Bookmark and Share

General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Gabriele Contessa (Carleton University)
Assistant editor: Justin Bzovy (University of Western Ontario)
Most recently added entries found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
  1. added 2014-09-19
    H. G. Callaway (2014). Arthur S. Eddington, The Nature of the Physical World, An Annotated Edition. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    Arthur S. Eddington, FRS, (1882–1944) was one of the most prominent British scientists of his time. He made major contributions to astrophysics and to the broader understanding of the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is famed for his astronomical observations of 1919, confirming Einstein’s prediction of the curving of the paths of starlight, and he was the first major interpreter of Einstein’s physics to the English-speaking world. His 1928 book, The Nature of the Physical World, here re-issued (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. added 2014-09-19
    Jamin Asay (2007). Truth in Constructive Empiricism. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Constructive empiricism, the scientific anti-realism championed by Bas van Fraassen, claims to offer an adequate reconstruction of the aim and practice of scientific inquiry without adopting the inflationary metaphysical excesses of scientific realism. In articulating the positions of the realist and the empiricist, van Fraassen freely makes use of the concept of truth. Theories of truth come in a variety of flavors, some more metaphysically stark than others. Deflationary theories of truth, for instance, boast of the ability to offer a (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. added 2014-09-17
    Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (forthcoming). The Structure of Scientific Theories. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific inquiry has led to immense explanatory and technological successes, partly as a result of the pervasiveness of scientific theories. Relativity theory, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics were, and continue to be, wildly successful families of theories within physics, biology, and geology. Other powerful theory clusters inhabit comparatively recent disciplines such as cognitive science, climate science, molecular biology, microeconomics, and Geographic Information Science (GIS). Effective scientific theories magnify understanding, help supply legitimate explanations, and assist in formulating predictions. Moving from their (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. added 2014-09-16
    Marcin Miłkowski (2013). Reverse-Engineering in Cognitive-Science. In Marcin Miłkowski & Konrad Talmont-Kaminski (eds.), Regarding the Mind, Naturally: Naturalist Approaches to the Sciences of the Mental. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 12-29.
    I discuss whether there are some lessons for philosophical inquiry over the nature of simulation to be learnt from the practical methodology of reengineering. I will argue that reengineering serves a similar purpose as simulations in theoretical science such as computational neuroscience or neurorobotics, and that the procedures and heuristics of reengineering help to develop solutions to outstanding problems of simulation.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. added 2014-09-15
    William Andrew Rottschaefer (2014). Is the Science of Positive Intentional Change a Science of Objective Moral Values? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):435-436.
    I examine whether Wilson et al.'s argument for a science of positive intentional change constitutes an argument for a science of objective moral values. Drawing from their discussion, I present four reasons for thinking that it may be and some considerations on why it may not be. Concluding, I seek help from the authors. [Open Peer Commentary on a BBS article.].
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. added 2014-09-15
    Sara Giordano (2014). Scientific Reforms, Feminist Interventions, and the Politics of Knowing: An Auto‐Ethnography of a Feminist Neuroscientist. Hypatia 29 (3).
    Feminist science studies scholars have documented the historical and cultural contingency of scientific knowledge production. It follows that political and social activism has impacted the practice of science today; however, little has been done to examine the current cultures of science in light of feminist critiques and activism. In this article, I argue that, although critiques have changed the cultures of science both directly and indirectly, fundamental epistemological questions have largely been ignored and neutralized through these policy reforms. I provide (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. added 2014-09-15
    Ekaterina Svetlova (2014). Modelling Beyond Application: Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in Modern Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):79-98.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. added 2014-09-15
    S. Yanase (1987). The Challenge of Spiritual Values to Science and Technology. Dialectics and Humanism 14 (3):13-20.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. added 2014-09-15
    S. J. Nebres (1987). Science, Technology and Spiritual Values. Dialectics and Humanism 14 (3):71-78.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. added 2014-09-07
    Arnon Keren, Science and Informed, Counterfactual, Democratic Consent.
    On many science-related policy questions, the public is unable to make informed decisions, because of its inability to make use of knowledge and information obtained by scientists. Philip Kitcher and James Fishkin have both suggested therefore that on certain science-related issues, public policy should not be decided upon by actual democratic vote, but should instead conform to the public's Counterfactual Informed Democratic Decision (CIDD). Indeed, this suggestion underlies Kitcher's specification of an ideal of a well-ordered science. The paper argues that (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. added 2014-09-06
    Gregor Betz, Michael Baurmann & Rainer Cramm (2013). Is Epistemic Trust of Veritistic Value? Ethics and Politics 15:25-41.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. added 2014-09-06
    Gregor Betz (2013). Chaos, Plurality and Model Metrics in Climate Science. In Ulrich V. Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Models, Simulation, and the Reduction of Complexity. de Gruyter. 255-264.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. added 2014-09-05
    Jamin Asay & S. Seth Bordner (forthcoming). A Modest Defense of Manifestationalism. Synthese:1-15.
    As the debate between realists and empiricists in the philosophy of science drags on, one point of consensus has emerged: no one wants to be a manifestationalist. The manifestationalist is a kind of radical empiricist who argues that science provides theories that aim neither at a true picture of the entire world, nor even an empirically adequate picture that captures the world in all its observable respects. For manifestationalists, science aims only at providing theories that are true to the observed (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. added 2014-09-04
    John Horden (forthcoming). Devious Stipulations. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics.
    Recent attempts to answer ontological questions through conceptual analysis have been controversial. Nonetheless, contemporary metaphysicians mostly agree that if the existence of certain things analytically follows from sentences we already accept, then there is no further ontological commitmment involved in affirming the existence of those things. More generally, it is plausible that whenever a sentence analytically entails another, the conjunction of those sentences requires nothing more of the world for its truth than the former sentence alone. In his ‘Analyticity and (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. added 2014-09-04
    Michael Schippers (forthcoming). Probabilistic Measures of Coherence: From Adequacy Constraints Towards Pluralism. Synthese.
    The debate on probabilistic measures of coherence flourishes for about 15 years now. Initiated by papers that have been published around the turn of the millennium, many different proposals have since then been put forward. This contribution is partly devoted to a reassessment of extant coherence measures. Focusing on a small number of reasonable adequacy constraints I show that (i) there can be no coherence measure that satisfies all constraints, and that (ii) subsets of these adequacy constraints motivate two different (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. added 2014-08-30
    Jonathan Chimakonam (2012). Introducing African Science: Systematic and Philosophical Approach. Author House.
    (western) science as ethno-science, suggesting it is the local knowledge system of the west but imposed on other cultures (45). Supporting this view Alozie who classified African science into functional, structural and historical (6-19) maintains  ...
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. added 2014-08-27
    Graham Oddie (1988). On a Dogma Concerning Realism and Incommensurability. In R. Nola (ed.), Reativism and Realism in Science. Reidel. 169-293.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. added 2014-08-27
    Graham Oddie (1987). “Partial Interpretation, Meaning-Variance, and Incommensurability. In Gavroglu K. (ed.), Imre Lakatos and Theories of Scientific Change. Reidel. 305-22.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. added 2014-08-25
    Terence Rajivan Edward, Astrology, Fate and Causation.
    Some philosophers assert that astrology is a false theory. The simplest way to argue against all astrology is to identify a proposition that any kind of astrology must be committed to and then show that this proposition is false. In this paper I draw attention to some misconceptions regarding which propositions any kind of astrology is committed to.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. added 2014-08-22
    Letitia Meynell (2013). Parsing Pictures: On Analyzing the Content of Images in Science. The Knowledge Engineering Review 28 (3): 327-345.
    In this paper I tackle the question of what basic form an analytical method for articulating and ultimately assessing visual representations should take. I start from the assumption that scientific images, being less prone to interpretive complication than artworks, are ideal objects from which to engage this question. I then assess a recent application of Nelson Goodman's aesthetics to the project of parsing scientific images, Laura Perini's ‘The truth in pictures’. I argue that, although her project is an important one, (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. added 2014-08-20
    Catherine Rowett (2013). Philosophy's Numerical Turn: Why the Pythagoreans' Interest in Numbers is Truly Awesome. In Dirk Obbink & David Sider (eds.), Doctrine and Doxography: Studies on Heraclitus and Pythagoras. De Gruyter. 3-32.
    Philosophers are generally somewhat wary of the hints of number mysticism in the reports about the beliefs and doctrines of the so-called Pythagoreans. It's not clear how much Pythagoras himself (as opposed to his later followers) indulged in speculation about numbers, or in more serious mathematics. But the Pythagoreans whom Aristotle discusses in the Metaphysics had some elaborate stories to tell about how the universe could be explained in terms of numbers—not just its physics but perhaps morality too. Was this (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. added 2014-08-18
    Peter Brössel (forthcoming). Keynes’s Coefficient of Dependence Revisited. Erkenntnis.
    Probabilistic dependence and independence are among the key concepts of Bayesian epistemology. This paper focuses on the study of one specific quantitative notion of probabilistic dependence. More specifically, section 1 introduces Keynes’s coefficient of dependence and shows how it is related to pivotal aspects of scientific reasoning such as confirmation, coherence, the explanatory and unificatory power of theories, and the diversity of evidence. The intimate connection between Keynes’s coefficient of dependence and scientific reasoning raises the question of how Keynes’s coefficient (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. added 2014-08-13
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its central (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. added 2014-08-11
    Jeroen Van Bouwel, Dealing with Values in Science: Kinds, Roles and/or Procedures.
    In this paper, we inquire how the eternal tension between science and values has been tackled in philosophy of science by analysing three different strategies that have been used: (a) focussing on different kinds of values (e.g. epistemic vs. non-epistemic values) and allowing some of these kinds to be present in science (e.g. epistemic values); (b) stipulating the role values are allowed to play (e.g. an indirect, but not a direct role); and, (c) specifying a social procedure in order to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. added 2014-08-07
    Dan Hicks (2014). A New Direction for Science and Values. Synthese 191 (14):3271-95.
    The controversy over the old ideal of “value-free science” has cooled significantly over the past decade. Many philosophers of science now agree that even ethical and political values may play a substantial role in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Consequently, in the last few years, work in science and values has become more specific: Which values may influence science, and in which ways? Or, how do we distinguish illegitimate from illegitimate kinds of influence? In this paper, I argue that this (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. added 2014-08-06
    Vincenzo Fano, Enrico Giannetto, Giulia Giannini & Pierluigi Graziani (2012). Complessità E Riduzionismo. ISONOMIA - Epistemologica Series Editor.
    The enormous increasing of connections between people and the noteworthy enlargement of domains and methods in sciences have augmented extraordinarily the cardinality of the set of meaningful human symbols. We know that complexity is always on the way to become complication, i.e. a non-tractable topic. For this reason scholars engage themselves more and more in attempting to tame plurality and chaos. In this book distinguished scientists, philosophers and historians of science reflect on the topic from a multidisciplinary point of view. (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. added 2014-08-04
    Paul Silva Jr (forthcoming). On Doxastic Justification and Properly Basing One's Beliefs. Erkenntnis.
    According to the orthodox account of the relationship between propositional and doxastic justification, basing one's belief in P on one's source of propositional justification to believe P suffices for having a doxastically justified belief. But in an increasingly recognized work, John Turri (2010) argues that the orthodox view fails and proposes a new view according to which having propositional justification depends on having the ability to acquire doxastic justification. Turri's novel position has surprisingly far-reaching epistemological consequences, ruling out some common (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. added 2014-07-26
    Alexander Reutlinger (forthcoming). Are Causal Facts Really Explanatorily Emergent? Ladyman and Ross on Higher-Level Causal Facts and Renormalization Group Explanation. Synthese.
    In their Every Thing Must Go, Ladyman and Ross defend a novel version of Neo- Russellian metaphysics of causation, which falls into three claims: (1) there are no fundamental physical causal facts (orthodox Russellian claim), (2) there are higher-level causal facts of the special sciences, and (3) higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent. While accepting claims (1) and (2), I attack claim (3). Ladyman and Ross argue that higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent, because (a) certain aspects of these higher-level (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. added 2014-07-24
    Andreas Hüttemann (forthcoming). Physicalism and the Part-Whole Relation. In Christian Wüthrich & Tomasz Bigaj (eds.), Metaphysics in Contemporary Physics.
    In this paper I intend to analyse whether a certain kind of physicalism (part-wholephysicalism)is supported by what classical mechanics and quantum mechanics have to say about the part whole relation. I will argue that not even the most likely candidates – namely cases of microexplanation of the dynamics of compound systems – provide evidence for part whole-physicalism, i.e. the thesis that the behaviour of the compound obtains in virtue of the behaviour of the parts. Physics does not dictate part-whole-physicalism.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. added 2014-07-19
    Sean Walsh, Eleanor Knox & Adam Caulton (2014). Critical Review of Mathematics and Scientific Representation. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 81 (3):460-469.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. added 2014-07-18
    Michael Baumgartner & Alexander Gebharter (forthcoming). Constitutive Relevance, Mutual Manipulability, and Fat-Handedness. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    The first part of this paper argues that if Craver’s ([2007a], [2007b]) popular mutual manipulability account (MM) of mechanistic constitution is embedded within Woodward’s ([2003]) interventionist theory of causation--for which it is explicitly designed--it either undermines the mechanistic research paradigm by entailing that there do not exist relationships of constitutive relevance or it gives rise to the unwanted consequence that constitution is a form of causation. The second part shows how Woodward’s theory can be adapted in such a way that (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. added 2014-07-18
    Nicla Vassallo (forthcoming). Undertermination and Theory-Ladenness Against Impartiality. A Defence of Value Free Science and Value-Laden Technology. Protosociology 53.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. added 2014-07-16
    K. Brad Wray (2013). Social Epistemology. In Stathis Psillos & Martin Curd (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
  34. added 2014-07-15
    K. Brad Wray (2014). COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH, DELIBERATION, AND INNOVATION. Episteme 11 (03).
    I evaluate the extent to which we could learn something about how we should be conducting collaborative research in science from the research on groupthink. I argue that Solomon has set us in the wrong direction, failing to recognize that the consensus in scientific specialties is not the result of deliberation. But the attention to the structure of problem-solving that has emerged in the groupthink research conducted by psychologists can help us see when deliberation could lead to problems for a (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. added 2014-07-14
    Elizabeth Miller (forthcoming). Humean Scientific Explanation. Philosophical Studies:1-22.
    In a recent paper, Barry Loewer attempts to defend Humeanism about laws of nature from a charge that Humean laws are not adequately explanatory. Central to his defense is a distinction between metaphysical and scientific explanations: even if Humeans cannot offer further metaphysical explanations of particular features of their “mosaic,” that does not preclude them from offering scientific explanations of these features. According to Marc Lange, however, Loewer’s distinction is of no avail. Defending a transitivity principle linking scientific explanantia to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. added 2014-07-03
    Ilho Park (forthcoming). Confirmation Measures and Collaborative Belief Updating. Synthese.
    There are some candidates that have been thought to measure the degree to which evidence incrementally confirms a hypothesis. This paper provides an argument for one candidate—the log-likelihood ratio measure. For this purpose, I will suggest a plausible requirement that I call the Requirement of Collaboration. And then, it will be shown that, of various candidates, only the log-likelihood ratio measure l satisfies this requirement. Using this result, Jeffrey conditionalization will be reformulated so as to disclose explicitly what determines new (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. added 2014-06-25
    T. Quick (forthcoming). From Phrenology to the Laboratory: Physiological Psychology and the Institution of Science in Britain (C.1830-80). History of the Human Sciences.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. added 2014-06-23
    Michael E. Cuffaro (forthcoming). How-Possibly Explanations in Quantum Computer Science. Philosophy of Science.
    A primary goal of quantum computer science is to find an explanation for the fact that quantum computers are more powerful than classical computers. In this paper I argue that to answer this question is to compare algorithmic processes of various kinds, and in so doing to describe the possibility spaces associated with these processes. By doing this we explain how it is possible for one process to outperform its rival. Further, in this and similar examples little is gained in (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. added 2014-06-22
    Alexander Skiles (forthcoming). Against Grounding Necessitarianism. Erkenntnis:1-35.
    Can there be grounding without necessitation? Can a fact obtain wholly in virtue of metaphysically more fundamental facts, even though there are possible worlds at which the latter facts obtain but not the former? It is an orthodoxy in recent literature about the nature of grounding, and in first-order philosophical disputes about what grounds what, that the answer is no. I will argue that the correct answer is yes. I present two novel arguments against grounding necessitarianism, and show that grounding (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation