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  1. Henry Abramovitch & Eliezer Schwartz (1996). Three Stages of Medical Dialogue. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (2).
    The negative consequences of physicians' failure to establish and maintain personal relationships with patients are at the heart of the humanistic crisis in medicine. To resolve this crisis, a new model of doctor-patient interaction is proposed, based on the ideas of Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue. This model shows how the physican may successfully combine the personal (I-Thou) and impersonal (I-It) aspects of medicine in three stages. These Three Stages of Medical Dialogue include:1. An Initial Personal Meeting stage, which initiates (...)
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  2. Alison Adam (2005). Delegating and distributing morality: Can we inscribe privacy protection in a machine? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):233-242.
    This paper addresses the question of delegation of morality to a machine, through a consideration of whether or not non-humans can be considered to be moral. The aspect of morality under consideration here is protection of privacy. The topic is introduced through two cases where there was a failure in sharing and retaining personal data protected by UK data protection law, with tragic consequences. In some sense this can be regarded as a failure in the process of delegating morality to (...)
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  3. JoÅo [ieJoão] Mauricio Adeodato (1993). Legal Decision-Making Proceedings in Underdeveloped Countries. In K. B. Agrawal & R. K. Raizada (eds.), Sociological Jurisprudence and Legal Philosophy: Random Thoughts On. University Book House.
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  4. George J. Agich (1994). Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation. HEC Forum 6 (6):379-383.
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  5. Akira Akabayashi & Brian Taylor Slingsby (2006). Informed Consent Revisited: Japan and the U.S. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):9 – 14.
    Informed consent, decision-making styles and the role of patient-physician relationships are imperative aspects of clinical medicine worldwide. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman afflicted with advanced liver cancer whose attending physician, per request of the family, did not inform her of her true diagnosis. In our analysis, we explore the differences in informed-consent styles between patients who hold an "independent" and "interdependent" construal of the self and then highlight the possible implications maintained by this position in the context (...)
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  6. What Was Self-Evident Alas (2009). Lb. RIGHTS. In Matt Zwolinski (ed.), Arguing About Political Philosophy. Routledge. 123.
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  7. E. Alexander (1990). Aphasia - the Worm's Eye View of a Philosophic Patient and the Medical Establishment. Diogenes 38 (150):1-23.
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  8. G. Caleb Alexander & John D. Lantos (2006). The Doctor-Patient Relationship in the Post-Managed Care Era. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):29 – 32.
  9. John K. Alexander (2008). Eliminating the Harm We Cause. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 15 (1):11-21.
    Peter Singer places a stringent requirement on us to come to the aid of those who are suffering, as long as we do not have to give up something of comparable worth. I consider some criticisms of this view here, while arguing in defense of Singer’s conclusion. I presume here that it is morally impermissible to create unnecessary and avoidable harm to innocent people. I argue that if we have an adequate understanding of agent causation and moral responsibility then we (...)
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  10. Peter Allmark (2005). Health, Happiness and Health Promotion. Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):1–15.
    This article claims that health promotion is best practised in the light of an Aristotelian conception of the good life for humans and of the place of health within it.
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  11. Brenda Almond (ed.) (1995/1999). Introducing Applied Ethics. Blackwell.
    This timely collection of introductory essays provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to, and survey of, the major moral debates of today.
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  12. Oksenberg Rorty Amelie (1995). Rights: Educational Not Cultural. Social Research 62 (1).
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  13. Pamela Andanda (2005). Module Two: Informed Consent. Developing World Bioethics 5 (1):14–29.
    ABSTRACTThe objective of this module is to familiarise you with the concept of informed consent, its ethical basis, its elements, and typical problems that are encountered even by the most well intentioned researchers when trying to achieve genuine informed consent.
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  14. Scott A. Anderson (2011). On the Immorality of Threatening. Ratio 24 (3):229-242.
    A plausible explanation of the wrongfulness of threatening, advanced most explicitly by Mitchell Berman, is that the wrongfulness of threatening derives from the wrongfulness of the act threatened. This essay argues that this explanation is inadequate. We can learn something important about the wrongfulness of threatening (with implications for thinking about coercion) by comparing credible threats to some other claims of impending harm. A credible bluff threat to do harm is likely to be more and differently wrongful than making intentionally (...)
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  15. George J. Annas (1992). Advance Planning and Proxy Decision Makers. Ethics and Behavior 2 (1):67 – 68.
  16. Daniel J. Anzia & John La Puma (1992). Cultivating Ethics Consultation: Commentary on" The Development of a Clinical Ethics Consultation Service in a Community Hospital. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (2):131.
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  17. David Archard, Children.
    Whether children have rights is a debate that in recent years has spilled over into all areas of public life. It has never been more topical than now as the assumed rights of parents over their children is challenged on an almost daily basis. David Archard offers the first serious and sustained philosophical examination of children and their rights. Archard reviews arguments for and against according children rights. He concludes that every child has at least the right to the best (...)
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  18. David Archard, Children, Family and the State.
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  19. David Archard & Marit Skivenes, Balancing a Child's Best Interests and a Child's Views.
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  20. David Archard & Marit Skivenes, Hearing the Child.
    Given that in our view the child has a fundamental right to be heard in all collective deliberative processes determining his or her future, we set out, firstly, what is required of such processes to respect this right – namely that the child's authentic voice is heard and makes a difference – and, secondly, the distance between this ideal and practice exemplified in the work of child welfare and child protection workers in Norway and the UK, chiefly in their display (...)
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  21. Richard J. Arneson (2005). The Shape of Lockean Rights: Fairness, Pareto, Moderation, and Consent. Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):255-285.
    In chapter four of Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Robert Nozick raised interesting questions about whether or not it is ever morally acceptable to act against what are agreed to be an individual's natural moral rights. The pursuit of these questions opens up issues concerning the specific content of these individual rights. This essay explores Nozick's questions by posing examples and using our considered responses to them to specify the shape of individual rights. The exploration provisionally concludes that a conception of (...)
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  22. Denis G. Arnold (2006). Corporate Moral Agency. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 30 (1):279–291.
    "The main conclusion of this essay is that it is plausible to conclude that corporations are capable of exhibiting intentionality, and as a result that they may be properly understood as moral agents" (p. 281).
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  23. Robert M. Arnold (1994). Should Competent Patients or Their Families Be Notified Before HECs Review the Patients' Cases? Yes. HEC Forum 6 (4):257-259.
  24. Ian Ashman & Diana Winstanley (2007). For or Against Corporate Identity? Personification and the Problem of Moral Agency. Journal of Business Ethics 76 (1):83 - 95.
    This article explores the concept of corporate identity from a moral perspective. In it we argue that the reification and personification involved in attributing an identity to an organization has moral repercussions. Through a discussion of 'intentionality' we suggest that it is philosophically problematic to treat an abstraction of the corporation as possessing identity or acting as a conscious moral agent. The article moves to consider practical and ethical issues in the areas of organizational commitment, of health and safety, and (...)
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  25. Robin Attfield (1991). Making Decisions. Philosophy Now 1:5-8.
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  26. Julie M. Aultman (2006). Finding Meaning in the Doctor-Patient Relationship. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):39 – 41.
  27. Patricia Backlar & Bentson H. McFarland (1993). Clozapine Rationing in a State Mental Hospital: Reviewing a Hec's Case Consultation. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 5 (5):302-318.
    Clozapine (Clozaril) is a new, powerful, costly anti-psychotic medicine, with a possible serious side effect (agranulocytosis) that entails weekly blood monitoring. In a three hundred bed state mental hospital that is allotted thirty clozapine slots (high costs effectively rationing this drug), a woman with schizophrenia responds minimally to this medication. Her attending physician wishes to withdraw the medicine and give it to another patient with schizophrenia on the ward who might have a better response. The woman's family threatens to make (...)
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  28. Jane Bailey & Ian Kerr (2007). Seizing Control?: The Experience Capture Experiments of Ringley & Mann. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (2):129-139.
    Will the proliferation of devices that provide the continuous archival and retrieval of personal experiences (CARPE) improve control over, access to and the record of collective knowledge as Vannevar Bush once predicted with his futuristic memex? Or is it possible that their increasing ubiquity might pose fundamental risks to humanity, as Donald Norman contemplated in his investigation of an imaginary CARPE device he called the “Teddy”? Through an examination of the webcam experiment of Jenni Ringley and the EyeTap experiments of (...)
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  29. Jessica S. Banthin & Thomas M. Selden (2003). The ABCs of Children's Health Care: How the Medicaid Expansions Affected Access, Burdens, and Coverage Between 1987 and 1996. Inquiry 40 (2):133-145.
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  30. Donald Barr (2006). Reinvesting in the Doctor-Patient Relationship in the Coming Era of Scarcity. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):33 – 34.
  31. Martin W. Barr (1898). Defective Children: Their Needs and Their Rights. International Journal of Ethics 8 (4):481-490.
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  32. Françoise E. Baylis (1991). Ethics Consultation: The Hospital for Sick Children Initiative [Toronto, Ontario]. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 3 (5):285-292.
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  33. Françoise E. Baylis (1991). Guidelines for Bioethics Consultations at the Hospital for Sick Children [Toronto, Ontario]. HEC Forum 3 (5):293-297.
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  34. Tim Bayne & Neil Levy (2005). Amputees by Choice: Body Integrity Identity Disorder and the Ethics of Amputation. Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):75–86.
    In 1997, a Scottish surgeon by the name of Robert Smith was approached by a man with an unusual request: he wanted his apparently healthy lower left leg amputated. Although details about the case are sketchy, the would-be amputee appears to have desired the amputation on the grounds that his left foot wasn’t part of him – it felt alien. After consultation with psychiatrists, Smith performed the amputation. Two and a half years later, the patient reported that his life had (...)
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  35. Allan Beever (2012). Our Most Fundamental Rights. In Donal Nolan & Andrew Robertson (eds.), Rights and Private Law. Hart Pub..
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  36. Joseph E. Beltran & D. Min (1992). The Bioethics Committee in Long-Term Care Institutions for the Developmentally Disabled. HEC Forum 4 (3):163-173.
  37. Gardner Bemis (1994). Should Competent Patients or Their Families Be Notified Before HECs Review the Patients' Cases? No. HEC Forum 6 (4):262-265.
  38. Theodore M. Benditt (1982). Rights. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  39. Rebecca Bennett (2001). Antenatal Genetic Testing and the Right to Remain in Ignorance. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (5):461-471.
    As knowledge increases about the human genome,prenatal genetic testing will become cheaper,safer and more comprehensive. It is likelythat there will be a great deal of support formaking prenatal testing for a wide range ofgenetic disorders a routine part of antenatalcare. Such routine testing is necessarilycoercive in nature and does not involve thesame standard of consent as is required inother health care settings. This paper askswhether this level of coercion is ethicallyjustifiable in this case, or whether pregnantwomen have a right to (...)
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  40. Silvana Ferreira Bento, Ellen Hardy & Maria José Duarte Osis (2008). Process for Obtaining Informed Consent: Women's Opinions. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):197-206.
    In Brazil, every study involving human beings is required to produce an informed consent form that must be signed by study participants: this is stated in Resolution 196/96. 1 Consent must be obtained through a specific structured process. Objective: To present the opinions of women regarding how the process of obtaining informed consent should be conducted when women are invited to participate in studies on contraceptive methods. Subjects and Methods: Eight focus groups were conducted, involving a total of 51 women (...)
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  41. Marie Berg & Helena Wigert (2011). Parents' Participation in the Care of Their Child in Neonatal Intensive Care. In Gill Thomson, Fiona Dykes & Soo Downe (eds.), Qualitative Research in Midwifery and Childbirth Phenomenological Approaches. Routledge.
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  42. Veronique Bergeron (2007). The Ethics of Cesarean Section on Maternal Request: A Feminist Critique of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Position on Patient-Choice Surgery. Bioethics 21 (9):478–487.
  43. Jurrit Bergsma (1994). The Trauma Triangle. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (4).
    Recent research supports the hypothesis that more active engagement of the patient in occurring illnesses improves quality of life and probably even life expectancy.In this study experience and theoretical knowledge from psychotherapy is transplanted to clinical practice in order to improve the physician''s engagement in the patient-disease relationship. By defining severe and long-term illnesses as a psychotrauma, the transfer of the psychotherapeutical model leads to the creation of a new triangular relationship: patient-illness-doctor. Practical examples are used as illustrations for the (...)
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  44. Jerome E. Bickenbach (2001). Disability Studies and Bioethics: A Comment on Kuczewski. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (3):49-50.
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  45. Nicholas K. Blomley (2009). The Rights Revolution1. In George L. Henderson & Marvin Waterstone (eds.), Geographic Thought : A Praxis Perspective. Routledge. 13--5.
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  46. Eugene V. Boisaubin & Michele A. Carter (1999). Optimizing Ethics Services and Education in a Teaching Hospital: Rounds Versus Consultation. Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (4):294.
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  47. Liselott Borgnon (2007). Conceptions of the Self in Early Childhood: Territorializing Identities. Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (3):264–274.
    This article draws upon the Deleuzian/Guattarian idea of territorializing movements to trouble the notion of the identity of the learning pre‐school child, produced by developmental psychology, as an individual, natural and developing child as well as the more recent image of the child characterised by autonomy and flexible behaviour. Accordingly, a child's apprenticeship of walking is associated here with the movements of a surfer. This association disturbs the orthodox thought of recognition and representation that makes us define, include and exclude (...)
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  48. Shaheen Borna (1987). Morality and Marketing Human Organs. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (1):37 - 44.
    Recent break-throughs in surgery and the discovery of an effective immunosupressive drug called cyclosporin, have brought a Renaissance in organ transplants. These medical advances have also heightened concern over the already critical shortage of body organs. Several alternatives have been suggested which may help alleviate the organ shortage. One such alternative is to allow commerce in human organs. This article discusses the morality of commercialization of human organs within the framework of several ethical theories.
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  49. K. S. Bowers (1982). On Being Unconsciously Influenced and Informed. In K. S. Bowers & D. Meichenbaum (eds.), The Unconscious Reconsidered. Wiley.
  50. Ellen B. Braaten & Michael M. Handelsman (1997). Client Preferences for Informed Consent Information. Ethics and Behavior 7 (4):311 – 328.
    Thirty-five current therapy clients, 47 former clients, and 42 college students with no therapy experience rated 27 items in terms of importance for inclusion in informed consent discussions. The current and former client samples rated information about inappropriate therapeutic techniques, confidentiality, and the risks of alternative treatments as most important, and information about the personal characteristics of the therapist and the therapist's degree as least important. The results of this study provide evidence for differential informed consent disclosure practices.
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