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Summary

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854), together with J.G. Fichte and G.W.F. Hegel, is considered to be one of the three key figures of German Idealism. His philosophical oeuvre is most commonly divided into his (1) early period (1794-1800), (2) his Philosophy of Identity (1801-1809), (3) his middle period (1809-1827), and, finally, (4) the Positive and Negative Philosophy, and his critique of Hegel in his late period (1827-1854). His early period is broadly motivated by the systematic question of Kant’s third Critique, that is, of the unity between the realm of necessity and the realm of freedom which Schelling approaches from the perspective of both the subject (Transcendental Philosophy) and object (Philosophy of Nature). Schelling pursues the same question in his Philosophy of Identity but his method in this period resembles a neo-Platonic self-division of an independent ground of freedom and nature, the absolute identity of freedom and necessity. In his middle period, Schelling adds to his earlier view of absolute freedom (freedom that is identical with necessity) the view of freedom as a capacity for both good and evil. In his late period, he criticizes Hegel’s system according to which thought exhausts the whole reality (Negative Philosophy) and argues for the primacy of being over thought (Positive Philosophy).

Although neglected for many years in the Anglophone world, Schelling’s thought remains very much present with us today. Schelling’s view that there are aspects of the self that continuously escape self-consciousness indicates the ongoing relevance of Schelling’s philosophy for psychoanalysis. By assigning a unique place to art, a place that was traditionally assigned to logic in the history of philosophy, namely, art as the “organon” or instrument of philosophy, Schelling admits the limitations of philosophy, which for him is no longer a self-sufficient practice. Schelling’s understanding of identity between mind and nature resonates in the mind-body debates of contemporary analytic philosophy, especially the works of Geach and Davidson. His grounding of our agency in a reality that exceeds the grasp of reason anticipates the later “existentialist” tradition. And finally Schelling’s view that being precedes all reflection entails the idea of historical and empirical contingency which paved the way to Marxist materialism and to some more recent European philosophies that are keen on emphasizing the limits of our rationality.

Key works

The key works of Schelling’s early period are Of the I as the Principle of Philosophy or on the Unconditional in Human Knowledge (1795) [, Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature as Introduction to the Study of this Science (1797) [von Schelling 1988], and System of Transcendental Idealism (1800) [von Schelling 1978]. The most important works of his Philosophy of Identity are Presentation of My System of Philosophy (1801) [Schelling 2001] and The Philosophy of Art (1802-3) [Schelling 2008]. The two central works of his middle period are Of Human Freedom (1809) [Schelling et al 2006] and The Ages of the World (1811-15). And finally the key works of his late period are Foundations of the Positive Philosophy (1832-3) [Schelling & Wirth 2007], Philosophy of Revelation (1841-2), and Philosophy of Mythology (1842) [Schelling & Wirth 2007].

Introductions

Online encyclopedia articles: Andrew Bowie, “Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling” [Bowie 2008]. Book-length introductory works: Andrew Bowie, Schelling and Modern European Philosophy: An Introduction [Bowie 1993]; Manfred Frank, Eine Einfuehrung in Schellings Philosophie [Frank 1995].

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  1. Rainer Adolphi, Jörg Jantzen, Internationale Schelling-Gesellschaft & Università di Milano (2004). Das Antike Denken in der Philosophie Schellings. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  2. Rudolf Allers (1943). Frederick de Wolfe Bolman, Jr. Schelling, The Age of the World. [REVIEW] The Thomist 6:122.
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  3. Marcelino Luna Almazara (1990). La Spátphilosophie de Schelling y El Materialismo Filosófico (Manuel F. Lorenzo, La Última Orilla). El Basilisco: Revista de Filosofía, Ciencias Humanas, Teoría de la Ciencia y de la Cultura 3:89.
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  4. Fernando Pérez-Borbujo Alvarez (2006). Memoria, libertad y profecía. Un acercamiento a "Las edades del mundo" de F. W. J. Schelling. Revista de Filosofia 31 (1):101-122.
    En el presente artículo intentaremos aproximarnos a uno de los textos más emblemáticos del pensamiento de Schelling, Las Edades del Mundo (Die Weltalter), escrito entre 1813-1815, donde se encuentra todo el misterio de la filosofía medía de este autor que va desde el Ensayo de la libertad de 1809 hasta su reaparición en Munich y posteriormente en Berlín, donde sustituirá a Hegel a su muerte y formulará su famosa filosofía positiva, constituida por su Filosofía de la Mitología y de la (...)
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  5. Kleber Carneiro Amora (2009). Schelling E o Caráter Dual da Luz. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 13 (1):109-124.
    Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Neste trabalho procuramos mostrar como Schelling, baseado na dialética especulativa, antecipou, tal como o fizera em relação a inúmeros outros fenômenos físicos, uma importante teoria sobre a natureza da luz, a qual o físico Louis de Broglie demonstrou (...)
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  6. Aristóteles (2014). Sobre Virtudes E Vícios. Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia 55 (130):739-746.
    Tomando como ponto de partida o diálogo "Clara", escrito por Schelling, o autor faz da conexão da Natureza com o Espírito o fio condutor da trajetória do pensamento schellinguiano. É, antes de tudo, na disputa com as filosofias de Fichte e Hegel, que se revela a convergência entre a concepção transcendental do Espírito e a filosofia da Natureza, dando-se assim a entender a importância de um conceito especulativo da Natureza como acesso ao mundo real. Taking the dialogue "Clara", written by (...)
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  7. Christoph Asmuth (1998). Começo E Forma da Filosofia: Reflexões Sobre Fichte, Schelling E Hegel. Revista Filosófica de Coimbra 7 (13):55-70.
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  8. Christoph Asmuth, Alfred Denker & Michael G. Vater (2000). Schelling Zwischen Fichte Und Hegel = Between Fichte and Hegel. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  9. Roberto Augusto Miguez (2010). Schelling and Evil in 1809. Convivium 23:73-90.
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  10. Roberto Augusto Míguez (2009). La Crítica de Schelling a la Filosofía de Spinoza. Estudios Filosóficos 58 (168):293-312.
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  11. Roberto Augusto (2008). Genealogy of Time and Space in Schelling's Die Weltalter. Pensamiento 64 (241):499-509.
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  12. Roberto Augusto (2007). La Polémica Epistolar Entre Schelling Y Eschenmayer. Anuario Filosófico 40 (3).
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  13. Béla Bacsó (2007). Art and “the Sublime Truth”: On Schelling's Philosophy of Art. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 28 (1):195-208.
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  14. Damir Barbarić (2006). On the Essence of Beauty in Schelling. Phainomena 55:181-192.
    Although arguing for the traditionally posed issue of the beautiful as related to shining and showing, Schelling views this phenomenon from the very start within the highly dynamic field of speculative identity-oriented philosophy as the unity of the absolute, infinite, and finite, specific. The beautiful only arises out of their conflict, whereby the finite is necessarily given the central role. This is why Schelling proclaims sculpture to be the highest manifestation of visual arts, which is a real embodiment of the (...)
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  15. Jair Barboza (2009). Metafísica Do Irracional – Mal Radical Em Schelling E Schopenhauer. Veritas 54 (2):57-64.
    Este artigo intenta mostrar as bases conceituais de uma metafísica do irracional em Schelling e Schopenhuaer, quando ambos os autores identificam na vontade a essência cega e irracional do mundo.
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  16. Jair Barboza (2001). Polaridade, alma cósmica, graus de desenvolvimento da natureza: o nascimento da Naturphilosophie de Schelling. Discurso 32:249-288.
    O artigo mostra como se originou a Naturphilosophie , filosofia-da-natureza, de Schelling a partir do seu confronto crítico com a biologia de Kielmeyer, as concepções de natureza de Goethe e sobretudo com a teoria do organismo da Terceira Crítica de Kant.
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  17. Katherine Elise Barhydt & J. M. Fritzman (2013). German Idealism Meets Indian Vedānta and Kaśmiri Śaivism. Comparative Philosophy 4 (2).
    0 0 1 152 943 Lewis & Clark College 21 2 1093 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE Regarding each philosophy as a variation of that of Spinoza , t his article compares the German Idealism of Schelling and Hegel with the Indian Ved ā nta of Śaṅkara and Rāmānuja, as well as Abhinavagupta’s Kaśmiri Śaivism. It argues that only Hegel’s philosophy does not fail. For Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja, Abhinavagupta, and Schelling, the experience of ultimate reality—Brahman for Śaṅkara (...)
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  18. Fernando de Moraes Barros (2011). Schelling e a constituição da estética musical. Trans/Form/Ação 30 (2):93-114.
    O presente artigo conta investigar o processo de constituição da estética musical a partir da teoria da arte elaborada por F. W. J. von Schelling. Para tanto, espera-se mostrar a maneira pela qual o filósofo alemão procura redimensionar as bases que davam sustentação à chamada estética sistemática para, a partir de uma ponderação extremamente inovadora, caracterizar a música como um objeto original de saber.
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  19. Ingrid Basso (2008). Kierkegaard e Schelling: Il rapporto tra coscienza e rivelazione in Briciole di Filosofia e Filosofia della Rivelazione. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 64 (2/4):1099 - 1111.
    O presente artigo apresenta-se como esboço de um estudo mais aprofundado do confronto teorético entre a filosofia de Kierkegaard e a do último Schelling. Depois de uma breve introdução de carácter histórico sobre as circunstâncias que levaram Kierkegaard a Berlin, onde haveria de permanecer entre Outubro de 1841 e Março de 1842, em ordem a poder assistir pessoalmente aos desenvolvimentos da "filosofia positiva" de Schelling (na qual esperava poder encontrar uma alternativa à lógica hegeliana) expressos nas lições sobre "Filosofia da (...)
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  20. Edward Beach (1984). Schelling: An Introduction to the System of Freedom. Philosophical Books 25 (3):157-159.
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  21. Edward A. Beach (1990). The Later Schelling's Conception of Dialectical Method, in Contradistinction to Hegel's. The Owl of Minerva 22 (1):35-54.
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  22. Edward Allen Beach (1994). The Potencies of God(S): Schelling's Philosophy of Mythology. State University of New York Press.
    Explores the metaphysical, epistemological, and hermeneutical theories of Schelling’s final system concerning the nature and meaning of religious mythology.
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  23. Edward Allen Beach (1988). Schelling's Philosophy of Mythology: A Critical Analysis. Dissertation, Stanford University
    This monograph explores the metaphysical and hermeneutical principles underlying Schelling's final system concerning the nature of religious mythology. This system was worked out in the last two decades of his life and delivered in a series of lectures in Berlin between 1841 and 1846. Treatment of this topic requires a combination of methodological approaches--hermeneutical, historical, and philosophical, but my primary emphasis is on the philosophy. I give a detailed analysis of Schelling's "Potenzenlehre" and discuss its logical implications for both the (...)
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  24. Alain Beauclair (2006). Jason Wirth, Ed., Schelling Now. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 26:151-154.
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  25. Rainer Beer (1989). The Productivity of Nature. Schelling's Natural Philosophy and the New Paradigm of Self-Organization in the Sciences. Philosophy and History 22 (1):16-18.
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  26. William Andrew Behun (2006). The Historical Pivot: Philosophy of History in Hegel, Schelling, and Hölderlin. Triad Press.
    The historical background -- Epicycle and Telos : Hegel on history -- Schelling and the time(s) of the Weltalter -- Hölderlin and history : philosophy and tragedy -- Hyperion and history.
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  27. Werner Beierwaltes (2002). The Legacy of Neoplatonism in F. W. J. Schelling's Thought. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (4):393 – 428.
    F.W.J. Schelling, one of the essential thinkers in the development of German Idealism, formed his own thought not only in a critical dialogue with Kant's and Fichte's transcendentalism and Hegel's earlier conception of thinking, but also in an intensive discussion with Plato and Aristotle. Over and above that, Neoplatonism - especially Plotinus, Proclus and the Christian Dionysius the Areopagite - played a decisive role in Schelling's reception and transformation of ancient philosophy.Selecting the manifold aspects which could be reflected on in (...)
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  28. Werner Beierwaltes (2000). El Neoplatonismo de Schelling. Anuario Filosófico 33 (67):395-442.
    The author reflects on some perspective of the early, medium and last thought of Schelling, to show how a glance to its objective and historical entailment with the neoplatonic thought can clarify the structure of its philosophy. In the philosophy of Schelling (a figure of the philosophy who has determined "modernity") the permanent importance of the neoplatonism is revealed.
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  29. Werner Beierwaltes (1978). Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Philosophy and History 11 (2):127-129.
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  30. Werner Beierwaltes (1978). F. W. J. Schelling. Philosophy and History 11 (2):135-136.
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  31. Werner Beierwaltes (1978). F. W. J. Schelling: Letters and Documents. Vol. 3. [REVIEW] Philosophy and History 11 (2):135-136.
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  32. Werner Beierwaltes (1972). Speculation and Facticity. A Study on Schelling's Concept of Freedom During His Middle and Late Period. Philosophy and History 5 (1):26-27.
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  33. Frederick Beiser (2010). Mathematical Method in Kant, Schelling, and Hegel. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  34. A. W. Benn (1908). SCHELLING, F. W. J. VON.-Werke. Auswahl in Drei Bänden. [REVIEW] Mind 17:281.
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  35. Gérard Bensussan (2010). Traduit de l'Absolu : Forces, Concepts Et Puissances Dans Les Âges du Monde Et au-Delà. In Jean-François Courtine & Gérard Bensussan (eds.), Schelling. Les Editions du Cerf.
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  36. Benjamin Berger (2014). Schelling’s Theory of Symbolic Language: Forming the System of Identity. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):208-211.
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  37. Benjamin Berger (2014). Review: The Dark Ground of Spirit: Schelling and the Unconscious. [REVIEW] Hegel Bulletin 35 (1).
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  38. Benjamin Berger (2014). Review: The Suspension of Reason in Hegel and Schelling. [REVIEW] Hegel Bulletin 35 (1).
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  39. Bettina Bergo (2011). The Birth Pangs of the Absolute: Longing and Angst in Schelling and Kierkegaard. In Hagi Kenaan & Ilit Ferber (eds.), Philosophy's Moods: The Affective Grounds of Thinking. Springer. 105--121.
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  40. Robert Berman (1985). Schelling: An Introduction to the System of Freedom and Absolute Knowledge: Hegel and the Problem of Metaphysics, by Alan White. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 10 (2):178-185.
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  41. Jeffrey Bernstein (2004). Philosophy of History as the History of Philosophy in Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 8 (2):233-254.
    Schelling’s System of Transcendental Idealism is usually considered to be either (1) an early Fichtean-influenced work that gives little insight into Schelling’s philosophy or (2) a text focusing on self-consciousness and aesthetics. I argue that Schelling’s System develops a subtle conception of history which originates in a dialogue with Kant and Hegel (concerning the question of teleology) and concludes in proximity to an Idealist version of Spinoza. In this way, Schelling develops a philosophy of history which is, simultaneously, a dialectical (...)
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  42. Jeffrey A. Bernstein (2005). On the Interval Between Negative and Positive Philosophy in Schelling's Thought. Review of the Conspiracy of Life: Meditations on Schelling and His Time by Jason M. Wirth. Research in Phenomenology 35 (1):343-350.
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  43. John R. Betz (2003). Schelling in Rosenzweigs Stern der Erlösung. Neue Zeitschrift Für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 45 (2):208-226.
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  44. Sigrun Bielfeldt (2008). Selbst Oder Natur: Schellings Anfang in Russland. Sagner.
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  45. Michael Blamauer (2012). Schelling’s Real Materialism. Minerva 16:1-24.
    In this paper, some of Schelling’s core ideas on consciousness and nature are investigated with the aim ofemphasizing their historical and systematic relevance to the current discussion on consciousness andpanpsychism. The focus is on the reasons and consequences of Schelling’s “turn” from his early Fichteanidealism to the “real materialism” of his later Identity Philosophy. It is shown that Schelling’s way of copingwith the ontological problems of the emergence of consciousness from a natural basis is by all meanscomparable to current panpsychist (...)
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  46. Frederick Dewolfe Bolman (1943). Schelling: The Ages of the World. Philosophical Review 52 (4):418-420.
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  47. Edward Booth (2000). Leibniz and Schelling. Studia Leibnitiana 32 (1):86-104.
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  48. Edward Booth (2000). Leibniz and Schelling. Studia Leibnitiana 32:86-104.
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  49. Stanisław Borzym (2000). Trentowski a Schelling. Idea 12 (12).
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  50. Stanisław Borzym (1999). Schelling a filozofia życia. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 30 (2):115-129.
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