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Siblings:History/traditions: Friendship
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  1. Ruth Abbey (1999). Back to the Future: Marriage as Friendship in the Thought of Mary Wollstonecraft. Hypatia 14 (3):78-95.
  2. Paola Agosti & Marco Revelli (eds.) (2009). Bobbio E Il Suo Mondo: Storie di Impegno E di Amicizia Nel 900. N. Aragno.
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  3. Mark Alfano (2016). Friendship and the Structure of Trust. In Alberto Masala & Jonathan Webber (eds.), From Personality to Virtue. Oxford 186-206.
    In this paper, I describe some of what I take to be the more interesting features of friendship, then explore the extent to which other virtues can be reconstructed as sharing those features. I use trustworthiness as my example throughout, but I think that other virtues such as generosity & gratitude, pride & respect, and the producer’s & consumer’s sense of humor can also be analyzed with this model. The aim of the paper is not to demonstrate that all moral (...)
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  4. David B. Annis (1988). Emotion, Love and Friendship. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):1-7.
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  5. Neera K. Badhwar, Friendship.
    Philosophical interest in friendship has revived after a long eclipse. This is largely due to a renewed interest in ancient moral philosophy, in the role of emotion in morality, and in the ethical dimensions of personal relations in general. Some of the main questions raised by philosophers are the following: Is friendship only an instrumental value, i.e., only a means to other values, or also an intrinsic value - a value in its own right? Is friendship a mark of psychological (...)
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  6. Enrique DusselTranslated by Michael Barber & Judd Seth Wright1 (2007). From Fraternity to Solidarity: Toward a Politics of Liberation. Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1):73–92.
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  7. Martin Beckstein, The Dissociative and Polemical Political: Chantal Mouffe and the Intellectual Heritage of Carl Schmitt.
    In her more recent work, Chantal Mouffe enters into what she calls a 'dialogue' with Carl Schmitt on the political. So far, interpretations of this dialogue suggest that Mouffe attempts to revise Schmitt's friend/enemy-distinction and carve out a theory of agonistic pluralism. An interpretation on these grounds, this article argues, reduces the dialogue to its analytical dimension and cannot comfortably be upheld. Mouffe indeed appropriates Schmitt's friend/enemy-distinction, but she also gets inspired by the metatheoretical facet of his intellectual heritage with (...)
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  8. Mavis Biss (2011). Aristotle on Friendship and Self-Knowledge: The Friend Beyond the Mirror. History of Philosophy Quarterly 28 (2):125.
    Aristotle's emphasis on sameness of character in his description of the virtuous friend as "another self" figures centrally in all his arguments for the necessity of friendship to self-knowledge. Although the attribution of the Magna Moralia to Aristotle is disputed, the comparison of the friend to a mirror in this work has encouraged many commentators to view the friend as a mirror that provides the clearest and most immediate image of one's own virtue. I will offer my own reading of (...)
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  9. William Bülow & Cathrine Felix (2016). On Friendship Between Online Equals. Philosophy and Technology 29 (1):21-34.
    There is an ongoing debate about the value of virtual friendship. In contrast to previous authorships, this paper argues that virtual friendship can have independent value. It is argued that within an Aristotelian framework, some friendships that are perhaps impossible offline can exist online, i.e., some offline unequals can be online equals and thus form online friendships of independent value.
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  10. Claudia Card (1988). Female Friendship: Separations and Continua. Hypatia 3 (2):123-130.
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  11. Hélio Rebello Cardoso Jr (2007). A amizade como paisagem conceitual e o amigo como personagem conceitual, segundo Deleuze e Guattari. Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 48 (115):33-45.
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  12. Anthony Carreras (2016). Amicably Deceived. Philosophical Papers 45 (1-2):133-158.
    A widely accepted thesis in the philosophy of friendship is what I call "the self-knowledge thesis," which says that good friendship is essentially such as to conduce to self-knowledge. I argue in this paper that the self-knowledge thesis is false. Good friendship need not conduce to self-knowledge, for it is part of the nature and value of friendship that it might lead us to form false beliefs about ourselves.
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  13. Dean Cocking & Jeanette Kennett (2000). Friendship and Moral Danger. Journal of Philosophy 97 (5):278-296.
    We focus here on some familiar kinds of cases of conflict between friendship and morality, and, on the basis of our account of the nature of friendship, argue for the following two claims: first, that in some cases where we are led morally astray by virtue of a relationship that makes its own demands on us, the relationship in question is properly called a friendship; second, that relationships of this kind are valuable in their own right.
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  14. Dean Cocking & Jeanette Kennett (1998). Friendship and the Self. Ethics 108 (3):502-527.
    We argue that companion friendship is not importantly marked by self-disclosure as understood in either of these two ways. One's close friends need not be markedly similar to oneself, as is claimed by the mirror account, nor is the role of private information in establishing and maintaining intimacy important in the way claimed by the secrets view. Our claim will be that the mirror and secrets views not only fail to identify features that are in part constitutive of close or (...)
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  15. John A. Cuddeback (1993). Friendship and the Moral Life. Review of Metaphysics 46 (4):877-879.
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  16. Lara Denis (2001). From Friendship to Marriage: Revising Kant. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (1):1-28.
    This paper examines Kant ’s accounts of friendship and marriage, and argues for what can be called an ideal of “moral marriage ” based on Kant ’s notion of moral friendship. After explaining why Kant values friendship so highly, it gives an account of the ways in which marriage falls far short, according to Kant, of what friendship has to offer. The paper then argues that many of Kant ’s reasons for finding marriage morally impoverished compared with friendship are wrong-headed. (...)
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  17. Nicholas Dixon (1995). The Friendship Model of Filial Obligations. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):77-87.
    ABSTRACT This paper [1] is a defence of a modified version of Jane English's model of filial obligations based on adult children's friendship with their parents. Unlike the more traditional view that filial obligations are a repayment for parental sacrifices, the friendship model puts filial duties in the appealing context of voluntary, loving relationships. Contrary to English's original statement of this view, which is open to the charge of tolerating filial ingratitude, the friendship model can generate obligations to help our (...)
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  18. Jochen Dreher (2009). Phenomenology of Friendship: Construction and Constitution of an Existential Social Relationship. [REVIEW] Human Studies 32 (4):401-417.
    Friendship, as a unique form of social relationship, establishes a particular union among individual human beings which allows them to overcome diverse boundaries between individual subjects. Age, gender or cultural differences do not necessarily constitute an obstacle for establishing friendship and as a social phenomenon, it might even include the potential to exist independently of space and time. This analysis in the interface of social science and phenomenology focuses on the principles of construction and constitution of this specific form of (...)
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  19. Anne Marie Dziob (1993). Aristotelian Friendship: Self-Love and Moral Rivalry. Review of Metaphysics 46 (4):781 - 801.
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  20. Terence Rajivan Edward (2013). Joseph Raz on the Problem of the Amoralist. Abstracta 7 (1):85-93.
    Joseph Raz has argued that the problem of the amoralist is misconceived. In this paper, I present three interpretations of what his argument is. None of these interpretations yields an argument that we are in a position to accept.
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  21. Alexis Elder (2014). Why Bad People Can't Be Good Friends. Ratio 27 (1):84-99.
    Must the best friends necessarily be good people? On the one hand, as Aristotle puts it, ‘people think that the same people are good and also friends’. But on the other hand, friendship sometimes seems to require that one behave badly. For example, a normally honest person might lie to corroborate a friend's story. What I will call closeness, which I take to include sensitivity to friends' subjective values and concerns as well as an inclination to take their subjective interests (...)
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  22. Matthew Evans (2004). Can Epicureans Be Friends? Ancient Philosophy 24 (2):407-424.
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  23. Luara Ferracioli (forthcoming). Family Migration Schemes and Liberal Neutrality: A Dilemma. Journal of Moral Philosophy:1-23.
    In this essay, I argue that the privileging of romantic and familial ties by those who believe in the liberal state’s right to exclude prospective immigrants cannot be justified. The reasons that count in favour of these relationships count equally in favour of a great array of relationships, from friends to creative collaborators, and whatever else falls in between. The liberal partialist now faces a dilemma, either the scope of the right to exclude is much more limited or much broader (...)
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  24. Shawn Floyd (2009). Preferential Divine Love (Or, Why God Loves Some People More Than Others). Philosophia Christi 11 (2):359-376.
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  25. Ellen L. Fox (1991). Moral Issues in Friendship. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Friendship alters the moral demands and ideals that we live with. In this dissertation I examine precisely how those ideals must change if they are to accommodate the realities of friendship. I begin by surveying Aristotle, Kant, and Montaigne, and showing that each of those writers had useful insights into the way in which we reconceptualize the self when we become close friends with another person. I suggest that Kant and Montaigne were both right that we tend to merge our (...)
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  26. Rachel Fredericks (2012). Troubling Others and Tormenting Ourselves: The Nature and Moral Significance of Jealousy. Dissertation, University of Washington
    Jealousy is an emotion that arises in diverse circumstances and is experienced in phenomenologically diverse ways. In part because of this diversity, evaluations of jealous subjects tend to be conflicting and ambiguous. Thus philosophers who are interested in the moral status of jealousy face a challenge: to explain how, despite the diversity of jealous subjects and experiences of jealousy, our moral evaluations of those subjects in light of those experiences might be unified. In this project, I confront and respond to (...)
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  27. Marilyn Friedman (1989). Feminism and Modern Friendship: Dislocating the Community. Ethics 99 (2):275-290.
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  28. Marilyn Friedman (1988). Review: Individuality Without Individualism: Review of Janice Raymond's A Passion for Friends. [REVIEW] Hypatia 3 (2):131-137.
    This review of Janice Raymond's A Passion for Friends focuses on her strong sense of the individual and of individuality. However, and this is the central contention of my paper, her perspective is quite distinct from liberal individualism. It is also a complex variation on the feminist concern with selves in relationships.
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  29. Sara Goering (2003). Choosing Our Friends: Moral Partiality and the Value of Diversity. Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (3):400–413.
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  30. George Graham & Hugh LaFollette (1986). Honesty and Intimacy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.
    Current professional and lay lore overlook the role of honesty in developing and sustaining intimate relationships. We wish to assert its importance. We begin by analyzing the notion of intimacy. An intimate encounter or exchange, we argue, is one in which one verbally or non-verbally privately reveals something about oneself, and does so in a sensitive, trusting way. An intimate relationship is one marked by regular intimate encounters or exchanges. Then, we consider two sorts of cases where it is widely (...)
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  31. Lisa Guenther (2007). Le Flair Animal: Levinas and the Possibility of Animal Friendship. Phaenex 2 (2):216-238.
    In Otherwise than Being, Levinas writes that the alterity of the Other escapes “le flair animal,” or the animal’s sense of smell. This paper puts pressure on the strong human-animal distinction that Levinas makes by considering the possibility that, while non-human animals may not respond to the alterity of the Other in the way that Levinas describes as responsibility, animal sensibility plays a key role in a relation to Others that Levinas does not discuss at length: friendship. This approach to (...)
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  32. Steven D. Hales (2008). What Philosophy Can Tell You About Your Dog. Open Court.
    Do dogs live in the same world as humans? Is it wrong to think dogs have personalities and emotions? What are dogs thinking and what’s the nature of canine wisdom? This is a book for thoughtful dog-lovers who want to explore the deeper issues raised by dogs and their relationships with humans. Twenty philosophers and dog-lovers reveal their experiences with dogs and give their insights on dog-related themes of metaphysics and ethics.
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  33. Katherine Hawley (2012). Partiality and Prejudice in Trusting. Synthese (9):1-17.
    You can trust your friends. You should trust your friends. Not all of your friends all of the time: you can reasonably trust different friends to different degrees, and in different domains. Still, we often trust our friends, and it is often reasonable to do so. Why is this? In this paper I explore how and whether friendship gives us reasons to trust our friends, reasons which may outstrip or conflict with our epistemic reasons. In the final section, I will (...)
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  34. Yuanguo He (2007). Confucius and Aristotle on Friendship: A Comparative Study. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (2):291-307.
    Before and during the times of Confucius and Aristotle, the concept of friendship had very different implications. This paper compares Confucius’ with Aristotle’s thoughts on friendship from two perspectives: xin 信 (fidelity, faithfulness) and le 乐 (joy). The Analects emphasizes the xin as the basis of friendship. Aristotle holds that there are three kinds of friends and corresponding to them are three types of friendship. In the friendship for the sake of pleasure, there is no xin; in the legal form (...)
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  35. Bennett W. Helm (2010). Love, Friendship, and the Self: Intimacy, Identification, and the Social Nature of Persons. Oxford University Press.
    Bennett Helm re-examines our common understanding of ourselves as persons in light of the phenomena of love and friendship.
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  36. Bennett W. Helm, Friendship. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Friendship, as understood here, is a distinctively personal relationship that is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for the welfare of the other, for the other's sake, and that involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the special concern we have for our friends must have a place within a broader set of concerns, including moral concerns, and in part because our friends can help shape who (...)
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  37. Bennett W. Helm (2008). Plural Agents. Noûs 42 (1):17–49.
    Genuine agents are able to engage in activity because they find it worth pursuing—because they care about it. In this respect, they differ from what might be called “mere intentional systems”: systems like chess-playing computers that exhibit merely goal-directed behavior mediated by instrumental rationality, without caring. A parallel distinction can be made in the domain of social activity: plural agents must be distinguished from plural intentional systems in that plural agents have cares and engage in activity because of those cares. (...)
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  38. Zena Hitz (2011). Aristotle on Self-Knowledge and Friendship. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (12):1-28.
    In Nicomachean Ethics 10.7, Aristotle says that the contemplative wise person living the happiest and most self-sufficient life will need other people less than a person living a life of practical virtue. This seems to be in tension with Aristotle's emphasis elsewhere on the political nature of human beings. I analyze in detail Aristotle's most elaborate defense of the need for friends in the happy life in Nicomachean Ethics 9.9 to see whether and how he resolves the need for friends (...)
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  39. Diane Jeske (2002). Feminism, Friendship, and Philosophy. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (Supplement):63-82.
  40. Jason Kawall (2013). Friendship and Epistemic Norms. Philosophical Studies 165 (2):349-370.
    Simon Keller and Sarah Stroud have both argued that the demands of being a good friend can conflict with the demands of standard epistemic norms. Intuitively, good friends will tend to seek favorable interpretations of their friends’ behaviors, interpretations that they would not apply to strangers; as such they seem prone to form unjustified beliefs. I argue that there is no such clash of norms. In particular, I argue that friendship does not require us to form beliefs about our friends (...)
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  41. Daniel Koltonski (forthcoming). A Good Friend Will Help You Move a Body: Friendship and the Problem of Moral Disagreement. Philosophical Review 125 (4).
    On the shared-­ends account of close friendship, proper care for a friend as an agent requires seeing yourself as having important reasons to accommodate and promote the friend’s valuable ends for her own sake. However, that friends share ends doesn't inoculate them against disagreements about how to pursue those ends. This paper defends the claim that, in certain circumstances of reasonable disagreement, proper care for a friend as a practical and moral agent sometimes requires allowing her judgment to decide what (...)
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  42. Hugh LaFollette (1996). Personal Relationships: Love, Identity and Morality. Blackwell.
    "This admirably clear and engaging work ... is broadly accessible... and is informed by social science research. Yet it is also thoroughly philosophical, delving into problems in ethics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.... Let us hope that LaFollette continues to tackle these problems with the clarify and rigor he shows here.".
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  43. Todd Lekan (2010). Friendship as an Impersonal Value. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):71-79.
    This paper defends a broadly Aristotelean account of character friendship that maintains that the impersonal value of acquiring a virtuous character is the ultimate basis for our reasons for caring about friends. This view of friendship appears to conflict with the entrenched intuition that viewing our connections to particular friends as merely contingent occasions for the cultivation of virtue is alienating and undesirable. I argue that far from being an alienating feature of character friendships, a focused appreciation of the contingent (...)
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  44. John Lubbock (1887). The Pleasures of Life. Macmillan & Co..
    John Lubbock was a 19th century banker, archeologist, naturalist, and politician. This book contains a collection of talks given at school and college occasions. Lubbock begins by saying that life is a gift and we must seriously consider what the main object of our existence will be. Topics covered are: The Blessing of Friends, The Choice of Books, The Value of Time, The Pleasure of Travel, Beauty of Nature, Labor and Rest, and others.
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  45. Glen Mazis (2008). Our Embodied Friendship with Dogs. In Steven Hales (ed.), What Philosophy Can Tell You about Your Dog. Open Court
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  46. Sean McAleer (2013). Friendship, Perception, and Referential Opacity in Nicomachean Ethics IX.9. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 16:362-374.
    This essay reconstructs and evaluates Aristotle's argument in Nicomachean Ethics IX.9 that the happy person needs friends, in which Aristotle combines his well-known claim that friends are other selves with the claim that human perception is meta-perceptual: the perceiving subject perceives its own existence. After exploring some issues in the logic of perception, the essay argues that Aristotle's argument for the necessity of friends is invalid since perception-verbs create referentially opaque contexts in which the substitution of co-referential terms fails.
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  47. Joe Mintoff (2006). Could an Egoist Be a Friend? American Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):101 - 118.
    Being a friend makes our lives better, but it seems this consideration cannot guide our pursuit of friendship, lest this mean we are not true friends and that our lives are not made better. The aim of this paper is to show how, appearances notwithstanding, being a true friend is consistent with having one's own happiness as one's ultimate end. Aristotle's idea that friends are other selves, and recent accounts of practical reason, show how (i) one's acting as a friend (...)
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  48. Christopher Mole (2015). The Good of Friendship at the End of Life. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 23 (4):445-459.
    This article attempts to explain the value that we assign to the presence of friends at the time when life is ending. It first shows that Aristotle’s treatment of friendship does not provide a clear account of such value. It then uses J. L. Austin’s notion of performativity to supplement one recent theory of friendship – given by Dean Cocking and Jeanette Kennett – in such a way that that theory can then account for friendship’s special value at our time (...)
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  49. Diane Morgan (1998). Amical Treachery: Kant, Hamann, Derrida and the Politics of Friendship. Angelaki 3 (3):143 – 150.
  50. Nicholas John Munn (2012). The Reality of Friendship Within Immersive Virtual Worlds. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):1-10.
    In this article I examine a recent development in online communication, the immersive virtual worlds of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). I argue that these environments provide a distinct form of online experience from the experience available through earlier generation forms of online communication such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email and instant messaging. The experience available to participants in MMORPGs is founded on shared activity, while the experience of earlier generation online communication is largely if not wholly dependent on (...)
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