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  1. Gabriel Abend (2013). The Origins of Business Ethics in American Universities, 1902-1936. Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (2):171-205.
    The history of the field of business ethics in the U.S. remains understudied and misunderstood. In this article I begin to remedy this oversight about the past, and I suggest how it can be beneficial in the present. Using both published and unpublished primary sources, I argue that the business ethics field emerged in the early twentieth century, against the backdrop of the establishment of business schools in major universities. I bring to light four important developments: business ethics lectures at (...)
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  2. Murat Akpinar & Zsuzsanna Vincze (2008). A Theory of Primary Stakeholder Contributions in Resolving Threats of Market Integration in the European Union. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:483-494.
    The review of literature on stakeholders reveals that there is need to understand more about firm-stakeholder relationships especially from stakeholders’ point of view. Market integration in the European Union (EU) provides an excellent context for increasing such understanding since it is creating opportunities and threats for firms and their stakeholders. This research aims to make a contribution in this direction by analyzing strategic responses of primary stakeholders to selected threat events in the history of Volkswagen (VW) since 1960.
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  3. Daniel Arenas, Josep M. Lozano & Laura Albareda (2007). Behind CSR. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:419-424.
    This paper argues for the existence of two levels of stakeholder dialogue: a micro and a macro level. The first is the one companies have with their own stakeholder groups, the second is a broader social debate among different agents about the role of business in society. The paper argues why the macro level matters for CSR and why it can be called a dialogue. It also underlines the importance of mutual perceptions in the macro-dialogue. For this purpose we present (...)
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  4. Joseph L. BadaraccoJr (1997). The Internet, Intel and the Vigilante Stakeholder. Business Ethics 6 (1):18–29.
  5. M. Bandsuch & R. Winsor (2005). The URJCO Model of Stakeholder Management: A Practical Approach to Business Ethics. In Sheb L. True, Linda Ferrell & O. C. Ferrell (eds.), Fulfilling Our Obligation: Perspectives on Teaching Business Ethics. Kennesaw State University.
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  6. Stephanie Bertels & Harrie Vredenburg (2005). Who Sits at the Table? A New Approach to Stakeholder Selection. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:293-297.
    When assembling a collaborative initiative, how do you select the appropriate stakeholders to promote collaborative success? We examine the limitations of thestakeholder theory approach to resolving this issue. Instead, we argue that the domain-based perspective and the notion of requisite variety both offer worthwhile perspectives on the issue of participant selection. Combining these perspectives, we pave the way for a theory of participant selection that focuses on evaluating collaborative resources and capabilities at the individual, organizational and domain levels.
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  7. Norman E. Bowie (2012). Book Reviews-Stakeholder Theory: The State of the Art, by R. Edward Freeman Et Al. Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (1):179.
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  8. Norman E. Bowie (2012). Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (1):179-185.
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  9. Steven N. Brenner, Michael E. Johnson-Cramer, John F. Mahon, Tim Rowley & Donna J. Wood (2005). Symposium. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:298-301.
    This panel considered the uses of and prospects for the stakeholder theory/approach. After 20 years of popularity, the stakeholder concept has still notemerged as a true theory. However, it offers some unique perspectives on business organizations and there is plenty of room to develop stakeholder theory and research. These session notes are offered to further the scholarly discussion.
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  10. Eric Brown (2013). Vulnerability and the Basis of Business Ethics: From Fiduciary Duties to Professionalism. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):489-504.
    This paper examines the role of vulnerability in the basis of business ethics by criticizing its role in giving a moral substantial character to fiduciary duties to shareholders. The target is Marcoux’s (Bus Ethics Q 13(1):1–24, 2003) argument for morally substantial fiduciary duties vis-à-vis the multifiduciary stakeholder theory. Rather than proceed to support the stakeholder paradigm, a conception of vulnerability is combined with Heath’s 2004) “market failure” view of the ethical obligations of managers as falling out of their roles as (...)
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  11. Anthony F. Buono (2003). A Review of Redefining the Corporation: Stakeholder Management and Organizational Wealth. [REVIEW] Business and Society Review 108 (2):279-284.
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  12. Jon Burchell & Joanne Cook (2013). Sleeping with the Enemy? Strategic Transformations in Business–NGO Relationships Through Stakeholder Dialogue. Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):505-518.
    Campaigning activities of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have increased public awareness and concern regarding the alleged unethical and environmentally damaging practices of many major multinational companies. Companies have responded by developing corporate social responsibility strategies to demonstrate their commitment to both the societies within which they function and to the protection of the natural environment. This has often involved a move towards greater transparency in company practice and a desire to engage with stakeholders, often including many of the campaign organisations that (...)
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  13. Kenneth D. Butterfield, Richard Reed & David J. Lemak (2004). An Inductive Model of Collaboration From the Stakeholder's Perspective. Business and Society 43 (2):162-195.
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  14. Archie B. Carroll & Juha Näsi (1997). Understanding Stakeholder Thinking: Themes From a Finnish Conference. Business Ethics 6 (1):46–51.
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  15. Andrew Crane, Ciaran Driver, John Kaler, Martin Parker & John Parkinson (2005). Stakeholder Democracy: Towards a Multi-Disciplinary View. Business Ethics 14 (1):67–75.
  16. Andrew Crane & Trish Ruebottom (2011). Stakeholder Theory and Social Identity: Rethinking Stakeholder Identification. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (S1):77-87.
    In this article, we propose an adaption to stakeholder theory whereby stakeholders are conceptualized on the basis of their social identity. We begin by offering a critical review of both traditional and more recent developments in stakeholder theory, focusing in particular on the way in which stakeholder categories are identified. By identifying critical weaknesses in the existing approach, as well as important points of strength, we outline an alternative approach that refines our understanding of stakeholders in important ways. To do (...)
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  17. Refik Culpan & John Trussel (2005). Applying the Agency and Stakeholder Theories to the Enron Debacle: An Ethical Perspective. Business and Society Review 110 (1):59-76.
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  18. F. G. A. de Bakker & F. den Hond (2007). The Politics of Stakeholder Influence: Introduction to the Special Issue. Business and Society 47 (1):8-20.
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  19. M. Deck (1994). Essay in the Toronto Conference: Reflections on Stakeholder Theory. Business and Society 33 (1):108-10.
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  20. Robbin Derry (2012). Reclaiming Marginalized Stakeholders. Journal of Business Ethics 111 (2):253-264.
    Within stakeholder literature, much attention has been given to which stakeholders "really count." This article strives to explain why organizational theorists should abandon the pursuit of "Who and What Really Counts" to challenge the assumption of a managerial perspective that defines stakeholder legitimacy. Reflecting on the paucity of employee rights and protections in marginalized work environments, I argue that as organizational researchers, we must recognize and take responsibility for the impact of our research models and visions. By confronting and rethinking (...)
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  21. Thomas Donaldson (1994). Essay by Thomas Donaldson and Lee E. Preston Presented At: The Toronto Conference–Reflections on Stakeholder Theory. Business and Society 33 (1):105-108.
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  22. Robert S. Dooley & Linda D. Lerner (1994). Pollution, Profits, and Stakeholders: The Constraining Effect of Economic Performance on CEO Concern with Stakeholder Expectations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (9):701 - 711.
    This study examined the constraining effect of economic performance on the relationship between CEO stakeholder orientations and four pollution performance categories. Economic performance was found to moderate the relationship for two of the four categories. Additionally economic performance was found to consistently interact with some CEO stakeholder orientations and not others. Overall the results suggest that CEO concern with stakeholder expectations is in large part moderate by the economic performance of the firm.
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  23. Cathy Driscoll & Annie Crombie (2001). Stakeholder Legitimacy Management and the Qualified Good Neighbor: The Case of Nova Nada and JDI. Business and Society 40 (4):442-471.
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  24. Paul Dunn & Jill Brown (2009). The Importance of Competency, Reputation, and Goodwill in Re-Establishing Stakeholder Relationships. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 20:291-295.
    This paper provides a model on repairing re-establishing stakeholder relationships after a firm engages in a moral indiscretion. Depending upon their nature, indiscretions can be classified as mistakes, misconduct, or improprieties. After committing an indiscretion, firms can attempt to reestablish positive stakeholder relationships by strengthening their technical competency (for mistakes), improving their reputation (for misconduct), and enhancing their goodwill with relevant stakeholders (for improprieties). However, a firm’s cultural orientation may result in the misapplication of the stakeholder repair mechanism (competency, reputation, (...)
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  25. Esbjörn Ebbesson (2012). Facilitating Distributed Multi-Stakeholder Co-Creative Innovation Processes – A Case From the Media Industry. Iris 35.
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  26. R. Edward Freeman, Gianfranco Rusconi, Silvana Signori & Alan Strudler (2012). Stakeholder Theory(Ies): Ethical Ideas and Managerial Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):1-2.
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  27. Ignacio Ferrero, W. Michael Hoffman & Robert E. McNulty (2014). Must Milton Friedman Embrace Stakeholder Theory? Business and Society Review 119 (1):37-59.
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  28. Rachel L. Finn & David Wright (2011). Mechanisms for Stakeholder Co-Ordination in ICT and Ageing. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 9 (4):265-286.
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  29. R. Edward Freeman (2009). Stakeholder Theory. Philosophy of Management 8 (3):97-107.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are the (...)
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  30. R. Edward Freeman (2001). A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation. Perspectives in Business Ethics Sie 3:144.
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  31. R. Edward Freeman, Gianfranco Rusconi, Silvana Signori & Alan Strudler (2012). Stakeholder Theory(Ies): Ethical Ideas and Managerial Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):1 - 2.
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  32. Jeff Frooman & Audrey J. Murrell (2005). Stakeholder Influence Strategies: The Roles of Structural and Demographic Determinants. Business and Society 44 (1):3-31.
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  33. Magnus Frostenson (2009). Stakeholder Theory and the 'Black Box Problem'. Philosophy of Management 8 (3):37-46.
    Portraying the firm as a ‘black box’, as traditional conceptions of the firm tend to do, has been strongly criticised by stakeholder theorists. This article claims, however, that the ‘black box problem’ has not been satisfactorily resolved by stakeholder theory itself. The failure to bring clarity to the internal realities of the firm has led to unacceptable conceptions of the firm from a moral agency point of view. For example, stakeholder theory tends to portray the firm as an exchange system (...)
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  34. Elisabet Garriga (2009). Cooperation in Stakeholder Networks: Firms' 'Tertius Iungens' Role. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):623 - 637.
    In stakeholder theory, most research on cooperation has been focused on inter-organizational collaboration field centered at the dyadic level, excluding the relational or network data. Relational or network data are important as the firms do not simply respond to each stakeholder individually but to an interaction of influences from the entire stakeholder set. The purpose of this article is to analyze the cooperation process among the firm and its stakeholders by considering the relational data and to describe the role of (...)
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  35. Dirk Ulrich Gilbert & Andreas Rasche (2008). Opportunities and Problems of Standardized Ethics Initiatives – a Stakeholder Theory Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):755 - 773.
    This article explains problems and opportunities created by standardized ethics initiatives (e.g., the UN Global Compact, the Global Reporting Initiative, and SA 8000) from the perspective of stakeholder theory. First, we outline differences and commonalities among currently existing initiatives and thus generate a common ground for our discussion. Second, based on these remarks, we critically evaluate standardized ethics initiatives by drawing on descriptive, instrumental, and normative stakeholder theory. In doing so, we explain why these standards are helpful tools when it (...)
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  36. Gilbert & Gilbert Jr (1996). 3. The Stakeholder Containment Imperative. The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics:42-62.
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  37. Michelle Greenwood & Helen De Cieri (2007). Stakeholder Theory and the Ethics of HRM. In Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment. Oup Oxford.
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  38. Troy R. Harting, Susan S. Harmeling & S. Venkataraman (2006). Innovative Stakeholder Relations: When "Ethics Pays". Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):43-68.
    Business ethicists are eager to connect the ethical treatment of stakeholders with financial rewards. However, little attention hasbeen paid to the cultural and industry context that influences how stakeholders are regarded by the firm, and how innovative strategiesfor engaging stakeholders can help a firm outperform its competitors. By reconnecting stakeholder theory to its roots in the field of strategy, we provide a framework for understanding the dynamic interplay between stakeholder relationships, innovation, and competitive advantage. The result is a set of (...)
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  39. Jamie R. Hendry (2005). Stakeholder Influence Strategies: An Empirical Exploration. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 61 (1):79 - 99.
    In the present study, I sought to more fully understand stakeholder organizations’ strategies for influencing business firms. I conducted interviews with 28 representatives of four environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs): Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Greenpeace, Environmental Defense (ED), and Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Qualitative methods were used to analyze this data, and additional data in the form of reviews of websites and other documents was conducted when provided by interviewees or needed to more fully comprehend interviewee’s comments. Six propositions (...)
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  40. John Hendry (2001). Economic Contracts Versus Social Relationships as a Foundation for Normative Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics 10 (3):223–232.
    A number of the most influential presentations of normative stakeholder theory are based upon an economic model of the firm as a nexus of contracts. In this paper I argue that the use of such a model to address moral issues is both logically and practically problematic and effectively undermines the stakeholder position. I then sketch out the key characteristics of an alternative, social relationships model of the firm, and show how this might provide a basis for the development of (...)
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  41. Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, Muel Kaptein & J. van Oosterhout (2004). Ties That Grind? Corroborating a Typology of Social Contracting Problems. Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):235-252.
    Contractualism conceives of firm-stakeholder relations as cooperative schemes for mutual benefit. In essence, contractualism holds that these schemes, as well as the normative principles that guide and constrain them, are ultimately ratified by the consent and endorsement of those subject to them. This paper explores the empirical validity of a contractualist perspective on firm-stakeholder relations. It first develops a typology of firm-stakeholder contracting problems. It subsequently confronts this typology with empirical data collected in an interview study of concrete stakeholder management (...)
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  42. Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens & Hans van Oosterhout (2002). The Confines of Stakeholder Management: Evidence From the Dutch Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Business Ethics 40 (4):387 - 403.
    Stakeholder theory is a pertinent example of a framework that has been stretched over many conceptual contexts and that has been applied to a wide variety of empirical phenomena. A pressing issue involves the scope of application of stakeholder theory, however, because it is not a comprehensive ethical scheme or problem-solving algorithm. We begin our search for the boundaries of stakeholder management by identifying a presently under-acknowledged yet major underlying assumption, notably that the approach is rooted in voluntary action and (...)
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  43. Pursey Pmar Heugens, Frans A. J. van den Bosch & Cees B. M. van Riel (2002). Stakeholder Integration Building Mutually Enforcing Relationships. Business and Society 41 (1):36-60.
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  44. Amy J. Hillman, Gerald D. Keim & Rebecca A. Luce (2001). Board Composition and Stakeholder Performance: Do Stakeholder Directors Make a Difference? Business and Society 40 (3):295-314.
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  45. Harry Hummels (1998). Organizing Ethics: A Stakeholder Debate. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (13):1403-1419.
    This article summarizes the development of the stakeholder concept in the last decade. The academic debate has been dominated over the last ten years by the managerial version of the stakeholder concept. The case of Shell in Ogoniland is elaborated to demonstrate that the managerial version does not pay sufficient respect to other interpretations of the concept. The article criticizes this dominant interpretation and argues for the need of an ongoing — academic and practical — debate on organizing and ethics. (...)
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  46. Bryan W. Husted (1998). Organizational Justice and the Management of Stakeholder Relations. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):643 - 651.
    Despite the appeal of the stakeholder concept, little work had been done with respect to the development of specific structures for the management of stakeholder relations. This paper draws upon the organizational justice literature to demonstrate how many of its concerns coincide with those of the stakeholder management literature. It shows that organizational justice can provide specific advice for the design of stakeholder relations, while stakeholder theory can broaden the scope of current inquiries into organizational justice.
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  47. Charles Jackson & Torben Bundgard (2002). Achieving Quality in Social Reporting: The Role of Surveys in Stakeholder Consultation. Business Ethics 11 (3):253–259.
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  48. Tommy Jensen & Johan Sandström (2013). In Defence of Stakeholder Pragmatism. Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):225-237.
    This article seeks to defend and develop a stakeholder pragmatism advanced in some of the work by Edward Freeman and colleagues. By positioning stakeholder pragmatism more in line with the democratic and ethical base in American pragmatism (as developed by William James, John Dewey and Richard Rorty), the article sets forth a fallibilistic stakeholder pragmatism that seeks to be more useful to companies by expanding the ways in which value is and can be created in a contingent world. A dialogue (...)
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  49. Michael E. Johnson-Cramer & Shawn Berman (2005). A Dynamic Model of Stakeholder Management. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:320-325.
    Existing descriptions of stakeholder management have primarily been static and one-dimensional. In this paper, we offer a multidimensional perspective and outline four main profiles of stakeholder management. We then explain how and why companies change their stakeholder management approach over time.
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  50. Marc T. Jones & Peter Fleming (2003). Unpacking Complexity Through Critical Stakeholder Analysis the Case of Globalization. Business and Society 42 (4):430-454.
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