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  1. Agustín Adúriz-Bravo (2014). Revisiting School Scientific Argumentation From the Perspective of the History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 1443-1472.
    This chapter aims to revisit the notion of argumentation that is currently used in science education. After acknowledging a consolidated tendency of linguistics-based approaches to the study of ‘school scientific argumentation’, the chapter proposes to shift the interest towards an examination of the epistemic aspects of argumentation, i.e. those that derive from its central participation in science as a process and as a product. The premise of the chapter is that the contributions of the philosophy and history of science and (...)
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  2. Joseph Agassi (1974). Announcement: Fifth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese 26 (3/4):516.
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  3. Anna Alexandrova (2015). Well‐Being and Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Compass 10 (3):219-231.
    This article is a mutual introduction of the science of well-being to philosophy of science and an explanation of how the two disciplines can benefit each other. In the process, I argue that the science of well-being is not helpfully viewed as a social or a natural, but rather as a mixed, science. Hence, its methodology will have to attend to its specific features. I discuss two of its methodological problems: justifying the role of values, and validating measures. I suggest (...)
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  4. Robert Almeder (1986). The Limits of Science. Idealistic Studies 16 (3):259-260.
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  5. Eva Álvarez, Roger Bosch & Lorena Villamil (eds.) (2003). Volume of Abstracts: 12th International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Oviedo, August 7-13, 2003. [REVIEW] Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Oviedo.
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  6. Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker & Xiang Chen (1996). Kuhn's Mature Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 9 (3):347 – 363.
    Drawing on the results of modem psychology and cognitive science we suggest that the traditional theory of concepts is no longer tenable, and that the alternative account proposed by Kuhn may now be seen to have independent empirical support quite apart from its success as part of an account of scientific change. We suggest that these mechanisms can also be understood as special cases of general cognitive structures revealed by cognitive science. Against this background, incommensurability is not an insurmountable obstacle (...)
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  7. Holly Andersen (2014). A Field Guide to Mechanisms: Part II. Philosophy Compass 9 (4):284-293.
    In this field guide, I distinguish five separate senses with which the term ‘mechanism’ is used in contemporary philosophy of science. Many of these senses have overlapping areas of application but involve distinct philosophical claims and characterize the target mechanisms in relevantly different ways. This field guide will clarify the key features of each sense and introduce some main debates, distinguishing those that transpire within a given sense from those that are best understood as concerning two distinct senses. The ‘new (...)
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  8. Holly Andersen (2013). When to Expect Violations of Causal Faithfulness and Why It Matters. Philosophy of Science (5):672-683.
    I present three reasons why philosophers of science should be more concerned about violations of causal faithfulness (CF). In complex evolved systems, mechanisms for maintaining various equilibrium states are highly likely to violate CF. Even when such systems do not precisely violate CF, they may nevertheless generate precisely the same problems for inferring causal structure from probabilistic relationships in data as do genuine CF-violations. Thus, potential CF-violations are particularly germane to experimental science when we rely on probabilistic information to uncover (...)
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  9. Daniel Andler (2006). Federalism in Science — Complementarity Vs Perspectivism: Reply to Harré. Synthese 151 (3):519 - 522.
  10. Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad, Alternativt Eller Etablert? Hva Er Forskjellen? Www.Nifab.No.
    Hva er vitenskap og hva anser vi som vitenskaplighet? Dette er spørsmål som kan være verdt å se nøyere på før vi aksepterer at det er et klart skille mellom den etablerte skolemedisinen og alt det vi kaller ”alternativ medisin” eller ”alternativ behandling”. For hva er det egentlig som gjør noe til etablert og noe annet til et alternativ? Er den etablerte medisin mer vitenskapelig enn den alternative, ved at den for eksempel benytter seg av mer vitenskapelige metoder? Er resultatene (...)
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  11. L. K. B. (1957). Il Metodo Della Filosofia. Review of Metaphysics 11 (2):353-353.
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  12. R. B. (1956). International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol. I, Parts 1 and 2. Review of Metaphysics 9 (3):526-526.
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  13. R. J. B. (1967). Philosophy of Science Today. Review of Metaphysics 21 (1):172-172.
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  14. Babette Babich (2007). Continental Philosophy of Science. In Constantin Boundas (ed.), The Edinburgh Companion to the Twentieth Century Philosophies. Edinburgh. University of Edinburgh Press. 545--558.
    Continental philosophies of science tend to exemplify holistic themes connecting order and contingency, questions and answers, writers and readers, speakers and hearers. Such philosophies of science also tend to feature a fundamental emphasis on the historical and cultural situatedness of discourse as significant; relevance of mutual attunement of speaker and hearer; necessity of pre-linguistic cognition based in human engagement with a common socio-cultural historical world; role of narrative and metaphor as explanatory; sustained emphasis on understanding questioning; truth seen as horizonal, (...)
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  15. Dominic J. Balestra (1978). Scientific Man. International Philosophical Quarterly 18 (1):107-109.
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  16. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2014). From Corpuscles to Elements: Chemical Ontologies From Van Helmon to Lavoisier. In Lee McIntyre & Eric Scerri (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Springer. 141-154.
  17. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (ed.) (1965). Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Amsterdam, North-Holland Pub. Co..
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  18. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel & Universitah Ha- Ivrit Bi-Yerushalayim (1965). Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science Proceedings of the 1964 International Congress. Edited by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel. North-Holland Pub. Co.
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  19. Rodney Bartlett, Humans and Their Universes.
    This communicates to you my vision of exploring the whole universe. What if you had a plausible method (based on today's science and technology) of going anywhere you wanted in the entire universe? Wouldn't that be a radical breakthrough in exploration? I'll first summarise the steps leading up to (and beyond) exploration of all space then write a detailed essay showing how those paragraphs are consistent with the plausible nature of the universe and are therefore not science fiction.
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  20. Jon Barwise & Yiannis N. Moschovakis (1978). Global Inductive Definability. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (3):521-534.
    We show that several theorems on ordinal bounds in different parts of logic are simple consequences of a basic result in the theory of global inductive definitions.
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  21. J. D. Bastable (1955). Philosophico-Scientific Problems. Philosophical Studies 5:160-160.
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  22. Michael Baumgartner (2010). Causal Slingshots. Erkenntnis 72 (1):111-133.
    Causal slingshots are formal arguments advanced by proponents of an event ontology of token-level causation which, in the end, are intended to show two things: (i) The logical form of statements expressing causal dependencies on token level features a binary predicate ‘‘... causes ...’’ and (ii) that predicate takes events as arguments. Even though formalisms are only revealing with respect to the logical form of natural language statements, if the latter are shown to be adequately captured within a corresponding formalism, (...)
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  23. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Interdefining Causation and Intervention. Dialectica 63 (2):175-194.
    Non-reductive interventionist theories of causation and methodologies of causal reasoning embedded in that theoretical framework have become increasingly popular in recent years. This paper argues that one variant of an interventionist account of causation, viz. the one presented, for example, in Woodward (2003 ), is unsuited as a theoretical fundament of interventionist methodologies of causal reasoning, because it renders corresponding methodologies incapable of uncovering a causal structure in a finite number of steps. This finding runs counter to Woodward's own assessment (...)
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  24. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Inferring Causal Complexity. Sociological Methods & Research 38:71-101.
    In "The Comparative Method" Ragin (1987) has outlined a procedure of Boolean causal reasoning operating on pure coincidence data that has meanwhile become widely known as QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis) among social scientists. QCA -- also in its recent form as presented in Ragin (2000) -- is designed to analyze causal structures featuring one effect and a possibly complex configuration of mutually independent direct causes of that effect. The paper at hand presents a procedure of causal reasoning that operates on (...)
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  25. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Uncovering Deterministic Causal Structures: A Boolean Approach. Synthese 170 (1):71 - 96.
    While standard procedures of causal reasoning as procedures analyzing causal Bayesian networks are custom-built for (non-deterministic) probabilistic structures, this paper introduces a Boolean procedure that uncovers deterministic causal structures. Contrary to existing Boolean methodologies, the procedure advanced here successfully analyzes structures of arbitrary complexity. It roughly involves three parts: first, deterministic dependencies are identified in the data; second, these dependencies are suitably minimalized in order to eliminate redundancies; and third, one or—in case of ambiguities—more than one causal structure is assigned (...)
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  26. Michael Baumgartner (2008). The Causal Chain Problem. Erkenntnis 69 (2):201 - 226.
    This paper addresses a problem that arises when it comes to inferring deterministic causal chains from pertinent empirical data. It will be shown that to every deterministic chain there exists an empirically equivalent common cause structure. Thus, our overall conviction that deterministic chains are one of the most ubiquitous (macroscopic) causal structures is underdetermined by empirical data. It will be argued that even though the chain and its associated common cause model are empirically equivalent there exists an important asymmetry between (...)
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  27. Michael Baumgartner & Isabelle Drouet (2013). Identifying Intervention Variables. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):183-205.
    The essential precondition of implementing interventionist techniques of causal reasoning is that particular variables are identified as so-called intervention variables. While the pertinent literature standardly brackets the question how this can be accomplished in concrete contexts of causal discovery, the first part of this paper shows that the interventionist nature of variables cannot, in principle, be established based only on an interventionist notion of causation. The second part then demonstrates that standard observational methods that draw on Bayesian networks identify intervention (...)
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  28. Michael Baumgartner & Alexander Gebharter (forthcoming). Constitutive Relevance, Mutual Manipulability, and Fat-Handedness. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv003.
    The first part of this paper argues that if Craver’s ([2007a], [2007b]) popular mutual manipulability account (MM) of mechanistic constitution is embedded within Woodward’s ([2003]) interventionist theory of causation--for which it is explicitly designed--it either undermines the mechanistic research paradigm by entailing that there do not exist relationships of constitutive relevance or it gives rise to the unwanted consequence that constitution is a form of causation. The second part shows how Woodward’s theory can be adapted in such a way that (...)
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  29. Abram Cornelius Benjamin (1937). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. New York, the Macmillan Company.
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  30. Abram Cornelius Benjamin (1936). The Logical Structure of Science. London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd..
    The place of science.--The structure of science.--Nature: occurrents.--Nature: complexes.--Awareness.--Operations.--Meaning.--Meaning: correlational symbols.--Meaning: constructs and hypotheses.--The development of knowledge.--Models.--Description.--Explanation.--Quantitative methods.
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  31. Bettina Bergo (2003). Evolution and Force: Anxiety in Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):143-168.
  32. Lars Bergström (2004). Underdetermination of Physical Theory. In Roger F. Gibson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Quine. Cambridge University Press. 91--114.
  33. Lars Bergström (1994). Notes on the Value of Science. In D. Prawitz, B. Skyrms & D. Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science IX. Elsevier Science B. V..
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  34. Lisa Bortolotti & Bert Heinrichs (2007). Delimiting the Concept of Research: An Ethical Perspective. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):157-179.
    It is important to be able to offer an account of which activities count as scientific research, given our current interest in promoting research as a means to benefit humankind and in ethically regulating it. We attempt to offer such an account, arguing that we need to consider both the procedural and functional dimensions of an activity before we can establish whether it is a genuine instance of scientific research. By placing research in a broader schema of activities, the similarities (...)
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  35. Constantin Boundas (ed.) (2007). The Edinburgh Companion to the Twentieth Century Philosophies. Edinburgh. University of Edinburgh Press.
    A thorough and authoritative survey of the state of philosophy in the twentieth century written by distinguished specialists in the field.
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  36. Harold William Briggs (1972). The Theoretical Limits of Scientific Power. Reading,H. W. Briggs.
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  37. Jacob Bronowski (1951). The Common Sense of Science. London, Heinemann.
    The essential nature of science is revealed in an amplification of the relation between the arts and science.
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  38. Richard J. Brook (1973). Berkeley's Philosophy of Science. The Hague,M. Nijhoff.
    INTRODUCTION Philonous: You see, Hylas, the water of yonder fountain, how it is forced upwards, in a round column, to a certain height, at which it breaks ...
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  39. Neil Broom (1998). How Blind is the Watchmaker?: Theism or Atheism: Should Science Decide? Ashgate Pub..
  40. Peter Brössel (forthcoming). Keynes’s Coefficient of Dependence Revisited. Erkenntnis:1-33.
    Probabilistic dependence and independence are among the key concepts of Bayesian epistemology. This paper focuses on the study of one specific quantitative notion of probabilistic dependence. More specifically, section 1 introduces Keynes’s coefficient of dependence and shows how it is related to pivotal aspects of scientific reasoning such as confirmation, coherence, the explanatory and unificatory power of theories, and the diversity of evidence. The intimate connection between Keynes’s coefficient of dependence and scientific reasoning raises the question of how Keynes’s coefficient (...)
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  41. Peter Brössel (2013). Assessing Theories: The Coherentist Approach. Erkenntnis 79 (3):593-623.
    In this paper we show that the coherence measures of Olsson (J Philos 94:246–272, 2002), Shogenji (Log Anal 59:338–345, 1999), and Fitelson (Log Anal 63:194–199, 2003) satisfy the two most important adequacy requirements for the purpose of assessing theories. Following Hempel (Synthese 12:439–469, 1960), Levi (Gambling with truth, New York, A. A. Knopf, 1967), and recently Huber (Synthese 161:89–118, 2008) we require, as minimal or necessary conditions, that adequate assessment functions favor true theories over false theories and true and informative (...)
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  42. Peter Brössel (2013). The Problem of Measure Sensitivity Redux. Philosophy of Science 80 (3):378-397.
    Fitelson (1999) demonstrates that the validity of various arguments within Bayesian confirmation theory depends on which confirmation measure is adopted. The present paper adds to the results set out in Fitelson (1999), expanding on them in two principal respects. First, it considers more confirmation measures. Second, it shows that there are important arguments within Bayesian confirmation theory and that there is no confirmation measure that renders them all valid. Finally, the paper reviews the ramifications that this "strengthened problem of measure (...)
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  43. Harcourt Brown (1958). Science and the Creative Spirit. [Toronto]University of Toronto Press.
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  44. Harold I. Brown (1977). Perception, Theory, and Commitment: The New Philosophy of Science. Precedent Pub..
    " --Maurice A. Finocchiaro,Isis "The best and most original aspect of the book is its overall conception.
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  45. Mario Augusto Bunge (1975). Intuition and Science. Greenwood Press.
  46. Mario Augusto Bunge (1973). Method, Model, and Matter. Boston,Reidel.
  47. Peter Burke (1971). 1971 International Congress for Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Philosophy 46:87.
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  48. Robert E. Butts & Jaakko Hintikka (1977). Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, London, Ontario, Canada, 1975. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  49. Salvator Cannavo (1974). Nomic Inference: An Introduction to the Logic of Scientific Inquiry. Martinus Nijhoff.
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  50. Michele Caponigro & Enrico Giannetto (2012). Epistemic Vs Ontic Classification of Quantum Entangled States? Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (20):137 - 145.
    In this brief paper, starting from recent works, we analyze from conceptual point of view this basic question: can be the nature of quantum entangled states be interpreted ontologically or epistemologically? According to some works, the degrees of freedom (and the tool of quantum partitions) of quantum systems permit us to establish a possible classification between factorizable and entangled states. We suggest, that the "choice" of degree of freedom (or quantum partitions), even if mathematically justified introduces an epistemic element, not (...)
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