. While disjunctions and indefinites are (...)
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  5. Gilad B. Avi & Yoad Winter (2003). Monotonicity and Collective Quantification. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):127--151.
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  6. John Bacon (1973). The Semantics of Generic The. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (3):323 - 339.
  7. Tista Bagchi, Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface.
    Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface Tista Bagchi National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (NISTADS) and the University of Delhi Since the proposal of Logical Form (LF) was put forward by Robert May in his 1977 MIT doctoral dissertation and was subsequently adopted into the overall architecture of language as conceived under Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981), there has been a steady research effort to determine the nature of LF in language in light of structurally (...)
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  8. David Beaver & Joey Frazee, Semantics.
    Semantics is concerned with meaning: what meanings are, how meanings are assigned to words, phrases and sentences of natural and formal languages, and how meanings can be combined and used for inference and reasoning. The goal of this chapter is to introduce computational linguists and computer scientists to the tools, methods, and concepts required to work on natural language semantics. Semantics, while often paired with pragmatics, is nominally distinct. On a traditional view, semantics concerns itself with the compositional buildup of (...)
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  9. Sigrid Beck (2012). DegP Scope Revisited. Natural Language Semantics 20 (3):227-272.
    The semantic literature takes degree operators like the comparative, but also measure phrases, the equative, the superlative and so on, to be quantifiers over degrees. This is well motivated by their semantic contribution, but leads one to expect far more scope interaction than is actually observed. This paper proposes an alternative-semantic analysis of certain degree constructions, in particular constructions with little and other negative antonyms. Restrictions on scope can then be explained as intervention effects.
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  10. Jill Beckman (ed.) (1997). Proceedings of NELS 26. GLSA, UMass Amhert.
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  11. I. Bellert (1989). Feature System for Quantification Structures in Natural Language. Foris Publications.
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  12. J. Bos & S. Pulman (eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics 9.
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  13. Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik (forthcoming). Interpreting Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  14. Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik (2011). Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences. In J. Bos & S. Pulman (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics 9.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  15. Alessandro Capone (2001). Review of Higginbotham, J., Pianesi, F. Varzi, A, a Cura di ‘Speaking of Events’. [REVIEW] Linguistics 39 (6):1179-1192.
    review of Higginbotham et al. Speaking of events.
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  16. Alessandro Capone (2001). Review of Higginbotham Ed. Speaking of Events. [REVIEW] Linguistics 39 (6): 1179–1192..
    review of Higginbotham et al. -/- A Davidsonian approach.
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  17. Nate Charlow (2010). Restricting and Embedding Imperatives. In M. Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. de Jager & K. Schulz (eds.), Logic, Language, and Meaning: Selected Papers from the 17th Amsterdam Colloquium. Springer.
    We use imperatives to refute a naïve analysis of update potentials (force-operators attaching to sentences), arguing for a dynamic analysis of imperative force as restrictable, directed, and embeddable. We propose a dynamic, non-modal analysis of conditional imperatives, as a counterpoint to static, modal analyses. Our analysis retains Kratzer's analysis of if-clauses as restrictors of some operator, but avoids typing it as a generalized quantifier over worlds (against her), instead as a dynamic force operator. Arguments for a restrictor treatment (but against (...)
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  18. Michael Clark (1984). Degrees of Comparison. Analysis 44 (4):178 - 180.
  19. John Corcoran (forthcoming). Tarski’s Convention T: Condition Beta. SOUTH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF LOGIC 1 (1).
    Tarski’s Convention T—presenting his notion of adequate definition of truth (sic)—contains two conditions: alpha and beta. Alpha requires that all instances of a certain T Schema be provable. Beta requires in effect the provability of ‘every truth is a sentence’. Beta formally recognizes the fact, repeatedly emphasized by Tarski, that sentences (devoid of free variable occurrences)—as opposed to pre-sentences (having free occurrences of variables)—exhaust the range of significance of is true. In Tarski’s preferred usage, it is part of the meaning (...)
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  20. M. J. Cresswell (1976). Formal Philosophy, Selected Papers of Richard Montague. Philosophia 6 (1):193-207.
  21. Guillermo Del Pinal (2015). Dual Content Semantics, Privative Adjectives and Dynamic Compositionality. Semantics and Pragmatics 8 (7):1-53.
    This paper defends the view that common nouns have a dual semantic structure that includes extension-determining and non-extension-determining components. I argue that the non-extension-determining components are part of linguistic meaning because they play a key compositional role in certain constructions, especially in privative noun phrases such as "fake gun" and "counterfeit document". Furthermore, I show that if we modify the compositional interpretation rules in certain simple ways, this dual content account of noun phrase modification can be implemented in a type-driven (...)
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  22. Fabio Del Prete (2014). The Interpretation of Indefinites in Future Tensed Sentences. A Novel Argument for the Modality of Will? In Mikhail Kissine, Philippe de Brabanter & Saghie Sharifzadeh (eds.), Oxford Studies of Time in Language and Thought.
    The chapter considers two semantic issues concerning will-sentences: Stalnaker’s Asymmetry and modal subordination in Karttunen-type discourses. The former points to a distinction between will and modal verbs, seeming to show that will does not license non-specific indefinites. The latter, conversely, suggests that will-sentences involve some kind of modality. To account for the data, the chapter proposes that will is semantically a tense, hence it doesn’t contribute a quantifier over modal alternatives; a modal feature, however, is introduced in the interpretation of (...)
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  23. Josh Dever (2012). Formal Semantics. In Manuel García-Carpintero & Max Kölbel (eds.), The Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Continuum International Pub..
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  24. Georg J. W. Dorn (1997). Deductive, Probabilistic and Inductive Dependence. An Axiomatic Study in Probability Semantics. Verlag Peter Lang.
    This work is in two parts. The main aim of part 1 is a systematic examination of deductive, probabilistic, inductive and purely inductive dependence relations within the framework of Kolmogorov probability semantics. The main aim of part 2 is a systematic comparison of (in all) 20 different relations of probabilistic (in)dependence within the framework of Popper probability semantics (for Kolmogorov probability semantics does not allow such a comparison). Added to this comparison is an examination of (in all) 15 purely inductive (...)
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  25. Paul Egré (forthcoming). Intentional Action and the Semantics of Gradable Expressions (On the Knobe Effect). In B. Copley & F. Martin (eds.), Causation in Grammatical Structures. Oxford University Press.
    This paper examines an hypothesis put forward by Pettit and Knobe 2009 to account for the Knobe effect. According to Pettit and Knobe, one should look at the semantics of the adjective “intentional” on a par with that of other gradable adjectives such as “warm”, “rich” or “expensive”. What Pettit and Knobe’s analogy suggests is that the Knobe effect might be an instance of a much broader phenomenon which concerns the context-dependence of normative standards relevant for the application of gradable (...)
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  26. Paul Egré (2010). Qualitative Judgments, Quantitative Judgments, and Norm-Sensitivity. Brain and Behavioral Sciences 33 (4):335-336.
    Moral considerations and our normative expectations influence not only our judgments about intentional action or causation but also our judgments about exact probabilities and quantities. Whereas those cases support the competence theory proposed by Knobe in his paper, they remain compatible with a modular conception of the interaction between moral and nonmoral cognitive faculties in each of those domains.
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  27. G. Fauconnier (1975). Do Quantifiers Branch? Linguistic Inquiry 6:555--567.
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  28. Danny Fox & Uli Sauerland (1997). Illusive Scope of Universal Quantifiers. In Jill Beckman (ed.), Proceedings of NELS 26. GLSA, UMass Amhert.
    It is widely believed that existential quantifiers can bring about the semantic effects of a scope which is wider than their actual syntactic scope (See Fodor & Sag (1982), Cresti (1995), Kratzer (1995), Reinhart (1995) and Winter (1995), among many others.) On the other hand, it is assumed that the syntactic scope of universal quantifiers can be determined unequivocally by the semantics. This paper shows that this second assumption is wrong; universal quantifiers can also bring about scope illusions, though in (...)
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  29. D. M. Gabbay & J. M. E. Moravcsik (1974). Branching Quantifiers, English and Montague Grammar. Theoretical Linguistics 1:140--157.
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  30. Aldo Gangemi (2009). What’s in a Schema? A Formal Metamodel for ECG and FrameNet. Cambridge University Press.
  31. Nina Gierasimczuk & Jakub Szymanik (2009). Branching Quantification V. Two-Way Quantification. Journal of Semantics 26 (4):329-366.
    Next SectionWe discuss the thesis formulated by Hintikka (1973) that certain natural language sentences require non-linear quantification to express their meaning. We investigate sentences with combinations of quantifiers similar to Hintikka's examples and propose a novel alternative reading expressible by linear formulae. This interpretation is based on linguistic and logical observations. We report on our experiments showing that people tend to interpret sentences similar to Hintikka sentence in a way consistent with our interpretation.
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  32. Kathrin Glüer (2012). Theories of Meaning and Truth Conditions. In Manuel García-Carpintero & Max Kölbel (eds.), The Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Continuum International Pub..
    Or, in Donald Davidson’s much quoted words: “What is it for words to mean what they do?” (Davidson 1984, xiii). Davidson himself suggested approaching this matter by asking two different questions: What form should a formal semantics take? And: What is it that makes a semantic theory correct for a particular language, i.e. what determines meaning? The second question concerns the place of semantic facts in a wider metaphysical space: How do these facts relate to non-semantic facts? Can they be (...)
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  33. F. Guenthner & J. P. Hoepelman (1976). A Note on the Representation of Branching Quantifiers. Theoretical Linguistics 3:285--289.
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  34. R. Hastings, B. Jackson & Z. Zvolensky (eds.) (2001). Proceedings From SALT XI. CLC.
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  35. I. Heim, H. Lasnik & R. May (1991). Reciprocity and Plurality. Linguistic Inquiry 22 (1):63--101.
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  36. Irene Heim (1982). The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases. Dissertation, UMass Amherst
  37. Wesley H. Holliday & Thomas F. Icard (2013). Measure Semantics and Qualitative Semantics for Epistemic Modals. Proceedings of SALT 23:514-534.
    In this paper, we explore semantics for comparative epistemic modals that avoid the entailment problems shown to result from Kratzer’s (1991) semantics by Yalcin (2006, 2009, 2010). In contrast to the alternative semantics presented by Yalcin and Lassiter (2010, 2011), based on finitely additive probability measures, we introduce semantics based on qualitatively additive measures, as well as semantics based on purely qualitative orderings, including orderings on propositions derived from orderings on worlds in the tradition of Kratzer (1991). All of these (...)
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  38. Takashi Iida (2015). Indirect Passives and Relational Nouns (III). Keio Gijuku Daigaku Gengo Bunka Kenkyu-Sho Kiyou 46:71-110.
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  39. Takashi Iida (2013). Indirect Passives and Relational Nouns (II). Keio Gijuku Daigaku Gengo Bunka Kenkyu-Sho Kiyou 44:21-42.
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  40. Takashi Iida (2012). Indirect Passives and Relational Nouns (I). Keio Gijuku Daigaku Gengo Bunka Kenkyu-Sho Kiyou 43:19-42.
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  41. Takashi Iida (2011). Japanese Passives and Quantification in Predicate Position. Philosophia Osaka 6:15-40.
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  42. Takashi Iida (2007). Towards a Semantics of Japanese Existential Sentences. In M. Okada (ed.), Essays in the Foundations of Logical and Phenomenological Studies (Interdisciplinary Series on Reasoning Studies, Vol. 3). Keio University. 67-96.
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  43. Lucja Iwańska (1993). Logical Reasoning in Natural Language: It is All About Knowledge. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 3 (4):475-510.
    A formal, computational, semantically clean representation of natural language is presented. This representation captures the fact that logical inferences in natural language crucially depend on the semantic relation of entailment between sentential constituents such as determiner, noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, and verb phrases.The representation parallels natural language in that it accounts for human intuition about entailment of sentences, it preserves its structure, it reflects the semantics of different syntactic categories, it simulates conjunction, disjunction, and negation in natural language by computable (...)
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  44. Mark Jago (forthcoming). Are Impossible Worlds Trivial? In Vit Puncochar & Petr Svarny (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2012. College Publications.
    Theories of content are at the centre of philosophical semantics. The most successful general theory of content takes contents to be sets of possible worlds. But such contents are very coarse-grained, for they cannot distinguish between logically equivalent contents. They draw intensional but not hyperintensional distinctions. This is often remedied by including impossible as well as possible worlds in the theory of content. Yet it is often claimed that impossible worlds are metaphysically obscure; and it is sometimes claimed that their (...)
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  45. Michael Alan Johnson (2009). Indirect Discourse: Parataxis, the Propositional Function Modification, and “That”. Aporia 19 (1):9-24.
    The purpose of this paper is to assess the general viability of Donald Davidson's paratactic theory of indirect discourse, as well as the specific plausibility of a reincarnated form of the Davidsonian paratactic theory, Gary Kemp's propositional paratactic theory. To this end I will provide an introduction to the Davidsonian paratactic theory and the theory's putative strengths, thereafter noting that an argument from ambiguity seems to effectively undermine Davidson's proposal. Subsequently, I will argue that Kemp's modification of Davidson's theory – (...)
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  46. Christopher Kennedy & Jason Stanley (2009). On 'Average'. Mind 118 (471):583 - 646.
    This article investigates the semantics of sentences that express numerical averages, focusing initially on cases such as 'The average American has 2.3 children'. Such sentences have been used both by linguists and philosophers to argue for a disjuncture between semantics and ontology. For example, Noam Chomsky and Norbert Hornstein have used them to provide evidence against the hypothesis that natural language semantics includes a reference relation holding between words and objects in the world, whereas metaphysicians such as Joseph Melia and (...)
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  47. Justin Khoo (2011). Operators or Restrictors? A Reply to Gillies. Semantics and Pragmatics 4:1-25.
    According to operator theories, "if" denotes a two-place operator. According to restrictor theories, "if" doesn't contribute an operator of its own but instead merely restricts the domain of some co-occurring quantifier. The standard arguments (Lewis 1975, Kratzer 1986) for restrictor theories have it that operator theories (but not restrictor theories) struggle to predict the truth conditions of quantified conditionals like -/- (1) a. If John didn't work at home, he usually worked in his office. b. If John didn't work at (...)
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  48. Nathan Klinedinst & Daniel Rothschild (forthcoming). Exhaustivity in Questions with Non-Factives. Semantics and Pragmatics.
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  49. Joshua Knobe & Seth Yalcin (2014). Epistemic Modals and Context: Experimental Data. Semantics and Pragmatics 7 (10):1-21.
    Recently, a number of theorists (MacFarlane (2003, 2011), Egan et al. (2005), Egan (2007), Stephenson (2007a,b)) have argued that an adequate semantics and pragmatics for epistemic modals calls for some technical notion of relativist truth and/or relativist content. Much of this work has relied on an empirical thesis about speaker judgments, namely that competent speakers tend to judge a present-tense bare epistemic possibility claim true only if the prejacent is compatible with their information. Relativists have in particular appealed to judgments (...)
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  50. Robert Knowles (forthcoming). What ‘the Number of Planets is Eight’ Means. Philosophical Studies:1-19.
    ‘The following sentence is true only if numbers exist: The number of planets is eight. It is true; hence, numbers exist.’ So runs a familiar argument for realism about mathematical objects. But this argument relies on a controversial semantic thesis: that ‘The number of planets’ and ‘eight’ are singular terms standing for the number eight, and the copula expresses identity. This is the ‘Fregean analysis’.I show that the Fregean analysis is false by providing an analysis of sentences such as that (...)
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