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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854), together with J.G. Fichte and G.W.F. Hegel, is considered to be one of the three key figures of German Idealism. His philosophical oeuvre is most commonly divided into his (1) early period (1794-1800), (2) his Philosophy of Identity (1801-1809), (3) his middle period (1809-1827), and, finally, (4) the Positive and Negative Philosophy, and his critique of Hegel in his late period (1827-1854). His early period is broadly motivated by the systematic question of Kant’s third Critique, that is, of the unity between the realm of necessity and the realm of freedom which Schelling approaches from the perspective of both the subject (Transcendental Philosophy) and object (Philosophy of Nature). Schelling pursues the same question in his Philosophy of Identity but his method in this period resembles a neo-Platonic self-division of an independent ground of freedom and nature, the absolute identity of freedom and necessity. In his middle period, Schelling adds to his earlier view of absolute freedom (freedom that is identical with necessity) the view of freedom as a capacity for both good and evil. In his late period, he criticizes Hegel’s system according to which thought exhausts the whole reality (Negative Philosophy) and argues for the primacy of being over thought (Positive Philosophy).

Although neglected for many years in the Anglophone world, Schelling’s thought remains very much present with us today. Schelling’s view that there are aspects of the self that continuously escape self-consciousness indicates the ongoing relevance of Schelling’s philosophy for psychoanalysis. By assigning a unique place to art, a place that was traditionally assigned to logic in the history of philosophy, namely, art as the “organon” or instrument of philosophy, Schelling admits the limitations of philosophy, which for him is no longer a self-sufficient practice. Schelling’s understanding of identity between mind and nature resonates in the mind-body debates of contemporary analytic philosophy, especially the works of Geach and Davidson. His grounding of our agency in a reality that exceeds the grasp of reason anticipates the later “existentialist” tradition. And finally Schelling’s view that being precedes all reflection entails the idea of historical and empirical contingency which paved the way to Marxist materialism and to some more recent European philosophies that are keen on emphasizing the limits of our rationality.

Key works

The key works of Schelling’s early period are Of the I as the Principle of Philosophy or on the Unconditional in Human Knowledge (1795), Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature as Introduction to the Study of this Science (1797), and System of Transcendental Idealism (1800). The most important works of his Philosophy of Identity are Presentation of My System of Philosophy (1801) and The Philosophy of Art (1802-3). The two central works of his middle period are Of Human Freedom (1809) and The Ages of the World (1811-15). And finally the key works of his late period are Foundations of the Positive Philosophy (1832-3), Philosophy of Revelation (1841-2), and Philosophy of Mythology (1842). 

Introductions

Online encyclopedia articles: Andrew Bowie, “Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling” Bowie 2008. Book-length introductory works: Andrew Bowie, Schelling and Modern European Philosophy: An Introduction Bowie 1993; Manfred Frank, Eine Einfuehrung in Schellings Philosophie .

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  1. Jair Barboza (2009). Metafísica Do Irracional – Mal Radical Em Schelling E Schopenhauer. Veritas 54 (2):57-64.
    Este artigo intenta mostrar as bases conceituais de uma metafísica do irracional em Schelling e Schopenhuaer, quando ambos os autores identificam na vontade a essência cega e irracional do mundo.
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  2. Katherine Elise Barhydt & J. M. Fritzman (2013). German Idealism Meets Indian Vedānta and Kaśmiri Śaivism. Comparative Philosophy 4 (2).
    0 0 1 152 943 Lewis & Clark College 21 2 1093 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE Regarding each philosophy as a variation of that of Spinoza , t his article compares the German Idealism of Schelling and Hegel with the Indian Ved ā nta of Śaṅkara and Rāmānuja, as well as Abhinavagupta’s Kaśmiri Śaivism. It argues that only Hegel’s philosophy does not fail. For Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja, Abhinavagupta, and Schelling, the experience of ultimate reality—Brahman for Śaṅkara (...)
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  3. Edward A. Beach (1990). The Later Schelling's Conception of Dialectical Method, in Contradistinction to Hegel's. The Owl of Minerva 22 (1):35-54.
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  4. Rainer Beer (1989). The Productivity of Nature. Schelling's Natural Philosophy and the New Paradigm of Self-Organization in the Sciences. Philosophy and History 22 (1):16-18.
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  5. William Andrew Behun (2006). The Historical Pivot: Philosophy of History in Hegel, Schelling, and Hölderlin. Triad Press.
    The historical background -- Epicycle and Telos : Hegel on history -- Schelling and the time(s) of the Weltalter -- Hölderlin and history : philosophy and tragedy -- Hyperion and history.
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  6. Werner Beierwaltes (2002). The Legacy of Neoplatonism in F. W. J. Schelling's Thought. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (4):393 – 428.
    F.W.J. Schelling, one of the essential thinkers in the development of German Idealism, formed his own thought not only in a critical dialogue with Kant's and Fichte's transcendentalism and Hegel's earlier conception of thinking, but also in an intensive discussion with Plato and Aristotle. Over and above that, Neoplatonism - especially Plotinus, Proclus and the Christian Dionysius the Areopagite - played a decisive role in Schelling's reception and transformation of ancient philosophy.Selecting the manifold aspects which could be reflected on in (...)
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  7. Werner Beierwaltes (1978). Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Philosophy and History 11 (2):127-129.
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  8. Werner Beierwaltes (1978). F. W. J. Schelling. Philosophy and History 11 (2):135-136.
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  9. Werner Beierwaltes (1972). Speculation and Facticity. A Study on Schelling's Concept of Freedom During His Middle and Late Period. Philosophy and History 5 (1):26-27.
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  10. Frederick Beiser (2010). Mathematical Method in Kant, Schelling, and Hegel. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  11. Gérard Bensussan (2010). Traduit de l'Absolu : Forces, Concepts Et Puissances Dans Les Âges du Monde Et au-Delà. In Jean-François Courtine & Gérard Bensussan (eds.), Schelling. Les Editions du Cerf.
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  12. Robert Berman (1985). Schelling: An Introduction to the System of Freedom and Absolute Knowledge: Hegel and the Problem of Metaphysics, by Alan White. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 10 (2):178-185.
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  13. Jeffrey Bernstein (2004). Philosophy of History as the History of Philosophy in Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 8 (2):233-254.
    Schelling’s System of Transcendental Idealism is usually considered to be either (1) an early Fichtean-influenced work that gives little insight into Schelling’s philosophy or (2) a text focusing on self-consciousness and aesthetics. I argue that Schelling’s System develops a subtle conception of history which originates in a dialogue with Kant and Hegel (concerning the question of teleology) and concludes in proximity to an Idealist version of Spinoza. In this way, Schelling develops a philosophy of history which is, simultaneously, a dialectical (...)
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  14. Jeffrey A. Bernstein (2005). On the Interval Between Negative and Positive Philosophy in Schelling's Thought. Review of the Conspiracy of Life: Meditations on Schelling and His Time by Jason M. Wirth. Research in Phenomenology 35 (1):343-350.
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  15. Sigrun Bielfeldt (2008). Selbst Oder Natur: Schellings Anfang in Russland. Sagner.
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  16. Edward Booth (2000). Leibniz and Schelling. Studia Leibnitiana 32:86-104.
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  17. Christophe Bouton (1997). Considérations Éthiques Sur le Temps Dans 'Les Ages du Monde' de Schelling. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 95 (4):639-672.
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  18. Andrew Bowie, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von Schelling. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  19. Andrew Bowie (1993). Schelling and Modern European Philosophy: An Introduction. Routledge.
    This is the first book in English to present F. W. J. Schelling (1775-1854) as a major European philosopher in his own right. Schelling and Modern European Philosophy surveys the whole of Schelling's philosophical career and lucidly reconstructs his key arguments, drawing from highly complex, often inaccessible and untranslated texts. Andrew Bowie argues that Schelling, usually considered an interesting but eccentric precursor to Hegel, actually offered serious alternatives to Hegel's thinking. Bowie shows that central ideas and conceptual strategies in the (...)
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  20. Joseph A. Bracken (1978). "The Later Philosophy of Schelling: The Influence of Boehme on the Works of 1809-1815," by Robert F. Brown. The Modern Schoolman 55 (2):196-197.
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  21. Joseph A. Bracken (1977). "Schelling. Einführung in Seine Philosophie," Ed. Hans Michael Baumgartner. The Modern Schoolman 54 (3):298-298.
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  22. Joseph A. Bracken (1976). Freedom and Causality in the Philosophy of Schelling. New Scholasticism 50 (2):164-182.
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  23. Antoon Braeckman (2004). The “Individual Universal”. Idealistic Studies 34 (1):67-83.
    This article explores Schelling’s view concerning the eventual reconciliation of modern individuality and society. It is argued that in Schelling’s speculations on this subject, aesthetic models play a prominent role: on the level of society by expressing the need for a new mythology; on the level of the individual by formulating a normative ideal in which the individual is modelled after the work of artand its creator: the artistic genius. This normative view on modern individuality is quite ambivalent. It summons (...)
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  24. Daniel Breazeale (1998). Schelling and the End of Idealism. International Philosophical Quarterly 38 (3):336-338.
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  25. Daniel Breazeale (1976). English Translations of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. Idealistic Studies 6 (3):279-297.
  26. Emilio Brito (1986). Création Et Temps Dans la Philosophie de Schelling. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 84 (3):362-384.
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  27. Robert F. Brown (1990). Resources In Schelling For New Directions In Theology. Idealistic Studies 20 (1):1-17.
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  28. Robert F. Brown (1984). The Transcendental Fall In Kant and Schelling. Idealistic Studies 14 (1):49-66.
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  29. Robert F. Brown (1978). Freiheit und Kausalität bei Schelling, and: Absolute und endliche Freiheit: Schellings Lehre von Schöpfung und Fall (review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 16 (1):128-131.
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  30. Robert F. Brown (1977). The Construction of the History of Religion in Schelling's Positive Philosophy. International Philosophical Quarterly 17 (1):111-114.
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  31. G. Anthony Bruno (forthcoming). Freedom and Pluralism in Schelling's Critique of Fichte's Jena Wissenschaftslehre. Idealistic Studies.
    Recent scholarship has focused on Schelling’s late attack on Hegel. But we cannot grasp Schelling’s critique of German idealism without tracing it, early than scholars do, to the early “Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism” (1795/96). These initiate his engagement with the problem of systematicity—that judgment makes necessary the derivation of a system of the a priori conditions of experience from a first principle, while this capacity’s finitude makes this task impossible. Schelling seeks to demonstrate this problem’s intractability. My conceptual (...)
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  32. G. Anthony Bruno (forthcoming). 'As From a State of Death': Schelling's Idealism as Mortalism. Comparative and Continental Philosophy.
    If we understand a philosophical problem as “the collision between a comprehensive view (be it hypothesis or belief) and a particular fact which will not fit into it” (Jonas 2001, 9), we should expect no greater problem for Spinozism and German idealism than the human corpse. That the living die is a problem for a view on which it is a “figment of the human imagination” that the organic and inorganic differ in kind, on which death introduces no qualitative change (...)
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  33. G. Anthony Bruno (2011). Gauging Schelling’s Late Return to Kant. Juventas: Zeitschrift für Junge Philosophie 1 (2):118-39.
  34. Alexius J. Bucher (1989). Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Historical Critical Edition. Philosophy and History 22 (2):144-149.
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  35. Alexius J. Bucher (1984). Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Historical Critical Edition. Series I, Vol. Philosophy and History 17 (2):133-134.
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  36. T. Buchheim (1990). Objective Thought in Schelling Natural-Philosophy. Kant-Studien 81 (3):321-338.
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  37. H. G. Callaway (1996). Schelling and the Background of American Pragmatism:. [REVIEW] Arisbe, Peirce-Related Papers 1:1-12.
    The short cover-description of the present book tells that "Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854) was one of the formative philosophers of German idealism, whose great service was in the areas of the philosophy of nature, art, and religion." Those having some familiarity with Schelling, and his influence on American philosophy, indirectly via Coleridge and Carlyle and more directly via Emerson and C. S. Peirce, will perhaps not be surprised to learn that German idealism itself looks somewhat different, understanding Schelling's differences (...)
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  38. Emmanuel Cattin (2010). Méditation de la Volonté, 1809-1821. In Jean-François Courtine & Gérard Bensussan (eds.), Schelling. Les Editions du Cerf.
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  39. A. W. Centner (1937). Schelling. New Scholasticism 11 (2):176-177.
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  40. Darrel E. Christensen (1976). Zum Begriff der Negativität bei Schelling und Hegel (review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 14 (2):240-241.
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  41. Arturo Leyte Coello (1996). Schelling y la Música. Anuario Filosófico 29 (54):107-124.
    Schelling and music.- Music is a theme which enables us to have more direct access to the philosophy of Schelling. This is because in the Romantic period it is typical to find the conceptual framework provided by affirming a unity between reason and sensibility, while thought of the modern period tends to split these two. Here music is dealt with on the basis of a study of the meaning of art in the System of transcendental idealism, and of the question (...)
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  42. James Collins (1979). Le Fondement Selon Schelling. By Miklos Veto. The Modern Schoolman 56 (2):193-194.
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  43. Jean-François Courtine (2010). La Place du Judaïsme Dans La Philosophie de la Révélation. In Jean-François Courtine & Gérard Bensussan (eds.), Schelling. Les Editions du Cerf.
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  44. Jean-François Courtine (2010). Les Questions Ontologiques Dans la Dernière Philosophie de Schelling : Platon Et Aristote. In Jean-François Courtine & Gérard Bensussan (eds.), Schelling. Les Editions du Cerf.
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  45. Jean-François Courtine & Gérard Bensussan (eds.) (2010). Schelling. Les Editions du Cerf.
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  46. Drew M. Dalton (2008). Being and Time for Schelling. Idealistic Studies 38 (3):175-184.
    The recent re-evaluation of Schelling’s work has blossomed interest and research into a number of Schelling’s core ideas. Amongst these Schelling’s analysis of God, the creative act and human freedom have been amongst the most explored. Much less explored has been his theory of temporality, a theory which not only underpins but is essential to understanding properly these other insights. It is the goal of this essay to correct that oversight by offering some initial remarks concerning Schelling’s theory of temporality, (...)
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  47. Christian Danz & Jörg Jantzen (eds.) (2011). Gott, Natur, Kunst Und Geschichte: Schelling Zwischen Identitätsphilosophie Und Freiheitsschrift. Vienna University Press.
    English summary: The contributions to this volume discuss the philosophical development of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854) in the first half of the 19th century.
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  48. Pascal David (2002). Schelling : construction de l'art et récusation de l'esthétique. Revue de Métaphysique Et de Morale 2 (2):29-41.
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  49. Alfred Denker (2003). Schelling - Fichte Briefwechsel, kommentiert und herausgegeben von Hartmut Traub. Fichte-Studien 21:219-221.
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  50. Natalie Depraz (1996). Chair de l'Esprit Et Esprit de la Chair Chez Hegel, Schelling Et Husserl. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 94 (1):19-42.
1 — 50 / 302