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General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
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  1. added 2016-05-28
    Finnur Dellsén (forthcoming). Review of Reason and Explanation: A Defense of Explanatory Coheretism, by Ted Poston. [REVIEW] Dialectica.
  2. added 2016-05-23
    Juha Saatsi (forthcoming). What is Theoretical Progress of Science? Synthese:1-21.
    The epistemic conception of scientific progress equates progress with accumulation of scientific knowledge. I argue that the epistemic conception fails to fully capture scientific progress: theoretical progress, in particular, can transcend scientific knowledge in important ways. Sometimes theoretical progress can be a matter of new theories ‘latching better onto unobservable reality’ in a way that need not be a matter of new knowledge. Recognising this further dimension of theoretical progress is particularly significant for understanding scientific realism, since realism is naturally (...)
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  3. added 2016-05-22
    Michele Paolini Paoletti & Francesco Orilia (eds.) (2017). Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation. Routledge.
    Downward causation plays a fundamental role in many theories of metaphysics and philosophy of mind. It is strictly connected with many topics in philosophy, including but not limited to: emergence, mental causation, the nature of causation, the nature of causal powers and dispositions, laws of nature, and the possibility of ontological and epistemic reductions. _Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation_ brings together experts from different fields—including William Bechtel, Stewart Clark and Tom Lancaster, Carl Gillett, John Heil, Robin F. Hendry, (...)
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  4. added 2016-05-22
    Dimitris Kilakos (2016). How Could Vygotsky Inform an Approach to Scientific Representations? Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 47 (1):140-152.
    In the quest for a new social turn in philosophy of science, exploring the prospects of a Vygotskian perspective could be of significant interest, especially due to his emphasis on the role of culture and socialisation in the development of cognitive functions. However, a philosophical reassessment of Vygotsky's ideas in general has yet to be done. As a step towards this direction, I attempt to elaborate an approach on scientific representations by drawing inspirations from Vygotsky. Specifically, I work upon Vygotsky’s (...)
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  5. added 2016-05-19
    Ian James Kidd (2016). Why Did Feyerabend Defend Astrology? Integrity, Virtue, and the Authority of Science. Social Epistemology 30 (4):464-482.
    This paper explores the relationship between epistemic integrity, virtue, and authority by offering a virtue epistemological reading of the defences of non-scientific beliefs, practices, and traditions in the writings of Paul Feyerabend. I argue that there was a robust epistemic rationale for those defences and that it can inform contemporary reflection on the epistemic authority of the sciences. Two common explanations of the purpose of those defences are rejected as lacking textual support. A third “pluralist” reading is judged more persuasive, (...)
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  6. added 2016-05-17
    Lina Jansson (2015). Explanatory Asymmetries: Laws of Nature Rehabilitated. Journal of Philosophy 112 (11):577-599.
    The problem of explanatory non-symmetries provides the strongest reason to abandon the view that laws can figure in explanations without causal underpinnings. I argue that this problem can be overcome. The solution that I propose starts from noticing the importance of conditions of application when laws do explanatory work, and I go on to develop a notion of nomological dependence that can tackle the non-symmetry problem. The strategy is to show how a strong notion of counterfactual dependence as guaranteed by (...)
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  7. added 2016-05-16
    Valentin Cheshko & Valentin Kulinichenko (eds.) (2004). The Science, the Ethics, the Politics: the socio-cultural aspects of modern genetics. Parapan.
    Modern genetics becomes a bridge between the natural sciences, humanities and social practtoon the social life of biomedicine and genetics this branch of science makes these branches of science by comparable in their socio-forming role to politics and economics factors. The research objective of this paper is theoretical analysis of social and cultural challenges posed by the development of basic genetics and genetic technologies. The problems of this book may be attributed to the new field of science, formed at the (...)
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  8. added 2016-05-15
    Cheshko Valentin & Yulia Kosova (2015). The Semantics of Transdisciplinary Concepts of Socio-Natural Co-Evolution: A Constructive Utopia, Social Verification and Evolutionary Risk. In Teodor N. Țîrdea (ed.), Strategia supravie uirii din perspectiva bioeticii, filosofiei și medicinei. Culegere de articole științifice. Vol. 21 / Sub redacția prof. univrsitar, dr. hab. în filosofie . – Chișinău: Print-Caro. Print-Caro 112-116.
    The utopian character of modern scientific theories, with the human nature as a subject, is an inevitable consequence of the presence of an imperative component of transdisciplinary human dimensional scientific knowledge. Its social function is the adaptation of the descriptive component of the theory to the given socio-cultural type that simplifies the passage of the process of social verification of the theory. The genesis of bioethics can be seen as one of the basic premises for the actualization of the (...)
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  9. added 2016-05-15
    Valentin Cheshko & Yulia Kosova (2012). SOCIAL VERIFICATION – HUMAN DIMENSONS OF THEORETICAL SCIENCE AND HIGH-TECH (CASUS BIOETHICS). Part Three. DYNAMICS OF GROWTH OF NEW KNOWLEDGE IN POSTACADEMICAL SCIENCE. Practical Philosophy 1:59-69.
    The new phase of science evolution is characterized by totality of subject and object of cognition and technology (high-hume). As a result, forming of network structure in a disciplinary matrix modern are «human dimensional» natural sciences and two paradigmal «nuclei» (attraktors). As a result, the complication of structure of disciplinary matrix and forming a few paradigm nuclei in modern «human dimensional» natural sciences are observed. In the process of social verification integration of scientific theories into the existent system of mental (...)
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  10. added 2016-05-15
    Valentin Cheshko & Yulia Kosova (2012). SOCIAL VERIFICATION – HUMAN DIMENSONS OF THEORETICAL SCIENCE AND HIGH-TECH (CASUS BIOETHICS). Part Three. DYNAMICS OF GROWTH OF NEW KNOWLEDGE IN POSTACADEMICAL SCIENCE. Practical Philosophy 1:59-69.
  11. added 2016-05-15
    Valentin Cheshko & Yulia Kosova (2011). SOCIAL VERIFICATION – HUMAN DIMENSONS OF THEORETICAL SCIENCE AND HIGH-TECH (CASUS BIOETHICS). Part One. Practical Philosophy 1:94-100.
    The new phase of science evolution is characterized by totality of subject and object of cognition and technology (high-hume). As a result, forming of network structure in a disciplinary matrix modern are «human dimensional» natural sciences and two paradigmal «nuclei» (attraktors). As a result, the complication of structure of disciplinary matrix and forming a few paradigm nuclei in modern «human dimensional» natural sciences are observed. In the process of social verification integration of scientific theories into the existent system of mental (...)
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  12. added 2016-05-15
    Valentin Cheshko & Yulia Kosova (2011). SOCIAL VERIFICATION – HUMAN DIMENSONS OF THEORETICAL SCIENCE AND HIGH-TECH (CASUS BIOETHICS). Part Two. Practical Philosophy 2:46-55.
    The new phase of science evolution is characterized by totality of subject and object of cognition and technology (high-hume). As a result, forming of network structure in a disciplinary matrix modern are «human dimensional» natural sciences and two paradigmal «nuclei» (attraktors). As a result, the complication of structure of disciplinary matrix and forming a few paradigm nuclei in modern «human dimensional» natural sciences are observed.
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  13. added 2016-05-14
    Valentin Cheshko (2014). EVOLUTIONARY-ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A.A. BOGDANOV's TECTOLOGICAL CONCEPT. THE VIEW FROM THE XXI CENTURY. Integral 4 (77):40-44.
    The stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens and patterns of risks arising in the course of this evolution were discussed in article. These patterns were predicted by Bogdanov’s option of General systems theory.
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  14. added 2016-05-14
    Valentin Cheshko, L. V. Ivanitskaya & V. I. Glazko (2011). POST-INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE OF XXI CENTURY – RATIONALISM VERSUS IRRATIONALISM: EVOLUTIONARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT. Russian Academy of Natural Sciences Herald 3:68-77.
    The phenomenon of rationalism and irrationalism, contextually related to the transformation methodology and the social function of modern (post-industrial) science – social verification, interpretation and knowledge, etc., are analyzes.
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  15. added 2016-05-13
    Michael J. Shaffer (forthcoming). Lakatos’ Quasi-Empiricism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Polish Journal of Philosophy.
    Imre Lakatos' views on the philosophy of mathematics are important and they have often been underappreciated. The most obvious lacuna in this respect is the lack of detailed discussion and analysis of his 1976a paper and its implications for the methodology of mathematics, particularly its implications with respect to argumentation and the matter of how truths are established in mathematics. The most important themes that run through his work on the philosophy of mathematics and which culminate in the 1976a paper (...)
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  16. added 2016-05-13
    Jeff Kochan (2016). The Eggs Speak Up: Review of Fuller's Knowledge. [REVIEW] Metascience 25 (1):12-18, 23.
    Contribution to a book symposium on Steve Fuller's _Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History_ (Routledge, 2015). The title reproduces the title of an essay by Hannah Arendt. Fuller uses the idea of theodicy to promote a creationist philosophy of science, according to which one is justified in breaking eggs in order to produce a divine omelette of technologically orchestrated human transcendence. The review nods to Arendt's essay, and a short story by Ursula LeGuin, in challenging this proposal.
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  17. added 2016-05-13
    Valentin Cheshko, Valery Glazko, Gleb Yu Kosovsky & Anna S. Peredyadenko (eds.) (2015). STABLE ADAPTIVE STRATEGY of HOMO SAPIENS and EVOLUTIONARY RISK of HIGH TECH. Transdisciplinary Essay. New Publ.Tech..
    The co-evolutionary concept of Three-modal stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens is developed. The concept based on the principle of evolutionary complementarity of anthropogenesis: value of evolutionary risk and evolutionary path of human evolution are defined by descriptive (evolutionary efficiency) and creative-teleological (evolutionary correctly) parameters simultaneously, that cannot be instrumental reduced to others ones. Resulting volume of both parameters define the trends of biological, social, cultural and techno-rationalistic human evolution by two gear mechanism ˗ gene-cultural co-evolution and techno- humanitarian balance. (...)
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  18. added 2016-05-13
    Cheshko Valentin (ed.) (2009). High Hume (Bio-Power and Bio-Policy in Society of Risk). M., 2009. 319 P. Moscow Agricultural Academy Named After KA Timiryazev.
    Human simultaneously is the acting person of a few autonomous and interdepending forms of evolutional process. Accordingly, it is possible to select three forms of adaptation and three constituents of evolutional strategy of survival of humanity – biological, sociocultural and technological adaptations. The actual and potential consequences of development of so-called High Hume technologies (technologies of the guided evolution)  most essential from major technological adaptations of humanity  are analyzed. The phenomenon of bio-power within the framework of global coevolutional (...)
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  19. added 2016-05-12
    Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes & Trevor Pinch (eds.) (2012). The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in Sociology and History of Technology (25th Anniversary Edition with New Preface). MIT Press.
  20. added 2016-05-12
    Contzen Pereira, “Let There Be Light” and the Light Was Eternal: A Meta-Religious Understanding of Creation and Consciousness.
    “God is the light of the world and may his light shine before all” (Mathew 5: 14-16). The creator is the symmetric light which gave rise to asymmetric matter along with abundant cosmic energy that currently resides in the matrix of the universe; for the symmetry was broken with the big bang to create the universe. In the physical world, matter gave rise to biological structures to possess the electromagnetic soul and its processes; a localized form created of the cosmic (...)
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  21. added 2016-05-12
    Contzen Pereira & J. Shashi Kiran Reddy, Science, Subjectivity & Reality.
    In this paper, we argue on the ability of science to capture the true subjective experience of life, blinded within the limits of its reductionist approaches. With this approach, even though science can explain well the physics behind the objective phenomenon, it fails fundamentally in understanding the various aspects associated with the biological entities. In this sense, we are skeptical to the present approach of science and calls out for a more fundamental theory of life that considers not only the (...)
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  22. added 2016-05-11
    Frank Cabrera (forthcoming). Cladistic Parsimony, Historical Linguistics, and Cultural Phylogenetics. Mind and Language.
    Here, I consider the recent application of phylogenetic methods in historical linguistics. After a preliminary survey of one such method, i.e. cladistic parsimony, I respond to two common criticisms of cultural phylogenies: (1) that cultural artifacts cannot be modeled as tree-like because of borrowing across lineages, and (2) that the mechanism of cultural change differs radically from that of biological evolution. I argue that while perhaps (1) remains true for certain cultural artifacts, the nature of language may be such as (...)
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  23. added 2016-05-10
    Daniel Nolan (forthcoming). The Possibilities of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History.
  24. added 2016-05-09
    F. Boem, E. Ratti, M. Andreoletti & G. Boniolo (2016). Why Genes Are Like Lemons. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57 (June):88-95.
    In the last few years, the lack of a unitary notion of gene across biological sciences has troubled the philosophy of biology community. However, the debate on this concept has remained largely historical or focused on particular cases presented by the scientific empirical advancements. Moreover, in the literature there are no explicit and reasonable arguments about why a philosophical clarification of the concept of gene is needed. In our paper, we claim that a philosophical clarification of the concept of gene (...)
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  25. added 2016-05-08
    Finnur Dellsén (forthcoming). There May Yet Be Non-Causal Explanations. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-8.
    There are many putative counterexamples to the view that all scientific explanations are causal explanations. Using a new theory of what it is to be a causal explanation, Bradford Skow has recently argued that several of the putative counterexamples fail to be non-causal. This paper defends some of the counterexamples by showing how Skow’s argument relies on an overly permissive theory of causal explanations.
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  26. added 2016-05-07
    K. Brad Wray (forthcoming). Method and Continuity in Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-13.
    Devitt (J Gen Philos Sci 42:285–293, 2011) has developed an interesting defense of realism against the threats posed by (1) the Pessimistic Induction and (2) the Argument from Unconceived Alternatives. Devitt argues that the best explanation for the success of our current theories, and the fact that they are superior to the theories they replaced, is that they were developed and tested with the aid of better methods than the methods used to develop and test the many theories that were (...)
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  27. added 2016-05-07
    Anita Bandrowski, Ryan Brinkman, Mathias Brochhausen, Matthew H. Brush, Bill Bug, Marcus C. Chibucos, Kevin Clancy, Mã©Lanie Courtot, Dirk Derom, Michel Dumontier, Liju Fan, Jennifer Fostel, Gilberto Fragoso, Frank Gibson, Alejandra Gonzalez-Beltran & Melissa A. Haendel (2016). The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations. PLoS ONE 11 (4):1-19.
    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to (...)
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  28. added 2016-05-07
    Marian Przełęcki (1979). The Semantics of Open Concepts. In Jerzy Pelc (ed.), Semiotics in Poland 1984–19694. Springer 284–317.
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  29. added 2016-05-05
    Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem (forthcoming). Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine. In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Foundational Issues in Molecular Medicine. Routledge
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require material manipulation. We also (...)
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  30. added 2016-05-03
    Jiri Benovsky (forthcoming). 'Nothing Over and Above' or 'Nothing'? On Eliminativism, Reductionism, and Composition. Polish Journal of Philosophy.
    In this article, I am interested in an issue concerning eliminativism about ordinary objects that can be put as the claim that the eliminativist is guilty of postulating the existence of something (atoms arranged tablewise) but not of something that is identical to it (the table). But, as we will see, this turns out to be a problem for everybody except the eliminativist. Indeed, this issue highlights a more general problem about the relationship between an entity and the parts the (...)
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  31. added 2016-05-02
    Beate Krickel (forthcoming). A Regularist Approach to Mechanistic Type-Level Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Most defenders of the new mechanistic approach accept ontic constraints for successful scientific explanation (Illari 2013; Craver 2014). The minimal claim is that scientific explanations have objective truthmakers, namely mechanisms that exist in the physical world independently of any observer and that cause or constitute the phenomena-to- be-explained. How can this idea be applied to type-level explanations? Many authors at least implicitly assume that in order for mechanisms to be the truthmakers of type-level explanation they need to be (...)
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  32. added 2016-04-29
    Alexander Gebharter (2016). Another Problem with RBN Models of Mechanisms. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 31 (2):177-188.
    Casini, Illari, Russo, and Williamson (2011) suggest to model mechanisms by means of recursive Bayesian networks (RBNs) and Clarke, Leuridan, and Williamson (2014) extend their modelling approach to mechanisms featuring causal feedback. One of the main selling points of the RBN approach should be that it provides answers to questions concerning manipulation and control. In this paper I demonstrate that the method to compute the effects of interventions the authors mentioned endorse leads to absurd results under the additional assumption of (...)
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  33. added 2016-04-27
    Machiel Keestra, How Do Narratives and Brains Mutually Influence Each Other? Taking Both the ‘Neuroscientific Turn’ and the ‘Narrative Turn’ in Explaining Bio-Political Orders.
    Introduction: the neuroscientific turn in political science The observation that brains and political orders are interdependent is almost trivial. Obviously, political orders require brain processes in order to emerge and to remain in place, as these processes enable action and cognition. Conversely, every since Aristotle coined man as “by nature a political animal” (Aristotle, Pol.: 1252a 3; cf. Eth. Nic.: 1097b 11), this also suggests that the political engagements of this animal has likely consequences for its natural development, including the (...)
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  34. added 2016-04-27
    Steph Menken, Machiel Keestra, Lucas Rutting, Ger Post, Mieke de Roo, Sylvia Blad & Linda de Greef (eds.) (2016). An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Research. Theory and Practice. Amsterdam University Press.
    This book (128 pp.) serves as an introduction and manual to guide students through the interdisciplinary research process. We are becoming increasingly aware that, as a result of technological developments and globalisation, problems are becoming so complex that they can only be solved through cooperation between multiple disciplines. Healthcare, climate change, food security, energy, financial markets and quality of life are just a few examples of issues that require scientists and academics to work in a crossdisciplinary way. As a result (...)
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  35. added 2016-04-27
    Machiel Keestra (2015). Understanding Human Action. Integrating Meanings, Mechanisms, Causes, and Contexts. In V. Bazhanov & R. W. Scholz (eds.), Transdisciplinarity in philosophy and science: approaches, problems, prospects. Russian Academy of Science 201-235.
    Humans are capable of understanding an incredible variety of actions performed by other humans. Even though these range from primary biological actions, like eating and fleeing, to acts in parliament or in poetry, humans generally can make sense of each other’s actions. Action understanding is the cognitive ability to make sense of another person’s action by integrating perceptual information about the behavior with knowledge about the immediate and sociocultural contexts of the action, understanding of relevant meanings and one’s own (...)
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  36. added 2016-04-26
    Elizabeth Irvine (2016). Model-Based Theorizing in Cognitive Neuroscience. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):143-168.
    Weisberg and Godfrey-Smith distinguish between two forms of theorizing: data-driven ‘abstract direct representation’ and modelling. The key difference is that when using a data-driven approach, theories are intended to represent specific phenomena and so directly represent them, while models may not be intended to represent anything and so represent targets indirectly, if at all. The aim here is to compare and analyse these practices, in order to outline an account of model-based theorizing that involves direct representational relationships. This is based (...)
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  37. added 2016-04-25
    Nicholas W. Best (2016). What Was Revolutionary About the Chemical Revolution? In Eric Scerri & Grant Fisher (eds.), Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry. Oxford University Press 37-59.
    Lavoisier and his allies should be regarded as philosophers of chemistry, for they took it upon themselves to carry out a scientific revolution. Inspired by enlightenment philosophy, they introduced new assumptions, apparatus and methods of experimentation. They provided a linguistic framework that would ensure These reforms, as much as any theoretical changes, are what make this period revolutionary. Moreover, by reading these scientists as philosophers of chemistry, we see that the Chemical Revolution was in many ways more revolutionary than Thomas (...)
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  38. added 2016-04-24
    María G. Navarro & Kamili Posey (2016). Review of Sandra Harding's Objectivity and Diversity. [REVIEW] Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5 (4):60-64.
    Sandra Harding’s Objectivity and Diversity deals with the epistemic and political limitations of a conception of scientific objectivity that, according to the author, is still in force in our societies. However, in this conception of objectivity, diversity (e.g., of individuals and communities of knowledge, but also, and especially, agendas, models of participation and even styles of reasoning in decision making) still plays a limited and undeserved role.
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  39. added 2016-04-13
    K. Brad Wray (forthcoming). Systematicity and the Continuity Thesis. Synthese:1-14.
    Hoyningen-Huene develops an account of what science is, distinguishing it from common sense. According to Hoyningen-Huene, the key distinguishing feature is that science is more systematic. He identifies nine ways in which science is more systematic than common sense. I compare Hoyningen-Huene’s view to a view I refer to as the “Continuity Thesis.” The Continuity Thesis states that scientific knowledge is just an extension of common sense. This thesis is associated with Quine, Planck, and others. I argue that Hoyningen-Huene ultimately (...)
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  40. added 2016-04-12
    Lavinia Marin (2015). A Possible Answer to Newman’s Objection From the Perspective of Informational Structural Realism. Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 59 (2):307-318.
    This paper aims to reconstruct a possible answer to the classical Newman’s objection which has been used countless times to argue against structural realism. The reconstruction starts from the new strand of structural realism – informational structural realism – authored by Luciano Floridi. Newman’s objection had previously stated that all propositions which comprise the mathematical structures are merely trivial truths and can be instantiated by multiple models. This paper examines whether informational structural realism can overcome this objection by analysing the (...)
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  41. added 2016-04-10
    Jimena Canales (2016). Einstein's Bergson Problem. In Yuval Dolev & Michael Roubach (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer 53-72.
    Does a privileged frame of reference exist? Part of Einstein’s success consisted in eliminating Bergson’s objections to relativity theory, which were consonant with those of the most important scientists who had worked on the topic: Henri Poincaré, Hendrik Lorentz and Albert A. Michelson. In the early decades of the century, Bergson’s fame, prestige and influence surpassed that of the physicist. Once considered as one of the most renowned intellectuals of his era and an authority on the nature of time, The (...)
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  42. added 2016-04-08
    Leslie Allan, Towards an Objective Theory of Rationality.
    Drawing on insights from Imre Lakatos' seminal work on theories of rationality, Leslie Allan develops seven criteria for rational theory choice that avoid presuming the rationality of the scientific enterprise. He shows how his axioms of rationality follow from the general demands of an objectivist epistemology. Allan concludes by considering two weighty objections to his framework.
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  43. added 2016-04-07
    Ronald P. Endicott (forthcoming). Developing The Explanatory Dimensions of Part-Whole Realization. Philosophical Studies.
    I use Carl Gillett's much heralded dimensioned theory of realization as a platform to develop a plausible part-whole theory. I begin with some basic desiderata for a theory of realization that its key terms should be defined and that it should be explanatory. I then argue that Gillett's original theory violates these conditions because its explanatory force rests upon an unspecified "in virtue of" relation. I then examine Gillett's later version that appeals instead to theoretical terms tied to "mechanisms." (...)
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  44. added 2016-04-07
    Luigi Scorzato, A Simple Model of Scientific Progress - with Examples.
    One of the main goals of scientific research is to provide a description of the empirical data which is as accurate and comprehensive as possible, while relying on as few and simple assumptions as possible. In this paper, I propose a definition of the notion of few and simple assumptions that is not affected by known problems. This leads to the introduction of a simple model of scientific progress that is based only on empirical accuracy and conciseness. An essential point (...)
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  45. added 2016-04-06
    Jon Lawhead (2012). Getting Fundamental About Doing Physics in The Big Bang. In Dean Kowalski (ed.), The Big Bang Theory and Philosophy. Blackwell 99-111.
  46. added 2016-04-03
    Stan Klein (forthcoming). The Curious Case of the Self-Refuting Straw Man: Trafimow and Earp’s Response to Klein (2014). Theory and Psychology.
    In their critique of Klein (2014a), Trafimow and Earp present two theses. First, they argue that, contra Klein, a well-specified theory is not a necessary condition for successful replication. Second, they contend that even when there is a well-specified theory, replication depends more on auxiliary assumptions than on theory proper. I take issue with both claims, arguing that (a) their first thesis confuses a material conditional (what I said) with a modal claim (T&E’s misreading of what I said), (...)
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  47. added 2016-04-03
    Ingo Brigandt (2016). Why the Difference Between Explanation and Argument Matters to Science Education. Science and Education 25:251-275.
    Contributing to the recent debate on whether or not explanations ought to be differentiated from arguments, this article argues that the distinction matters to science education. I articulate the distinction in terms of explanations and arguments having to meet different standards of adequacy. Standards of explanatory adequacy are important because they correspond to what counts as a good explanation in a science classroom, whereas a focus on evidence-based argumentation can obscure such standards of what makes an explanation explanatory. (...)
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  48. added 2016-04-03
    Eduardo Duque (2013). Work Values in Portuguese Society and in Europe. In Ana Paula Marques, Carlos Gonçalves & Luísa Veloso (eds.), Trabalho, organizações e profissões: recomposições conceptuais e desafios empíricos. Universidade Do Minho: Secção Temática Trabalho, Organizações E Profissões. Associação Portuguesa de Sociologia 81-98.
    Work represents a significant part of a person's life. At working age, people spend much of their time divided between family, leisure and work, and the way a person relates to work conditions family, social and economic relationships. With the proliferation and diversification of occupations – a characteristic of modern societies – the world of work became a personal challenge, as it is no longer seen exclusively from the perspective of existential necessity – concerned about the needs for security and (...)
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  49. added 2016-04-03
    Guenther Witzany (2011). Can Mathematics Explain the Evolution of Human Language? Communicative and Integrative Biology 4 (5):516-520.
    Investigation into the sequence structure of the genetic code by means of an informatic approach is a real success story. The features of human language are also the object of investigation within the realm of formal language theories. They focus on the common rules of a universal grammar that lies behind all languages and determine generation of syntactic structures. This universal grammar is a depiction of material reality, i.e., the hidden logical order of things and its relations determined by natural (...)
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  50. added 2016-04-02
    George Williams (2016). Are Different Standards Warranted to Evaluate Psi? Journal of Parapsychology 79 (2):186-202.
    Throughout the debate on psi, skeptics have almost universally insisted on different standards for evaluating the evidence, claiming that psi represents a radical departure from our current scientific understanding. Thus, there is considerable ambiguity about what standard of evaluation psi must meet. Little attention has been paid to the possible harm to the integrity of scientific investigation from this resulting inconsistency in testing standards. Some have proposed using a Bayesian framework as an improvement on this dilemma in order to more (...)
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