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General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
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  1. added 2015-07-03
    Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew Spear (forthcoming). Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. MIT Press, August 7, 2015.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  2. added 2015-07-01
    Caleb Dewey & Garri Hovhannisyan, Inductive Theories Are Cognitive Metaphors.
    For decades, metaphors have been known to be very important within science. Recently, Brown (2008) strengthened their importance so far as to argue that all scientific models are metaphors (in the cognitive sense). We stretch their importance even further to say that all scientific theories are cognitive metaphors as long as those theories are yielded by a coherent account of induction. Since standard induction is incoherent, as per Hume and Duhem, we primarily concern ourselves with defining a coherent account of (...)
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  3. added 2015-06-28
    Chris F. Taylor, Dawn Field, Susanna-Assunta Sansone, Jan Aerts, Rolf Apweiler, Michael Ashburner, Catherine A. Ball, Pierre-Alain Binz, Molly Bogue, Tim Booth, Alvis Brazma, Ryan R. Brinkman, Adam Michael Clark, Eric W. Deutsch, Oliver Fiehn & Jennifer Fostel, Promoting Coherent Minimum Reporting Guidelines for Biological and Biomedical Investigations: The MIBBI Project.
    Throughout the biological and biomedical sciences there is a growing need for, prescriptive ‘minimum information’ (MI) checklists specifying the key information to include when reporting experimental results are beginning to find favor with experimentalists, analysts, publishers and funders alike. Such checklists aim to ensure that methods, data, analyses and results are described to a level sufficient to support the unambiguous interpretation, sophisticated search, reanalysis and experimental corroboration and reuse of data sets, facilitating the extraction of maximum value from data sets (...)
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  4. added 2015-06-27
    Robert J. Rovetto, Defending Spaceflight - The Echoes of Apollo.
    This paper defends, and emphasizes the importance of, spaceflight, broadly construed to include human and unmanned spaceflight, space science, exploration and development. I specifically provide counter-replies to remarks by Dr. Steven Weinberg against human spaceflight. In this defense of peaceful spaceflight I draw upon a variety of sources. Although a focus is human spaceflight, human and unmanned modes must not be treated as an either-or opposition. Rather, each has a critical role to play in moving humanity forward as a spacefaring (...)
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  5. added 2015-06-26
    Axel Gelfert (2015). Symbol Systems as Collective Representational Resources: Mary Hesse, Nelson Goodman, and the Problem of Scientific Representation. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 4 (6):52-61.
    This short paper grew out of an observation—made in the course of a larger research project—of a surprising convergence between, on the one hand, certain themes in the work of Mary Hesse and Nelson Goodman in the 1950/60s and, on the other hand, recent work on the representational resources of science, in particular regarding model-based representation. The convergence between these more recent accounts of representation in science and the earlier proposals by Hesse and Goodman consists in the recognition that, in (...)
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  6. added 2015-06-26
    Jeff Kochan (2015). Scientific Practice and Epistemic Modes of Existence. In Dimitri Ginev (ed.), Debating Cognitive Existentialism: Values and Orientations in Hermeneutic Philosophy of Science.
    Proponents of practice-based accounts of science usually reject theory-based accounts, and seek to explain scientific theory reductively in terms of practice. I consider two examples: Dimitri Ginev and Joseph Rouse. Both draw inspiration from Martin Heidegger’s existential conception of science. And both allege that Heidegger ultimately betrayed his insight that theory can be reduced to practice when he sought to explain modern science in terms of a theory-based “mathematical projection of nature.” I argue that Heidegger believed neither that theory can (...)
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  7. added 2015-06-26
    Spencer Phillips Hey (2015). Judging Quality and Coordination in Biomarker Diagnostic Development. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 30 (2):207-227.
    What makes a high-quality biomarker experiment? The success of personalized medicine hinges on the answer to this question. In this paper, I argue that judgment about the quality of biomarker experiments is mediated by the problem of theoretical underdetermination. That is, the network of biological and pathophysiological theories motivating a biomarker experiment is sufficiently complicated that it often frustrates valid interpretation of the experimental results. Drawing on a case-study in biomarker diagnostic development from neurooncology, I argue that this problem of (...)
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  8. added 2015-06-23
    Franck Varenne, Pierre Chaigneau, Jean Petitot & René Doursat (2015). Programming the Emergence in Morphogenetically Architected Systems. Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3).
    Large sets of elements interacting locally and producing specific architectures reliably form a category that transcends the usual dividing line between biological and engineered systems. We propose to call them morphogenetically architected complex systems (MACS). While taking the emergence of properties seriously, the notion of MACS enables at the same time the design (or “meta-design”) of operational means that allow controlling and even, paradoxically, programming this emergence. To demonstrate our claim, we first show that among all the self-organized systems studied (...)
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  9. added 2015-06-21
    John N. Williams & Eric W. K. Tsang (2015). Classifying Generalization: Paradigm War or Abuse of Terminology? Journal of Information Technology 30 (1):18-19.
    Lee and Baskerville (2003) attempted to clarify the concept of generalization and classify it into four types. In Tsang and Williams (2012) we objected to their account of generalization as well as their classification and offered repairs. Then we proposed a classification of induction, within which we distinguished five types of generalization. In their (2012) rejoinder, they argue that their classification is compatible with ours, claiming that theirs offers a ‘new language.’ Insofar as we resist this ‘new language’ and insofar (...)
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  10. added 2015-06-16
    Ray Scott Percival (1995). Science Evolving. [REVIEW] Nature 376 (6536):131-132.
    MICHAEL Ruse aims to describe what scientists actually do in their research and how they arrive at their theories — a mixed bag of false starts, fallacious reasoning, the cultivation of followers, the marketing of ideas and so on. His approach, evolutionary naturalism, rejects the traditional distinction between the normative and the descriptive analysis of science. For him the path of discovery to, say, Darwin's theory of natural selection makes a difference to the theory itself, whereas for the normative analyst (...)
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  11. added 2015-06-16
    Ray Scott Percival (1994). Natural Selections. [REVIEW] Nature 371 (6499):666-667.
    How do you put both physicists and biologists on their guard? Answer: propound a philosophical theory that ignores Darwin's demolition of essentialism in species and brands any physicist who denies your theory of natural kinds as an anti-realist. A traditional division in philosophy is between metaphysics (what sorts of things exist) and epistemology (what and how we know). Some think that the core of realism is the metaphysical assumption that there is a world independent of our minds. But this core (...)
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  12. added 2015-06-15
    Marco Viola (2015). Some Remarks on the Division of Cognitive Labor. RT. A Journal on Research Policy and Evaluation 3.
    Since the publication of Kitcher’s influential paper The Division of Cognitive Labor, some philosophers wondered about these two related issues: (1) which is the optimal distribution of cognitive efforts among rival methods within a scientific community?, and (2) whether and how can a community achieve such an optimal distribution? Though not committing to any specific answer to question (1), I claim that issue (2) does not depend exclusively on an invisible hand like mechanism, since both intra-scientific and extra-scientific institutions may (...)
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  13. added 2015-06-07
    Alcibiades Malapi-Nelson (2014). Humanities’ Metaphysical Underpinnings of Late Frontier Scientific Research. Humanities 214 (3):740-765.
    The behavior/structure methodological dichotomy as locus of scientific inquiry is closely related to the issue of modeling and theory change in scientific explanation. Given that the traditional tension between structure and behavior in scientific modeling is likely here to stay, considering the relevant precedents in the history of ideas could help us better understand this theoretical struggle. This better understanding might open up unforeseen possibilities and new instantiations, particularly in what concerns the proposed technological modification of the human condition. The (...)
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  14. added 2015-06-07
    Alcibiades Malapi-Nelson (2013). Book Review: Steve Fuller, Humanity 2.0:What It Means to Be Human Past, Present and Future. [REVIEW] International Sociology Review of Books 28 (2):240-247.
    Sociology professor Steve Fuller’s latest book deals with contemporary treatments of the notion of ‘the human’, with an eye set on its future developments, anchored on disruptively pervasive technologies that are already being felt. A contextual account of its historical unfolding is provided, so that the reader can locate the evolution of the notion within the bigger setting of the evolving philosophical landscape in the West.
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  15. added 2015-06-05
    Andrew Naylor (2015). Inferentially Remembering That P. Logos and Episteme 6 (2):225-230.
    Most of our memories are inferential, so says Sven Bernecker in Memory: A Philosophical Study. I show that his account of inferentially remembering that p is too strong. A revision of the account that avoids the difficulty is proposed. Since inferential memory that p is memory that q (a proposition distinct from p) with an admixture of inference from one’s memory that q and a true thought one has that r, its analysis presupposes an adequate account of the (presumably non-inferential) (...)
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  16. added 2015-06-03
    Alyssa Ney (2014). Review of Steven French * The Structure of the World. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2014.
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  17. added 2015-05-29
    Juha Saatsi (forthcoming). On Explanations From 'Geometry of Motion'. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    This paper examines explanations that turn on non-local geometrical facts about the space of possible configurations a system can occupy. I argue that it makes sense to contrast such explanations from "geometry of motion" with causal explanations. I also explore how my analysis of these explanations cuts across the distinction between kinematics and dynamics.
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  18. added 2015-05-28
    Seungbae Park (2015). Explanatory Failures of Relative Realism. Epistemologia 38:16-28.
    Scientific realism (Putnam 1975; Psillos 1999) and relative realism (Mizrahi 2013) claim that successful scientific theories are approximately true and comparatively true, respectively. A theory is approximately true if and only if it is close to the truth. A theory is comparatively true if and only if it is closer to the truth than its competitors are. I argue that relative realism is more skeptical about the claims of science than it initially appears to be and that it can explain (...)
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  19. added 2015-05-27
    Raphaël Fiorese (forthcoming). Stoljar’s Dilemma and Three Conceptions of the Physical: A Defence of the Via Negativa. Erkenntnis:1-29.
    Physicalism is the thesis that everything is physical. But what does it mean to say that everything is physical? Daniel Stoljar has recently argued that no account of the physical is available which allows for a formulation of physicalism that is both possibly true and deserving of the name. As against this claim, I argue that a version of the via negativa—roughly, the view that the physical is to be characterised in terms of the nonmental—provides just such an account.
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  20. added 2015-05-26
    Boaz Miller (forthcoming). What is Hacking's Argument for Entity Realism? ‎. Synthese:1-16.
    According to Ian Hacking’s Entity Realism, unobservable entities that scientists carefully ‎manipulate to study other phenomena are real. Although Hacking presents his case in an intuitive, ‎attractive, and persuasive way, his argument remains elusive. I present five possible readings of ‎Hacking’s argument: a no-miracle argument, an indispensability argument, a transcendental ‎argument, a Vichian argument, and a non-argument. I elucidate Hacking’s argument according to ‎each reading, and review their strengths, their weaknesses, and their compatibility with each other.‎.
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  21. added 2015-05-25
    Seungbae Park (forthcoming). Realism Versus Surrealism. Foundations of Science:1-12.
    Realism and surrealism claim, respectively, that a scientific theory is successful because it is true, and because the world operates as if it is true. Lyons (2003) criticizes realism and argues that surrealism is superior to realism. I reply that Lyons’s criticisms against realism fail. I also attempt to establish the following two claims: 1. Realism and surrealism lead to a useful prescription and a useless prescription, respectively, on how to make an unsuccessful theory successful. 2. Realism and surrealism give (...)
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  22. added 2015-05-25
    Robert B. Brandom (2015). From Empiricism to Expressivism. Harvard University Press.
  23. added 2015-05-22
    A. Teicher (forthcoming). Racial Zigzags: Visualizing Racial Deviancy in German Physical Anthropology During the 20th Century. History of the Human Sciences.
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  24. added 2015-05-22
    N. Langlitz (forthcoming). On a Not so Chance Encounter of Neurophilosophy and Science Studies in a Sleep Laboratory. History of the Human Sciences.
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  25. added 2015-05-19
    K. Brad Wray (2015). Kuhn’s Social Epistemology and the Sociology of Science. In William J. Devlin & Alisa Bokulich (eds.), Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer. 167-183.
    I aim to clarify the relationship between Kuhn’s social epistemology of science and the sociology of science, and the nature of Kuhn’s positive legacy to the philosophy of science. I begin by recounting Kuhn’s relationship to the sociology of science. First, I examine the influence of sociology of science on Structure. Surprisingly, sociology of science had very little influence on Kuhn as he wrote Structure. Second, I examine early responses to Kuhn’s work by sociologists of science. Both the Mertonians and (...)
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  26. added 2015-05-17
    Hennie Lotter (1995). Postmodernism and Our Understanding of Science. In Deon Rossouw (ed.), Life in a postmodern culture. Human Sciences Research Council Press.
    Despite the flood of philosophical texts on postmodernism, relatively few attempts have been made to gauge the importance of postmodern ideas for the philosophy of science. However, Lyotard's enormously influential text The postmodern condition (1979) focussed on science and knowledge. He put the term metanarrative (grand narrative) into circulation. Lyotard defines the term modern to refer to the way in which science tries to legitimate its own status by means of philosophical discourse which appeal to some kind of grand narrative (...)
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  27. added 2015-05-16
    Jeff Kochan (2015). Objective Styles in Northern Field Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 52:1-12.
    Social studies of science have often treated natural field sites as extensions of the laboratory. But this overlooks the unique specificities of field sites. While lab sites are usually private spaces with carefully controlled borders, field sites are more typically public spaces with fluid boundaries and diverse inhabitants. Field scientists must therefore often adapt their work to the demands and interests of local agents. I propose to address the difference between lab and field in sociological terms, as a difference in (...)
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  28. added 2015-05-15
    Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). Historical Inductions, Unconceived Alternatives, and Unconceived Objections. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-10.
    In this paper, I outline a reductio against Stanford’s “New Induction” on the History of Science, which is an inductive argument against scientific realism that is based on what Stanford (2006) calls “the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives” (PUA). From the supposition that Stanford’s New Induction on the History of Science is cogent, and the parallel New Induction on the History of Philosophy (Mizrahi 2014), it follows that scientific antirealism is not worthy of belief. I also show that denying a key (...)
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  29. added 2015-05-14
    Danny Frederick, A Regimented and Concise Exposition of Karl Popper’s Critical Rationalist Epistemology.
  30. added 2015-05-10
    Daniel C. Burnston, Benjamin Sheredos, Adele Abrahamsen & William Bechtel (forthcoming). Scientists' Use of Diagrams in Developing Mechanistic Explanations: A Case Study From Chronobiology. Pragmatics and Cognition.
  31. added 2015-05-09
    Sergio A. Gallegos (2015). Are the Empirical and Materialist Stances Really Compatible? Southwest Philosophy Review 31 (1):129-137.
    In a recent paper, Ladyman (2011) has argued that the empirical stance, which has been championed by Van Fraassen (2002), and the materialist stance are compatible with each other –a thesis which is important for Ladyman since it paves the way for the project of developing a ‘radically naturalized metaphysics’ that he has defended along with Ross (2007). Though Ladyman puts forth a compelling case for the thesis that the two stances are compatible, I find his argument for the thesis (...)
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  32. added 2015-05-08
    Paul D. Thorn (forthcoming). Wise Crowds, Clever Meta-Inductivists. In Uskali Mäki, Stéphanie Ruphy, Gerhard Schurz & Ioannis Votsis (eds.), Recent Developments in the Philosophy of Science: EPSA13 Helsinki. Springer.
    Formal and empirical work on the Wisdom of Crowds has extolled the virtue of diverse and independent judgment as essential to the maintenance of ‘wise crowds’. In other words, com-munication and imitation among members of a group may have the negative effect of decreasing the aggregate wisdom of the group. In contrast, it is demonstrable that certain meta-inductive methods provide optimal means for predicting unknown events. Such meta-inductive methods are essentially imitative, where the predictions of other agents are imitated to (...)
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  33. added 2015-05-08
    Gerhard Schurz & Paul D. Thorn (forthcoming). The Revenge of Ecological Rationality: Strategy Selection by Meta-Induction Within Changing Environments. Minds and Machines:1-29.
    ccording to the paradigm of adaptive rationality, successful inference and prediction methods tend to be local and frugal. As a complement to work within this paradigm, we investigate the problem of selecting an optimal combination of prediction methods from a given toolbox of such local methods, in the context of changing environments. These selection methods are called meta-inductive (MI) strategies, if they are based on the success-records of the toolbox-methods. No absolutely optimal MI strategy exists—a fact that we call the (...)
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  34. added 2015-05-07
    Uri D. Leibowitz & Neil Sinclair (eds.) (forthcoming). Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    Contents: 1.'Introduction: Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics' Neil Sinclair & Uri D. Leibowitz. Part I: Evolutionary Debunking Arguments 2.'Genealogy and Reliability' Justin Clarke-Doane. 3.'Explaining the Reliability of Moral Beliefs' Folke Tersman. 4.'Genealogical Explanations of Chance and Morals' Toby Handfield. 5.'Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Religion and Morality' Erik J. Wielenberg. 6.‘An Assumption of Extreme Significance’: Moore, Ross and Spencer on Ethics and Evolution' Hallvard Lillehammer. 7.'Reply: Confessions of a Modest Debunker' Richard Joyce. Part II: Indispensability Arguments. 8.'Moral Explanation for Moral Anti-Realism' (...)
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  35. added 2015-05-07
    Daniel A. Wilkenfeld, Dillon Plunkett & Tania Lombrozo (forthcoming). Depth and Deference: When and Why We Attribute Understanding. Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    Four experiments investigate the folk concept of “understanding,” in particular when and why it is deployed differently from the concept of knowledge. We argue for the positions that people have higher demands with respect to explanatory depth when it comes to attributing understanding, and that this is true, in part, because understanding attributions play a functional role in identifying experts who should be heeded with respect to the general field in question. These claims are supported by our findings that people (...)
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  36. added 2015-05-05
    Mitchell Herschbach & William Bechtel (2014). Mental Mechanisms and Psychological Construction. In Lisa Feldman Barrett & James Russell (eds.), The Psychological Construction of Emotion. Guilford Press. 21-44.
  37. added 2015-05-04
    Dustin Stokes (forthcoming). Imagination and Creativity. In Amy Kind (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of the Imagination. Routledge.
    This paper surveys historical and recent philosophical discussions of the relations between imagination and creativity. In the first two sections, it covers two insufficiently studied analyses of the creative imagination, that of Kant and Sartre, respectively. The next section discusses imagination and its role in scientific discovery, with particular emphasis on the writings of Michael Polanyi, and on thought experiments and experimental design. The final section offers a brief discussion of some very recent work done on conceptual relations between imagination (...)
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  38. added 2015-04-30
    Robert Kowalenko, Thabo Mbeki, Postmodernism, and the Consequences [Manuscript].
    Explanations of former South African President Thabo Mbeki’s public and private views on the aetiology of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the country remain partial at best without the recognition that the latter presuppose and imply a postmodernist/postcolonialist philosophy of science that erases the line separating the political from the scientific. Evidence from Mbeki’s public speeches, interviews, and private and anonymous writings suggests that it was postmodernist/postcolonialist theory that inspired him to doubt the “Western” scientific consensus on HIV/AIDS and to implement (...)
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  39. added 2015-04-30
    Francisco Caruso (2012). 601 Books on Space. Maluhy & Co..
    Space is one of the most fundamental concepts over which scientific knowledge has been constructed. But it is also true that space concepts extrapolate by far the scientific domain, and permeate many other branches of human knowledge. Those are fascinating aspects that could di per se justify the compilation of a long bibliography. Another one is the passion for books. My interest in some physical, historical and philosophical problems concerning the concept of space in Physics, and its properties, can be (...)
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  40. added 2015-04-29
    Joshua Rayman (2014). Crossing the Epistemological Divide: Foucault, Barthes, and Neo-Kantianism. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):217-40.
    The schism between ‘ordinary’ and scientific perception and knowledge implies that we lack any total or systematic means of describing the world or identifying any framework-independent reality. Philosophers as diverse as Kant, Putnam, Strawson, Barthes, and Foucault have attempted to overcome this epistemological divide by constructing a unified, continuous theory of knowledge capable of accounting simultaneously for an allegedly primitive, unreflective, unmediated view of the world and an abstract, highly technical, scientific product. Rather than identifying analytic and continental epistemologies, adverting (...)
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  41. added 2015-04-29
    James G. Lennox (2014). Aristotle on the Emergence of Material Complexity: Meteorology IV and Aristotle’s Biology. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):272-305.
    In this article I defend an account of Meteorology IV as providing a material-level causal account of the emergence of uniform materials with a wide range of dispositional properties not found at the level of the four elements—the emergence of material complexity. I then demonstrate that this causal account is used in the Generation of Animals and Parts of Animals as part of the explanation of the generation of the uniform parts (tissues) and of their role in providing nonuniform parts (...)
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  42. added 2015-04-29
    Tiberiu Popa (2014). Scientific Method in Meteorology IV. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):306-34.
    This article explores the main aspects of Aristotle’s scientific method in Meteorology IV. Dispositional properties such as solidifiability or combustibility play a dominant role in Meteor. IV (a) in virtue of their central place in the generic division of homoeomers, based on successive differentiation and multiple differentiae, and (b) in virtue of their role in revealing otherwise undetectable characteristics of uniform materials (composition and physical structure). While Aristotle often starts with accounts of ingredients and their ratio (e.g., solids that contain (...)
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  43. added 2015-04-28
    David Marshall Miller (2014). Representing Space in the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
  44. added 2015-04-27
    Eric Palmer (2015). How to Succeed in Science While Really, Really Trying: The Central European Savant of the Mid-Eighteenth Century. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):167-73.
    What is the scientist’s work? Philosophers may turn to theory and to its relation to observation; historians are more inclined to turn to the scientists themselves and the situation the scientists find themselves in. Why do scientists work as they do, and what effect does the world they inhabit have on their productivity and their product? Those are more the historians’ questions. They might appear to converge with the philosophers’ own in this: What does it take to be a successful (...)
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  45. added 2015-04-27
    Alan Richardson (2015). Nikolay Milkov and Volker Peckhaus, Eds. The Berlin Group and the Philosophy of Logical Empiricism. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):174-77.
    This is an important volume for rounding out our understanding of the origins and dimensions of the logical empiricist project. While the existence of a Berlin wing of logical empiricism—personified principally in Hans Reichenbach and Carl G. Hempel—has been well known, in the recent reappraisal literature the spotlight has been firmly on the Vienna Circle. [...] The essays give an expansive sense of the German-Berlin context of the work of not only Reichenbach and Hempel but also their philosophical colleagues Kurt (...)
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  46. added 2015-04-27
    Alisa Bokulich (2015). A. Douglas Stone. Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of the Valiant Swabian. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):177-79.
    While everyone knows of Einstein’s brilliant work on relativity theory and many know of his later opposition to quantum theory as immortalized in his remark “He [God] does not play dice,” few outside of limited academic circles know of Einstein’s many seminal contributions to the development of quantum theory. In this highly accessible and enjoyable popular science book, Douglas Stone seeks to revise our popular conception of Einstein and bring the story of his profound and revolutionary insights into quantum theory (...)
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  47. added 2015-04-27
    Marcin Miłkowski (2015). Evaluating Artificial Models of Cognition. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):43-62.
    Artificial models of cognition serve different purposes, and their use determines the way they should be evaluated. There are also models that do not represent any particular biological agents, and there is controversy as to how they should be assessed. At the same time, modelers do evaluate such models as better or worse. There is also a widespread tendency to call for publicly available standards of replicability and benchmarking for such models. In this paper, I argue that proper evaluation ofmodels (...)
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  48. added 2015-04-27
    Cheryl Misak (2015). Klein on James on the Will to Believe. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):118-28.
    This commentary explores the disagreement between Alex Klein and Cheryl Misak about the core insights of American Pragmatism, against a background of agreement. Both take the history of early American pragmatism to be a vital part of the history of analytic philosophy, not a radical break with it. But Misak argues that James seeks to loosen the usual epistemic standards so that religious and scientific belief can both be justified by a unitary set of evidentiary rules, and Klein argues that (...)
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  49. added 2015-04-26
    Boaz Miller (forthcoming). “Trust Me—I’M a Public Intellectual”: Margaret Atwood’s and David Suzuki’s Social Epistemologies of Climate Science. In Michael Keren & Richard Hawkins‎ (eds.), Speaking Power to Truth: Knowledge and the Public Intellectual in a Changing World‎. Athabasca University Press‎.
    Margaret Atwood and David Suzuki are two of the most prominent Canadian public ‎intellectuals ‎involved in the global warming debate. They both argue that anthropogenic global ‎warming is ‎occurring, warn against its grave consequences, and urge governments and the ‎public to take ‎immediate, decisive, extensive, and profound measures to prevent it. They differ, ‎however, in the ‎reasons and evidence they provide in support of their position. While Suzuki ‎stresses the scientific ‎evidence in favour of the global warming theory and the (...)
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  50. added 2015-04-23
    Milena Ivanova (forthcoming). Conventionalism, Structuralism and Neo-Kantianism in Poincaré׳s Philosophy of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B.
    Poincaré is well known for his conventionalism and structuralism. However, the relationship between these two theses and their place in Poincaré׳s epistemology of science remain puzzling. In this paper I show the scope of Poincaré׳s conventionalism and its position in Poincaré׳s hierarchical approach to scientific theories. I argue that for Poincaré scientific knowledge is relational and made possible by synthetic a priori, empirical and conventional elements, which, however, are not chosen arbitrarily. By examining his geometric conventionalism, his hierarchical account of (...)
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