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  1. Gabriel Abend (2013). The Origins of Business Ethics in American Universities, 1902-1936. Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (2):171-205.
    The history of the field of business ethics in the U.S. remains understudied and misunderstood. In this article I begin to remedy this oversight about the past, and I suggest how it can be beneficial in the present. Using both published and unpublished primary sources, I argue that the business ethics field emerged in the early twentieth century, against the backdrop of the establishment of business schools in major universities. I bring to light four important developments: business ethics lectures at (...)
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Moral Theory and Business Ethics
  1. Dag G. Aasland (2004). On the Ethics Behind “Business Ethics”. Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):3-8.
    Ethics in business and economics is often attacked for being too superficial. By elaborating the conclusions of two such critics of business ethics and welfare economics respectively, this article will draw the attention to the ethics behind these apparently well-intended, but not always convincing constructions, by help of the fundamental ethics of Emmanuel Levinas. To Levinas, responsibility is more basic than language, and thus also more basic than all social constructions. Co-operation relations in organizations, markets and value networks are generated (...)
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  2. Robert Audi (2010). The Place of Ethical Theory in Business Ethics. In George G. Brenkert & Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  3. Robert Audi (2009). Business Ethics and Ethical Business. Oxford University Press.
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  4. Adam D. Bailey (2014). Reconciling Traditional Morality and the Morality of Competition. Business and Society Review 119 (2):207-219.
    It is commonly believed that the moral norms of “everyday” or “traditional” morality apply uniformly in all business contexts. However, Joseph Heath has recently argued that this is not the case. According to Heath, the norms of everyday morality apply with respect to “administered” transactions, but not “market” transactions. Market transactions are, he argues, governed by a distinct, “adversarial” morality. In this essay, I argue that Heath’s attempt to show that competitive contexts are governed by a distinct, adversarial morality does (...)
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  5. Adam D. Bailey (2011). Confucianism-Based Rights Skepticism and Rights in the Workplace. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):661-672.
    Must even Confucian rights skeptics—those who are, on account of their Confucian beliefs, skeptical of the existence of human rights, and believe that asserting or recognizing rights is morally wrong—concede that in the workplace, they are morally obligated to recognize rights? Alan Strudler has recently argued that such is the case. In this article, I argue that because Confucian rights skeptics locate wrongness in inconsistency with the idea of “Confucian community,” Confucian community should be viewed as a moral ideal. I (...)
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  6. Adam D. Bailey & Alan Strudler (2011). Dialogue. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):661-677.
    Confucianism-Based Rights Skepticism and Rights in the Workplace by Adam D. Bailey - Must even Confucian rights skeptics—those who are, on account of their Confucian beliefs, skeptical of the existence of human rights, and believe that asserting or recognizing rights is morally wrong—concede that in the workplace, they are morally obligated to recognize rights? Alan Strudler has recently argued that such is the case. In this article, I argue that because Confucian rights skeptics locate wrongness in inconsistency with the idea (...)
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  7. David Bevan & Hervé Corvellec (2007). The Impossibility of Corporate Ethics: For a Levinasian Approach to Managerial Ethics. Business Ethics 16 (3):208–219.
    The moral philosophy of Levinas offers a stark prospectus of impossibility for corporate ethics. It differs from most traditional ethical theories in that, for Levinas, the ethical develops in a personal meeting of one with the Other, rather than residing in some internal deliberation of the moral subject. Levinasian ethics emphasizes an infinite personal responsibility arising for each of us in the face of the Other and in the presence of the Third. It stresses the imperious demand we experience to (...)
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  8. Roger Crisp (2003). A Defence of Philosophical Business Ethics. In William H. Shaw (ed.), Ethics at Work: Basic Readings in Business Ethics. Oxford University Press. 9--25.
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  9. Dan Demetriou (2013). The Virtues of Honorable Business Executives. In Mike Austin (ed.), Virtues in Action: New Essays in Applied Virtue Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan. 29-38.
    Although most cultures have held honorableness to be a virtue of the first importance, contemporary analytic ethicists have just begun to consider honor’s nature and ethical worth. In this essay, I provide an analysis of the honor ethos and apply it to business ethics. Applying honor to business may appear to be a particularly challenging task, since (for reasons I discuss) honor has traditionally been seen as incompatible with commerce. Nonetheless, I argue here that two of the central virtues of (...)
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  10. James Franklin (2011). Caritas in Veritate: Economic Activity as Personal Encounter and the Economy of Gratuitousness. Solidarity 1 (1).
    We first survey the Catholic social justice tradition, the foundation on which Caritas in Veritate builds. Then we discuss Benedict’s addition of love to the philosophical virtues (as applied to economics), and how radical a change that makes to an ethical perspective on economics. We emphasise the reality of the interpersonal aspects of present-day economic exchanges, using insights from two disciplines that have recognized that reality, human resources and marketing. Finally, we examine the prospects for an economics of gratuitousness at (...)
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  11. James Franklin, Accountancy and the Quantification of Rights: Giving Moral Values Legal Teeth. Centre for an Ethical Society Papers.
    If a company’s share price rises when it sacks workers, or when it makes money from polluting the environment, it would seem that the accounting is not being done correctly. Real costs are not being paid. People’s ethical claims, which in a smaller-scale case would be legally enforceable, are not being measured in such circumstances. This results from a mismatch between the applied ethics tradition and the practice of the accounting profession. Applied ethics has mostly avoided quantification of rights, while (...)
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  12. James Franklin (1998). Accountancy as Computational Casuistics. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 17 (4):21-37.
    When a company raises its share price by sacking workers or polluting the environment, it is avoiding paying real costs. Accountancy, which quantifies certain rights, needs to combine with applied ethics to create a "computational casuistics" or "moral accountancy", which quantifies the rights and obligations of individuals and companies. Such quantification has proved successful already in environmental accounting, in health care allocation and in evaluating compensation payments. It is argued that many rights are measurable with sufficient accuracy to make them (...)
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  13. R. Edward Freeman & Robert A. Phillips (2002). Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defense. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):331-350.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are (...)
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  14. Peter A. French, Jeffrey Nesteruk & David T. Risser (1992). Corporations in the Moral Community. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
  15. Warren French & David Allbright (1998). Resolving a Moral Conflict Through Discourse. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (2):177-194.
    Plato claimed that morality exits to control conflict. Business people increasingly are called upon to resolve moral conflicts between various stakeholders who maintain opposing ethical positions or principles. Attempts to resolve these moral conflicts within business discussions may be exacerbated if disputants have different communicative styles. To better understand the communication process involved in attempts to resolve a moral dilemma, we investigate the "discourse ethics" procedure of Jürgen Habermas. Habermas claims that an individual's level of moral reasoning parallels the type (...)
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  16. Peter Martin Jaworski (2013). An Absurd Tax on Our Fellow Citizens: The Ethics of Rent Seeking in the Market Failures (or Self-Regulation) Approach. Journal of Business Ethics (3):1-10.
    Joseph Heath lumps in quotas and protectionist measures with cartelization, taking advantage of information asymmetries, seeking a monopoly position, and so on, as all instances of behavior that can lead to market failures in his market failures approach to business ethics. The problem is that this kind of rent and rent seeking, when they fail to deliver desirable outcomes, are better described as government failure. I suggest that this means we will have to expand Heath’s framework to a market and (...)
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  17. Yusuke Kaneko (2013). Three Utilitarians: Hume, Bentham, and Mill. IAFOR Journal of Ethics, Religion and Philosophy 1 (1):65-78.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify the relationship of three thinkers, Hume, Bentham, and Mill in the context of utilitarianism. Through discussion, we shall figure out how and why utilitarianism is trustworthy.
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  18. William Kline (2012). Hume's Theory of Business Ethics Revisited. Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):163-174.
    Hume’s examination of the conventions of property, trade, and contract addresses the moral foundations that make business possible. In this light, Hume’s theory of justice is also a foundational work in business ethics. In Hume’s analysis of these conventions, both philosophers and game theorists have correctly identified “proto” game-theoretic elements. One of the few attempts to offer a Humean theory of business ethics rests on this game-theoretic interpretation of Hume’s argument. This article argues that game-theoretic reasoning is only one part (...)
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  19. Christoph Luetge (2007). Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen?: Ethik im Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Mohr Siebeck.
    Many social philosophers and ethicists contend that a modern society cannot remain stable merely by its citizens obeying all of its rules. Such prominent theoreticians as J. Habermas, J. Rawls, D. Gauthier or R. Rorty hold the view that the citizens of a modern society must exhibit additional anthropological qualities which are termed moral surpluses here. Christoph Lütge argues, however, that no moral surplus is immune to erosion by systematic counter-incentives and that anthropological qualities in general cannot serve as a (...)
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  20. Jeffrey Moriarty (2012). Justice in Compensation: A Defense. Business Ethics 21 (1):64-76.
    Business ethicists have written much about ethical issues in employment. Except for a handful of articles on the very high pay of chief executive officers and the very low pay of workers in overseas sweatshops, however, little has been written about the ethics of compensation. This is prima facie strange. Workers care about their pay, and they think about it in normative terms. This article's purpose is to consider whether business ethicists' neglect of the normative aspects of compensation is justified. (...)
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  21. Mark T. Nelson (1998). An Aristotelian Business Ethics? Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (1):89–104.
    Elaine Sternberg's Just Business is one of the first book-length Aristotelian treatments of business ethics. ^It is Aristotelian in the sense that Sternberg begins by defining the nature of business in order to identify its end, and, thence, normative principles to regulate it. According to Sternberg, the nature of business is 'the selling of goods or services in order to maximise long-term owner value', therefore all business behaviour must be evaluated =with reference to the maximisation of long-term owner value, Pconstrained (...)
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  22. Jeffrey Nesteruk & David T. Risser (1992). Teaching Ethics in Business Law Courses. In Joshua Laverson (ed.), Teaching Resource Bulletin, no. 2. American Bar Association (Commission on College and University Nonprofessional Legal Studies).
    The article begins with a view of recent developments in the discipline of business law. A model useful in the study of business ethics is presented. Business ethics is the philosophical examination of the body of values and conceptions that influence business decision making as well as being pervasive components of the social environment in which businesses operate. Our model is a four-part framework for approaching business ethics which is sensitive to its implications for business law. The model's four parts (...)
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  23. Eric Palmer (2004). Entidades corporativas e imperativos categóricos. Impulso 38.
    As duas formulacoes do imperative categorico de Kant, leativas a universalizabilidade de aco e a direcao da acao para os fins em si mesmos, nao sao logicalmente equivalentes. John Rawls e Jurgen Habermas exploram a divisao de Kant em seus esforcos para promover politicas liberais e politicas justificaveis na justica processual. Mas, ao mesmo tempo, levam a um rompimento com a abordagem de Kant – a aceitacao de uma divisao entre o etico e o legal. O presente artigo argumenta ser (...)
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  24. Eric Palmer (2004). Real Corporate Responsibility. In John Hooker & Peter Madsen (eds.), International Corporate Responsibility Series. Carnegie Mellon University Press. 69-84.
    The Call for Papers for this conference suggests the topic, “international codes of business conduct.” This paper is intended to present a shift from a discussion of codes, or constraints to be placed upon business, to an entirely different topic: to responsibility, which yields duty, and the reciprocal concept, right. Beyond the framework of external regulation and codes of conduct, voluntary or otherwise, lies another possible accounting system: one of real corporate responsibility, which arises out of the evident capability of (...)
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  25. Lorenzo Sacconi (2006). A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the firm’s (...)
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  26. Joakim Sandberg (2013). Just Price. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The just price tradition has roots in Ancient philosophy but is most straightforwardly associated with a line of medieval philosophers and theologians, such as John Duns Scotus (see Duns Scotus), St. Thomas Aquinas (see Aquinas, Saint Thomas) and others. What generally characterizes the tradition is an interest in matters of ethics and justice concerning the pricing of goods and services on commercial markets. Medieval philosophers were often critical of commerce in general – and commerce with money in particular (see Usury) (...)
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  27. Erin C. Tarver (2013). Work/Life Integration. In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. 1191--1202.
    Some provisions of the UN’s Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) are clearly important from the perspective of business ethics, particularly those calling for equal rights for women to employment and financial security. Some other provisions of CEDAW are equally as important for ethical business practices and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), but are frequently overlooked because of the presumption that they are not strictly business concerns: the rights of women to participation in public life, marriage, and family (...)
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  28. Nachoem M. Wijnberg (2000). Normative Stakeholder Theory and Aristotle: The Link Between Ethics and Politics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 25 (4):329 - 342.
    Stakeholder theory is an important part of modern business ethics. Many scholars argue for a normative instead of an instrumental approach to stakeholder theory. Recent examples of such an approach show that problems appear with respect to the ethical foundation as well as the specification of the norms and the relation between corporate and individual responsibilities. This paper argues for the relevance of Aristotle's ideas on ethics and politics, and especially the link between them, for stakeholder theory. An Aristotelian approach (...)
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Narratives in Business Ethics
  1. David M. Boje (2010). Resituating Narrative and Story in Business Ethics. Business Ethics 19 (3):253-264.
    In this article, we resituate a long-standing duality of (Western) narrative tradition over living story emergence and more linear narrative. Narrative, with its focus on linear beginning, middle and end coherence, retrospection and monologic, is too easily appropriated into managerialist projects. We focus on the web of living stories as a Derridian deconstructive move, which allows us to say something important about their relation to narrative and to develop a storytelling ethics. Our thesis is that resituating the relationship between narrative (...)
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  2. R. Edward Freeman, Kirsten Martin & Bidhan Parmar (2007). Stakeholder Capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):303 - 314.
    In this article, we will outline the principles of stakeholder capitalism and describe how this view rejects problematic assumptions in the current narratives of capitalism. Traditional narratives of capitalism rely upon the assumptions of competition, limited resources, and a winner-take-all mentality as fundamental to business and economic activity. These approaches leave little room for ethical analysis, have a simplistic view of human beings, and focus on value-capture rather than value-creation. We argue these assumptions about capitalism are inadequate and leave four (...)
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The Possibility of Business Ethics
  1. A. Defence ofPhilosophical Business Ethics 1 (2003). Roger Crisp. In William H. Shaw (ed.), Ethics at Work: Basic Readings in Business Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  2. Donald E. Frey (1998). Individualist Economic Values and Self-Interest: The Problem in the Puritan Ethic. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (14):1573-1580.
    The Puritan ethic is conventionally interpreted as a set of individualistic values that encourage a degree of self-interest inimical to the good of organizations and society. A closer reading of original Puritan moralists reveals a different ethic. Puritan moralists simultaneously legitimated economic individualism while urging individuals to work for the common good. They contrasted self-interest and the common good, which they understood to be the sinful and moral ends, respectively, of economic individualism. This polarity can be found in all the (...)
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  3. Michael C. Jensen (2002). Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2):235-256.
    Abstract: In this article, I offer a proposal to clarify what I believe is the proper relation between value maximization and stakeholder theory, which I call enlightened value maximization. Enlightened value maximization utilizes much of the structure of stakeholder theory but accepts maximization of the long-run value of the firm as the criterion for making the requisite tradeoffs among its stakeholders, and specifies long-term value maximization or value seeking as the firm’s objective. This proposal therefore solves the problems that arise (...)
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  4. Jeffrey Moriarty (2005). On the Relevance of Political Philosophy to Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (3):455-473.
    The central problems of political philosophy (e.g., legitimate authority, distributive justice) mirror the central problems of businessethics. The question naturally arises: should political theories be applied to problems in business ethics? If a version of egalitarianism is the correct theory of justice for states, for example, does it follow that it is the correct theory of justice for businesses? If states should be democratically governed by their citizens, should businesses be democratically managed by their employees? Most theorists who have considered (...)
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  5. Joakim Sandberg (2013). Profit Motive. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The profit motive refers to what is generally taken to be the underlying motivation of business and commercial activity: to collect revenues in excess of costs or, more simply, to make money. While both “profit” and “profit motive” may be given more technical definitions in economics, the latter's meaning is typically broader in philosophical discussions and so, for example, even managers of nonprofit organizations may be accused of sometimes acting from a profit motive. The profit motive is typically the object (...)
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  6. Joakim Sandberg (2008). The Tide is Turning on the Separation Thesis? Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4):561-565.
    In my article "Understanding the Separation Thesis" I noted that most scholars in the business ethics field seemed to have accepted R. Edward Freeman's argument to the effect that what he calls "the separation thesis" should be rejected. I argue, however, that they seemed to understand this thesis (and its rejection) in quite different ways. This volume contains three responses to my article which, interestingly enough, can be taken to corroborate my original argument. I here make some brief comments on (...)
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  7. Joakim Sandberg (2008). Understanding the Separation Thesis. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):213-232.
    Many writers in the field of business ethics seem to have accepted R. Edward Freeman’s argument to the effect that what he calls “the separation thesis,” or the idea that business and morality can be separated in certain ways, should be rejected. In this paper, I discuss how this argument should be understood more exactly, and what position “the separation thesis” refers to. I suggest that there are actually many interpretations (or versions) of the separation thesis going around, ranging from (...)
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  8. Nachoem M. Wijnberg (2000). Normative Stakeholder Theory and Aristotle: The Link Between Ethics and Politics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 25 (4):329 - 342.
    Stakeholder theory is an important part of modern business ethics. Many scholars argue for a normative instead of an instrumental approach to stakeholder theory. Recent examples of such an approach show that problems appear with respect to the ethical foundation as well as the specification of the norms and the relation between corporate and individual responsibilities. This paper argues for the relevance of Aristotle's ideas on ethics and politics, and especially the link between them, for stakeholder theory. An Aristotelian approach (...)
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Stakeholder Theory
  1. Bradley R. Agle, Thomas Donaldson & R. Edward Freeman (2008). Dialogue: Toward Superior Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
    A quick look at what is happening in the corporate world makes it clear that the stakeholder idea is alive, well, and flourishing; and the question now is not “if ” but “how” stakeholder theory will meet the challenges of its success. Does stakeholder theory’s “arrival” mean continued dynamism, refinement, and relevance, or stasis? How will superior stakeholder theory continue to develop? In light of these and related questions, the authors of these essays conducted an ongoing dialogue on the current (...)
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  2. Antonio Argandoña (1998). The Stakeholder Theory and the Common Good. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (9-10):1093-1102.
    The theory of the social responsibility of the firm oscillates between two extremes: one that reduces the firm's responsibility to the obtainment of (the greatest possible) profit for its shareholders, and another that extends the firm's responsibility to include a wide range of actors with an interest or "stake" in the firm. The stakeholder theory of the social responsibility of business is more appealing from an ethical point of view, and yet it lacks a solid foundation that would be acceptable (...)
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  3. Steven N. Brenner (1992). The Stakeholder Theory of the Firm. Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (2):99-119.
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  4. Rogene A. Buchholz & Sandra B. Rosenthal (2004). Stakeholder Theory and Public Policy: How Governments Matter. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (2):143-153.
    The Social Issues in Management Division has had a long history of research into various aspects of governmental influences on business. Recent years, however, have seen stakeholder theory sort of sweep the field, and under a stakeholder theory of capitalism, governments will matter less then they have in the past as stakeholder principles are implemented throughout the corporate world. This article will examine the nature of this claim by discussing problems with the implementation of stakeholder theory and examining the role (...)
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  5. Thomas L. Carson (1993). Does the Stakeholder Theory Constitute a New Kind of Theory of Social Responsibility? Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (2):171-176.
    In arecent paper, Kenneth Goodpaster formulates three versions of the stakeholder theory of corporate social responsibility. He rejects the first two versions and endorses the third. I argue that the theory that Goodpaster defends under the name “stakeholder theory” is aversion (albeit a somewhat different version) of Milton Friedman’s theory of corporate social responsibility. I also argue that the first two formulations of the stakeholder theory which Goodpaster discusses are at most only slight modifications of other theories. I conclude by (...)
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  6. Marc A. Cohen (2010). The Narrow Application of Rawls in Business Ethics: A Political Conception of Both Stakeholder Theory and the Morality of Markets. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (4):563-579.
    This paper argues that Rawls’ principles of justice provide a normative foundation for stakeholder theory. The principles articulate (at an abstract level) citizens’ rights; these rights create interests across all aspects of society, including in the space of economic activity; and therefore, stakeholders – as citizens – have legitimate interests in the space of economic activity. This approach to stakeholder theory suggests a political interpretation of Boatright’s Moral Market approach, one that emphasizes the rights/place of citizens. And this approach to (...)
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  7. Niklas Egels-Zandén & Joakim Sandberg (2010). Distinctions in Descriptive and Instrumental Stakeholder Theory: A Challenge for Empirical Research. Business Ethics: A European Review 19 (1):35-49.
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  8. R. Edward Freeman (1994). The Politics of Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4):409-421.
    The purpose of this paper is to enter the conversation about stakeholder theory with the goal of clarifying certain foundational issues. I want to show, along with Boatright, that there is no stakeholder paradox, and that the principle on which such a paradox is built, the Separation Thesis, is nicely self-serving to business and ethics academics. If we give up such a thesis we find there is no stakeholder theory but that stakeholder theory becomes a genre that is quite rich. (...)
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  9. R. Edward Freeman, Kirsten Martin & Bidhan Parmar (2007). Stakeholder Capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):303 - 314.
    In this article, we will outline the principles of stakeholder capitalism and describe how this view rejects problematic assumptions in the current narratives of capitalism. Traditional narratives of capitalism rely upon the assumptions of competition, limited resources, and a winner-take-all mentality as fundamental to business and economic activity. These approaches leave little room for ethical analysis, have a simplistic view of human beings, and focus on value-capture rather than value-creation. We argue these assumptions about capitalism are inadequate and leave four (...)
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  10. R. Edward Freeman & Robert A. Phillips (2002). Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defense. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):331-350.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are (...)
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  11. Peter A. French, Jeffrey Nesteruk & David T. Risser (1992). Corporations in the Moral Community. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
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