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Siblings:History/traditions: Friendship
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  1. Paola Agosti & Marco Revelli (eds.) (2009). Bobbio E Il Suo Mondo: Storie di Impegno E di Amicizia Nel 900. N. Aragno.
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  2. Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Friendship and the Structure of Trust. In Alberto Masala & Jonathan Webber (eds.), From Personality to Virtue. Oxford.
    In this paper, I describe some of what I take to be the more interesting features of friendship, then explore the extent to which other virtues can be reconstructed as sharing those features. I use trustworthiness as my example throughout, but I think that other virtues such as generosity & gratitude, pride & respect, and the producer’s & consumer’s sense of humor can also be analyzed with this model. The aim of the paper is not to demonstrate that all moral (...)
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  3. David B. Annis (1988). Emotion, Love and Friendship. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):1-7.
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  4. Neera K. Badhwar, Friendship.
    Philosophical interest in friendship has revived after a long eclipse. This is largely due to a renewed interest in ancient moral philosophy, in the role of emotion in morality, and in the ethical dimensions of personal relations in general. Some of the main questions raised by philosophers are the following: Is friendship only an instrumental value, i.e., only a means to other values, or also an intrinsic value - a value in its own right? Is friendship a mark of psychological (...)
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  5. Enrique DusselTranslated by Michael Barber & Judd Seth Wright1 (2007). From Fraternity to Solidarity: Toward a Politics of Liberation. Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1):73–92.
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  6. Mavis Biss (2011). Aristotle on Friendship and Self-Knowledge: The Friend Beyond the Mirror. History of Philosophy Quarterly 28 (2):125.
    Aristotle's emphasis on sameness of character in his description of the virtuous friend as "another self" figures centrally in all his arguments for the necessity of friendship to self-knowledge. Although the attribution of the Magna Moralia to Aristotle is disputed, the comparison of the friend to a mirror in this work has encouraged many commentators to view the friend as a mirror that provides the clearest and most immediate image of one's own virtue. I will offer my own reading of (...)
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  7. Hélio Rebello Cardoso Jr (2007). A amizade como paisagem conceitual e o amigo como personagem conceitual, segundo Deleuze e Guattari. Kriterion 48 (115):33-45.
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  8. Dean Cocking & Jeanette Kennett (2000). Friendship and Moral Danger. Journal of Philosophy 97 (5):278-296.
    We focus here on some familiar kinds of cases of conflict between friendship and morality, and, on the basis of our account of the nature of friendship, argue for the following two claims: first, that in some cases where we are led morally astray by virtue of a relationship that makes its own demands on us, the relationship in question is properly called a friendship; second, that relationships of this kind are valuable in their own right.
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  9. Dean Cocking & Jeanette Kennett (1998). Friendship and the Self. Ethics 108 (3):502-527.
    We argue that companion friendship is not importantly marked by self-disclosure as understood in either of these two ways. One's close friends need not be markedly similar to oneself, as is claimed by the mirror account, nor is the role of private information in establishing and maintaining intimacy important in the way claimed by the secrets view. Our claim will be that the mirror and secrets views not only fail to identify features that are in part constitutive of close or (...)
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  10. John A. Cuddeback (1993). Friendship and the Moral Life. Review of Metaphysics 46 (4):877-879.
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  11. Lara Denis (2001). From Friendship to Marriage: Revising Kant. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (1):1-28.
    This paper examines Kant’s accounts of friendship and marriage, and argues for what can be called an ideal of “moral marriage” based on Kant’s notion of moral friendship. After explaining why Kant values friendship so highly, it gives an account of the ways in which marriage falls far short, according to Kant, of what friendship has to offer. The paper then argues that many of Kant’s reasons for finding marriage morally impoverished compared with friendship are wrong-headed. The paper further argues (...)
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  12. Nicholas Dixon (1995). The Friendship Model of Filial Obligations. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):77-87.
    ABSTRACT This paper [1] is a defence of a modified version of Jane English's model of filial obligations based on adult children's friendship with their parents. Unlike the more traditional view that filial obligations are a repayment for parental sacrifices, the friendship model puts filial duties in the appealing context of voluntary, loving relationships. Contrary to English's original statement of this view, which is open to the charge of tolerating filial ingratitude, the friendship model can generate obligations to help our (...)
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  13. Jochen Dreher (2009). Phenomenology of Friendship: Construction and Constitution of an Existential Social Relationship. [REVIEW] Human Studies 32 (4):401-417.
    Friendship, as a unique form of social relationship, establishes a particular union among individual human beings which allows them to overcome diverse boundaries between individual subjects. Age, gender or cultural differences do not necessarily constitute an obstacle for establishing friendship and as a social phenomenon, it might even include the potential to exist independently of space and time. This analysis in the interface of social science and phenomenology focuses on the principles of construction and constitution of this specific form of (...)
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  14. Terence Rajivan Edward (2013). Joseph Raz on the Problem of the Amoralist. Abstracta 7 (1):85-93.
    Joseph Raz has argued that the problem of the amoralist is misconceived. In this paper, I present three interpretations of what his argument is. None of these interpretations yields an argument that we are in a position to accept.
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  15. Matthew Evans (2004). Can Epicureans Be Friends? Ancient Philosophy 24 (2):407-424.
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  16. Luara Ferracioli (forthcoming). Family Migration Schemes and Liberal Neutrality: A Dilemma. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    Those who believe that liberal states have a right to exclude prospective immigrants also believe that citizens should be able to invite romantic partners and family members to join them as new members of the state (as part of so-called family reunification schemes). In this essay, I argue that the privileging of romantic and familial ties by the liberal state cannot be justified. The reasons that count in favour of these relationships count equally in favour of a great array of (...)
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  17. Shawn Floyd (2009). Preferential Divine Love (Or, Why God Loves Some People More Than Others). Philosophia Christi 11 (2):359-376.
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  18. Ellen L. Fox (1991). Moral Issues in Friendship. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Friendship alters the moral demands and ideals that we live with. In this dissertation I examine precisely how those ideals must change if they are to accommodate the realities of friendship. I begin by surveying Aristotle, Kant, and Montaigne, and showing that each of those writers had useful insights into the way in which we reconceptualize the self when we become close friends with another person. I suggest that Kant and Montaigne were both right that we tend to merge our (...)
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  19. Rachel Fredericks (2012). Troubling Others and Tormenting Ourselves: The Nature and Moral Significance of Jealousy. Dissertation, University of Washington
    Jealousy is an emotion that arises in diverse circumstances and is experienced in phenomenologically diverse ways. In part because of this diversity, evaluations of jealous subjects tend to be conflicting and ambiguous. Thus philosophers who are interested in the moral status of jealousy face a challenge: to explain how, despite the diversity of jealous subjects and experiences of jealousy, our moral evaluations of those subjects in light of those experiences might be unified. In this project, I confront and respond to (...)
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  20. Marilyn Friedman (1989). Feminism and Modern Friendship: Dislocating the Community. Ethics 99 (2):275-290.
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  21. Marilyn Friedman (1988). Review: Individuality Without Individualism: Review of Janice Raymond's A Passion for Friends. [REVIEW] Hypatia 3 (2):131 - 137.
    This review of <span class='Hi'>Janice</span> Raymond's A Passion for Friends focuses on her strong sense of the individual and of individuality. However, and this is the central contention of my paper, her perspective is quite distinct from liberal individualism. It is also a complex variation on the feminist concern with selves in relationships.
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  22. Sara Goering (2003). Choosing Our Friends: Moral Partiality and the Value of Diversity. Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (3):400–413.
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  23. George Graham & Hugh LaFollette (1986). Honesty and Intimacy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.
    Current professional and lay lore overlook the role of honesty in developing and sustaining intimate relationships. We wish to assert its importance. We begin by analyzing the notion of intimacy. An intimate encounter or exchange, we argue, is one in which one verbally or non-verbally privately reveals something about oneself, and does so in a sensitive, trusting way. An intimate relationship is one marked by regular intimate encounters or exchanges. Then, we consider two sorts of cases where it is widely (...)
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  24. Lisa Guenther (2007). Le Flair Animal: Levinas and the Possibility of Animal Friendship. Phaenex 2 (2):216-238.
    In Otherwise than Being, Levinas writes that the alterity of the Other escapes “le flair animal,” or the animal’s sense of smell. This paper puts pressure on the strong human-animal distinction that Levinas makes by considering the possibility that, while non-human animals may not respond to the alterity of the Other in the way that Levinas describes as responsibility, animal sensibility plays a key role in a relation to Others that Levinas does not discuss at length: friendship. This approach to (...)
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  25. Steven D. Hales (2008). What Philosophy Can Tell You About Your Dog. Open Court.
    Do dogs live in the same world as humans? Is it wrong to think dogs have personalities and emotions? What are dogs thinking and what’s the nature of canine wisdom? This is a book for thoughtful dog-lovers who want to explore the deeper issues raised by dogs and their relationships with humans. Twenty philosophers and dog-lovers reveal their experiences with dogs and give their insights on dog-related themes of metaphysics and ethics.
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  26. Katherine Hawley (2012). Partiality and Prejudice in Trusting. Synthese (9):1-17.
    You can trust your friends. You should trust your friends. Not all of your friends all of the time: you can reasonably trust different friends to different degrees, and in different domains. Still, we often trust our friends, and it is often reasonable to do so. Why is this? In this paper I explore how and whether friendship gives us reasons to trust our friends, reasons which may outstrip or conflict with our epistemic reasons. In the final section, I will (...)
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  27. Yuanguo He (2007). Confucius and Aristotle on Friendship: A Comparative Study. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (2):291-307.
    Before and during the times of Confucius and Aristotle, the concept of friendship had very different implications. This paper compares Confucius’ with Aristotle’s thoughts on friendship from two perspectives: xin 信 (fidelity, faithfulness) and le 乐 (joy). The Analects emphasizes the xin as the basis of friendship. Aristotle holds that there are three kinds of friends and corresponding to them are three types of friendship. In the friendship for the sake of pleasure, there is no xin; in the legal form (...)
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  28. Bennett W. Helm (2010). Love, Friendship, and the Self: Intimacy, Identification, and the Social Nature of Persons. Oxford University Press.
    Bennett Helm re-examines our common understanding of ourselves as persons in light of the phenomena of love and friendship.
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  29. Bennett W. Helm, Friendship. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Friendship, as understood here, is a distinctively personal relationship that is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for the welfare of the other, for the other's sake, and that involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the special concern we have for our friends must have a place within a broader set of concerns, including moral concerns, and in part because our friends can help shape who (...)
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  30. Bennett W. Helm (2008). Plural Agents. Noûs 42 (1):17–49.
    Genuine agents are able to engage in activity because they find it worth pursuing—because they care about it. In this respect, they differ from what might be called “mere intentional systems”: systems like chess-playing computers that exhibit merely goal-directed behavior mediated by instrumental rationality, without caring. A parallel distinction can be made in the domain of social activity: plural agents must be distinguished from plural intentional systems in that plural agents have cares and engage in activity because of those cares. (...)
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  31. Zena Hitz (2011). Aristotle on Self-Knowledge and Friendship. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (12):1-28.
    In Nicomachean Ethics 10.7, Aristotle says that the contemplative wise person living the happiest and most self-sufficient life will need other people less than a person living a life of practical virtue. This seems to be in tension with Aristotle's emphasis elsewhere on the political nature of human beings. I analyze in detail Aristotle's most elaborate defense of the need for friends in the happy life in Nicomachean Ethics 9.9 to see whether and how he resolves the need for friends (...)
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  32. Diane Jeske (2002). Feminism, Friendship, and Philosophy. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (Supplement):63-82.
  33. Jason Kawall (2013). Friendship and Epistemic Norms. Philosophical Studies 165 (2):349-370.
    Simon Keller and Sarah Stroud have both argued that the demands of being a good friend can conflict with the demands of standard epistemic norms. Intuitively, good friends will tend to seek favorable interpretations of their friends’ behaviors, interpretations that they would not apply to strangers; as such they seem prone to form unjustified beliefs. I argue that there is no such clash of norms. In particular, I argue that friendship does not require us to form beliefs about our friends (...)
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  34. Hugh LaFollette (1996). Personal Relationships: Love, Identity and Morality. Blackwell.
    "This admirably clear and engaging work ... is broadly accessible... and is informed by social science research. Yet it is also thoroughly philosophical, delving into problems in ethics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.... Let us hope that LaFollette continues to tackle these problems with the clarify and rigor he shows here.".
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  35. Todd Lekan (2010). Friendship as an Impersonal Value. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):71-79.
    This paper defends a broadly Aristotelean account of character friendship that maintains that the impersonal value of acquiring a virtuous character is the ultimate basis for our reasons for caring about friends. This view of friendship appears to conflict with the entrenched intuition that viewing our connections to particular friends as merely contingent occasions for the cultivation of virtue is alienating and undesirable. I argue that far from being an alienating feature of character friendships, a focused appreciation of the contingent (...)
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  36. Glen Mazis (2008). Our Embodied Friendship with Dogs. In Steven Hales (ed.), What Philosophy Can Tell You about Your Dog. Open Court.
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  37. Sean McAleer (2013). Friendship, Perception, and Referential Opacity in Nicomachean Ethics IX.9. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 16:362-374.
    This essay reconstructs and evaluates Aristotle's argument in Nicomachean Ethics IX.9 that the happy person needs friends, in which Aristotle combines his well-known claim that friends are other selves with the claim that human perception is meta-perceptual: the perceiving subject perceives its own existence. After exploring some issues in the logic of perception, the essay argues that Aristotle's argument for the necessity of friends is invalid since perception-verbs create referentially opaque contexts in which the substitution of co-referential terms fails.
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  38. Joe Mintoff (2006). Could an Egoist Be a Friend? American Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):101 - 118.
    Being a friend makes our lives better, but it seems this consideration cannot guide our pursuit of friendship, lest this mean we are not true friends and that our lives are not made better. The aim of this paper is to show how, appearances notwithstanding, being a true friend is consistent with having one's own happiness as one's ultimate end. Aristotle's idea that friends are other selves, and recent accounts of practical reason, show how (i) one's acting as a friend (...)
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  39. Christopher Mole (2015). The Good of Friendship at the End of Life. International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-15.
    This article attempts to explain the value that we assign to the presence of friends at the time when life is ending. It first shows that Aristotle’s treatment of friendship does not provide a clear account of such value. It then uses J. L. Austin’s notion of performativity to supplement one recent theory of friendship – given by Dean Cocking and Jeanette Kennett – in such a way that that theory can then account for friendship’s special value at our time (...)
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  40. Diane Morgan (1998). Amical Treachery: Kant, Hamann, Derrida and the Politics of Friendship. Angelaki 3 (3):143 – 150.
  41. Nicholas John Munn (2012). The Reality of Friendship Within Immersive Virtual Worlds. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):1-10.
    In this article I examine a recent development in online communication, the immersive virtual worlds of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). I argue that these environments provide a distinct form of online experience from the experience available through earlier generation forms of online communication such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email and instant messaging. The experience available to participants in MMORPGs is founded on shared activity, while the experience of earlier generation online communication is largely if not wholly dependent on (...)
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  42. Andrea Nye (1996). Friendship Across Generations. [REVIEW] Hypatia 11 (3):154 - 160.
    Feminist Interpretations of Hannah Arendt, edited by Bonnie Honig, a collection of critical feminist essays on Hannah Arendt, illustrates both the disorientation and the insights that can result when feminist philosophers come to terms with a canonical figure who is a woman.
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  43. Tim O'Keefe (2001). Is Epicurean Friendship Altruistic? Apeiron 34 (4):269 - 305.
    Epicurus is strongly committed to psychological and ethical egoism and hedonism. However, these commitments do not square easily with many of the claims made by Epicureans about friendship: for instance, that the wise man will sometimes die for his friend, that the wise man will love his friend as much as himself, feel exactly the same toward his friend as toward himself, and exert himself as much for his friend's pleasure as for his own, and that every friendship is worth (...)
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  44. David Owens (2012). The Value of Duty. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):199-215.
    The obligations we owe to those with whom we share a valuable relationship (like friendship) cannot be reduced to the obligations we owe to others simply as fellow persons (e.g. the duty to reciprocate benefits received). Wallace suggests that this is because such valuable relationships are loving relationships. I instead propose that it is because, unlike general moral obligations, such valuable relationships (and their constitutive obligations) serve our normative interests. Part of what makes friendship good for us is that it (...)
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  45. Andrew Reisner (2008). Does Friendship Give Us Non-Derivative Partial Reasons. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 3 (1):70-78.
    One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least (...)
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  46. Frederick Rosen (1973). Obligation and Friendship in Plato's Crito. Political Theory 1 (3):307-316.
  47. Jason A. Scorza (2004). Liberal Citizenship and Civic Friendship. Political Theory 32 (1):85-108.
    Aristotle famously argues that friendship can serve as a normative model for the practice of citizenship, and this view has been widely accepted by neo-Aristotelians. Liberals, however, are quick to reject both Aristotle's view of friendship and his view of citizenship. Does this mean that the concept of friendship is politically irrelevant for liberalism? This essay suggests, on the contrary, that the concept of friendship is far from obsolete, even for liberals. Specifically, communicative constraints derived from the norms of friendship, (...)
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  48. Caroline J. Simon (1993). Just Friends, Friends and Lovers, Or…? Philosophy and Theology 8 (2):113-128.
    This paper explores the question of whether there is a conceptual distinction between romantic love and friendship and whether such a distinction would support the normative conclusion that friends should not be lovers. Laurence Thomas has argued that, given an egalitarian conception of romantic love, there is no such distinction between romantic love and friendship. This paper shows that equally egalitarian alternatives to Thomas’s conceptions of love and friendship do suggest that friends should not be lovers. Moreover, the alternative view (...)
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  49. Nathan Smith (2013). Empirically Socratic. Cognizance Journal.
    In the Republic, Socrates argues that morality (justice) is valuable both for itself and for what comes from it. In contemporary moral theory, this view is not widely accepted. However, contemporary empirical research in psychology reveals that what we experience is also what we come to expect. It follows from this that if we act in an immoral fashion, we will expect the same from others. The more often we act immorally, the more suspicion will be ingrained within us. Suspicion (...)
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  50. Elaine Spitz (1982). On Shanley, "Marital Slavery and Friendship". Political Theory 10 (3):461-464.
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