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  1. Barbara Abbott, The Formal Approach to Meaning: Formal Semantics and its Recent Developments.
    Like Spanish moss on a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic.[1] The first, background, section of the paper will survey the changing (...)
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  2. Ernest Adams (1992). Formalizing the Logic of Positive, Comparative, and Superlative. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (1):90-99.
  3. Jens S. Allwood, Lars-Gunnar Andersson & Östen Dahl (1977). Logic in Linguistics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  4. Maria Aloni & Bruno Jacinto (2014). Knowing Who: How Perspectives and Contexts Interact. In Frank Lihoreau & Manuel Rebuschi (eds.), Epistemology, Context and Formalism. Synthese Library
  5. Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete (2016). On Truth Unpersistence: At the Crossroads of Epistemic Modality and Discourse. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 34.
    We propose a semantic analysis of the particles afinal (European Portuguese) and alla fine (Italian) in terms of the notion of truth unpersistence, which combines both epistemic modality and constraints on discourse structure. We argue that the felicitous use of these modal particles requires that the truth of a proposition p* fail to persist through a temporal succession of epistemic states, where p* is incompatible with the proposition modified by afinal/alla fine, and that the interlocutors share knowledge of a previous (...)
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  6. Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete (2010). Approximating the Limit: The Interaction Between Quasi 'Almost' and Some Temporal Connectives in Italian. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (2):51 - 115.
    This paper focuses on the interpretation of the Italian approximative adverb quasi 'almost' by primarily looking at cases in which it modifies temporal connectives, a domain which, to our knowledge, has been largely unexplored thus far. Consideration of this domain supports the need for a scalar account of the semantics of quasi (close in spirit to Hitzeman's semantic analysis of almost, in: Canakis et al. (eds) Papers from the 28th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 1992). When paired with (...)
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  7. Scott AnderBois (2012). Focus and Uninformativity in Yucatec Maya Questions. Natural Language Semantics 20 (4):349-390.
    Crosslinguistically, questions frequently make crucial use of morphosyntactic elements which also occur outside of questions. Chief among these are focus, disjunctions, and wh-words with indefinite semantics. This paper provides a compositional account of the semantics of wh-, alternative, and polar questions in Yucatec Maya (YM), which are composed primarily of these elements. Key to the account is a theory of disjunctions and indefinites (extending work by others) which recognizes the inherently inquisitive nature of these elements. While disjunctions and indefinites are (...)
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  8. Alex Anthony (forthcoming). Experience, Evaluation and Faultless Disagreement. Inquiry:1-37.
    In the last decade there has been a torrent of work at the intersection of philosophy and linguistics on predicates of personal taste, subjective expressions like fun and tasty that are used to express opinions rather than matters of fact. In each section of this paper I discuss a phenomenon that has been largely overlooked in the literature on PPTs. In Section 1, I identify a neglected experiential reading of these adjectives. All other theories of expressions like fun take them (...)
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  9. Nicholas Asher (2012). Context in Content Composition. In Ruth M. Kempson, Tim Fernando & Nicholas Asher (eds.), Philosophy of Linguistics. North Holland 229.
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  10. Nicholas Michael Asher (1982). Truth Conditions and Semantic Knowledge: Toward a Theory of Linguistic Understanding. Dissertation, Yale University
    The dissertation examines several proposals for necessary and sufficient conditions for understanding sentences of a natural language within the context of a truth conditional theory of meaning. Any such proposal has two parts: first, an account of meaning, second, an account of an interpreter's attitudes toward meanings and meaningful expressions of a language. Efforts to provide an account of linguistic understanding by Frege, Davidson, Dummett and others have largely assumed a certain account of semantic knowledge that leads to difficulties when (...)
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  11. Gilad B. Avi & Yoad Winter (2003). Monotonicity and Collective Quantification. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):127--151.
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  12. E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kraner & B. H. Partee (1995). In This Note, We Will Look at Some Data That Bear on the Further Question or More Specific Form of the Question: How is Quantification Expressed in a Polysynthetic Language Like Haisla? Haisla has the Following Kinds of Linguistic Elements. In Emmon Bach, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer & Barbara Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages. Kluwer 13.
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  13. Emmon Bach (1986). The Algebra of Events. Linguistics and Philosophy 9 (1):5--16.
  14. Emmon Bach (1968). Nouns and Noun Phrases. In Emmon Bach & R. Harms (eds.), Universals in Linguistic Theory. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston 90--122.
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  15. Emmon Bach & Robin Cooper (1978). The NP-S Analysis of Relative Clauses and Compositional Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (1):145 - 150.
    We have sketched how it is possible to give an analysis for adjoined relative clauses which is consistent with the compositionality principle and have shown that the technique which seems necessary for this analysis can be used to provide a compositional semantics for the NP-S analysis of English relative clauses.It is unlikely that anyone working within the framework of a compositional theory would choose the NP-S analysis for English, since it is clearly much less elegant and simple, in some intuitive (...)
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  16. John Bacon (1973). The Semantics of Generic The. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (3):323 - 339.
  17. Tista Bagchi, Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface.
    Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface Tista Bagchi National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (NISTADS) and the University of Delhi Since the proposal of Logical Form (LF) was put forward by Robert May in his 1977 MIT doctoral dissertation and was subsequently adopted into the overall architecture of language as conceived under Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981), there has been a steady research effort to determine the nature of LF in language in light of structurally (...)
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  18. Diane Dorough Barense (1980). Tense Structure and Reference a First-Order Non-Modal Analysis. Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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  19. Chris Barker (2002). The Dynamics of Vagueness. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):1-36.
  20. Chris Barker & Geoffrey K. Pullum (1990). A Theory of Command Relations. Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (1):1 - 34.
  21. John Anthony Barker (1967). A System of Intensional Logic. Dissertation, Tulane University
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  22. Jon Barwise, William Ladusaw, Alice ter Meulen, Richard Oehrle & Richmond Thomason (1992). Logic and Linguistics Meeting: Santa Cruz, 1991. Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (4):1498-1499.
  23. K. Jon Barwise & Richmond H. Thomason (1988). Logic and Linguistics Meeting, Stanford, 1987. Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (4):1275-1282.
  24. David Beaver & Joey Frazee, Semantics.
    Semantics is concerned with meaning: what meanings are, how meanings are assigned to words, phrases and sentences of natural and formal languages, and how meanings can be combined and used for inference and reasoning. The goal of this chapter is to introduce computational linguists and computer scientists to the tools, methods, and concepts required to work on natural language semantics. Semantics, while often paired with pragmatics, is nominally distinct. On a traditional view, semantics concerns itself with the compositional buildup of (...)
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  25. Sigrid Beck (2012). DegP Scope Revisited. Natural Language Semantics 20 (3):227-272.
    The semantic literature takes degree operators like the comparative, but also measure phrases, the equative, the superlative and so on, to be quantifiers over degrees. This is well motivated by their semantic contribution, but leads one to expect far more scope interaction than is actually observed. This paper proposes an alternative-semantic analysis of certain degree constructions, in particular constructions with little and other negative antonyms. Restrictions on scope can then be explained as intervention effects.
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  26. Jill Beckman (ed.) (1997). Proceedings of NELS 26. GLSA, UMass Amhert.
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  27. I. Bellert (1989). Feature System for Quantification Structures in Natural Language. Foris Publications.
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  28. Ermanno Bencivenga (1984). A Possibility-Free Logic of Descriptions. Archive for Mathematical Logic 24 (1):159-165.
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  29. Michael Ruisdael Bennett (1975). Some Extensions of a Montague Fragment of English. Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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  30. Johan Benthem (1990). Categorial Grammar and Type Theory. Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (2):115 - 168.
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  31. Johan Benthem (1985). Situations and Inference. Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (1):3 - 8.
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  32. Merrie Bergmann (1981). Presupposition and Two-Dimensional Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (1):27 - 53.
  33. Patrick Blackburn, Claire Gardent & Maarten De Rijke (1996). Rich Ontologies for Tense and Aspect. In Jerry Seligman & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Language and Computation. Csli Publications, Stanford
  34. J. Bos & S. Pulman (eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics 9.
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  35. Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik (forthcoming). Interpreting Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  36. Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik (2011). Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences. In J. Bos & S. Pulman (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics 9.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  37. Richard Breheny (2003). On the Dynamic Turn in the Study of Meaning and Interpretation. In Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.), Meaning: The Dynamic Turn. Elsevier Science
  38. Alexis Burgess (2011). Mainstream Semantics + Deflationary Truth. Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (5):397-410.
    Recent philosophy of language has been profoundly impacted by the idea that mainstream, model-theoretic semantics is somehow incompatible with deflationary accounts of truth and reference. The present article systematizes the case for incompatibilism, debunks circularity and “modal confusion” arguments familiar in the literature, and reconstructs the popular thought that truth-conditional semantics somehow “presupposes” a correspondence theory of truth as an inference to the best explanation. The case for compatibilism is closed by showing that this IBE argument fails to rule out (...)
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  39. Alessandro Capone (2001). Review of Higginbotham, J., Pianesi, F. Varzi, A, a Cura di ‘Speaking of Events’. [REVIEW] Linguistics 39 (6):1179-1192.
    review of Higginbotham et al. Speaking of events.
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  40. Alessandro Capone (2001). Review of Higginbotham Ed. Speaking of Events. [REVIEW] Linguistics 39 (6): 1179–1192..
    review of Higginbotham et al. -/- A Davidsonian approach.
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  41. Rudolf Carnap (1959). C. L-Semantics. In Introduction to Semantics and Formalization of Logic. Harvard University Press 56-154.
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  42. Rudolf Carnap (1954). On Belief-Sentences. In Margaret MacDonald (ed.), Journal of Symbolic Logic. Oxford, B. Blackwell 128--31.
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  43. Nate Charlow (2010). Restricting and Embedding Imperatives. In M. Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. de Jager & K. Schulz (eds.), Logic, Language, and Meaning: Selected Papers from the 17th Amsterdam Colloquium. Springer
    We use imperatives to refute a naïve analysis of update potentials (force-operators attaching to sentences), arguing for a dynamic analysis of imperative force as restrictable, directed, and embeddable. We propose a dynamic, non-modal analysis of conditional imperatives, as a counterpoint to static, modal analyses. Our analysis retains Kratzer's analysis of if-clauses as restrictors of some operator, but avoids typing it as a generalized quantifier over worlds (against her), instead as a dynamic force operator. Arguments for a restrictor treatment (but against (...)
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  44. Stergios Chatzikyriakidis & Zhaohui Luo (2014). Natural Language Inference in Coq. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (4):441-480.
    In this paper we propose a way to deal with natural language inference by implementing Modern Type Theoretical Semantics in the proof assistant Coq. The paper is a first attempt to deal with NLI and natural language reasoning in general by using the proof assistant technology. Valid NLIs are treated as theorems and as such the adequacy of our account is tested by trying to prove them. We use Luo’s Modern Type Theory with coercive subtyping as the formal language into (...)
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  45. Brian Farrell Chellas (1969). The Logical Form of Imperatives. Dissertation, Stanford University
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  46. Fox Chierchia (2012). Spector. Scalar Implicature as a Grammatical Phenomenon. In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton 3--2297.
  47. Michael Clark (1984). Degrees of Comparison. Analysis 44 (4):178 - 180.
  48. Peter Cole (1981). Radical Pragmatics.
  49. Robin Cooper, Type Theory with Records and Unification-Based Grammar.
    We suggest a way of bringing together type theory and unification-based grammar formalisms by using records in type theory. The work is part of a broader project whose aim is to present a coherent unified approach to natural language dialogue semantics using tools from type theory.
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  50. Robin Hayes Cooper (1979). Montague's Semantic Theory and Transformational Syntax a Dissertation. University Microfilms International.
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