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General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
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  1. added 2015-08-29
    Andrew Melnyk (2013). Can Metaphysics Be Naturalized? And If So, How? In Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.), Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press 79-95.
    This is a critical, but sympathetic, examination of the manifesto for naturalized metaphysics that forms the first chapter of James Ladyman and Don Ross's 2006 book, Every Thing Must Go, but it has wider implications than this description suggests.
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  2. added 2015-08-27
    Giovanni Mion (2014). Grueing Gettier. Logos and Episteme 5 (4):467-470.
    The paper aims to stress the structural similarities between Nelson Goodman’s ‘new riddle of induction’ and Edmund Gettier’s counterexamples to the standard analysis of knowledge.
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  3. added 2015-08-26
    Flavia Padovani (forthcoming). Measurement, Coordination, and the Relativized a Priori. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
  4. added 2015-08-26
    Flavia Padovani (forthcoming). Reichenbach on Causality in 1923: Scientific Inference, Coordination, and Confirmation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science.
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  5. added 2015-08-26
    Simon D'Alfonso (forthcoming). Belief Merging with the Aim of Truthlikeness. Synthese:1-22.
    The merging/fusion of belief/data collections in propositional logic form is a topic that has received due attention within the domains of database and AI research. A distinction can be made between two types of scenarios to which the process of merging can be applied. In the first type, the collections represent preferences, such as the voting choices of a group of people, that need to be aggregated so as to give a consistent result that in some way best represents the (...)
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  6. added 2015-08-26
    Joel Marks (2015). Heaven Can't Wait: A Critique of Current Planetary Defence Policy. In Jai Galliott (ed.), Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance. 71-90.
    It is now generally recognized that Earth is at risk of a devastating collision with an asteroid or a comet. Impressive strides in our understanding of this threat have been made in recent decades, and various efforts to deal with it have been undertaken. However, the pace of government action hasn’t kept up with the advance of our knowledge. Despite the daunting dimensions of planetary defense, one intrepid NGO has stepped up to the plate: The B612 Foundation has embarked on (...)
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  7. added 2015-08-26
    Ruth Hibbert (2015). Are There Any Situated Cognition Concepts of Memory Functioning as Investigative Kinds in the Sciences of Memory? Dissertation, University of Kent
    This thesis will address the question of whether there are any situated cognition concepts of memory functioning as investigative kinds in the sciences of memory. Situated cognition is an umbrella term, subsuming extended, embedded, embodied, enacted and distributed cognition. I will be looking closely at case studies of investigations into memory where such concepts seem prima facie most likely to be found in order to establish a) whether the researchers in question are in fact employing such concepts, and b) whether (...)
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  8. added 2015-08-26
    Dieter Birnbacher & David Hommen (2012). Negative Kausalität. De Gruyter.
    „Negative Kausalität“ bezeichnet ein hochkontroverses metaphysisches Problem. Können negative Entitäten wie Abwesenheiten oder das Nicht-Eintreten bestimmter Ereignisse Ursachen oder Ursachenfaktoren sein? Diese Frage steht im Schnittpunkt einer Reihe disziplinübergreifender Grundfragen: der Frage nach dem Wesen von Kausalität, der Frage nach der Natur von Handlungen und Ereignissen und der Frage nach der Beziehung zwischen Kausalität und normativer - moralischer und rechtlicher - Verantwortlichkeit. Die vorliegende Studie entwickelt im ersten Schritt eine Konzeption von negativer Kausalität ausgehend vom Sonderfall der handlungsförmigen negativen Kausalität, (...)
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  9. added 2015-08-25
    Fabio Sterpetti (forthcoming). Are Evolutionary Debunking Arguments Really Self-Defeating? Philosophia:1-13.
    Evolutionary Debunking Arguments are defined as arguments that appeal to the evolutionary genealogy of our beliefs to undermine their justification. Recently, Helen De Cruz and her co-authors supported the view that EDAs are self-defeating: if EDAs claim that human arguments are not justified, because the evolutionary origin of the beliefs which figure in such arguments undermines those beliefs, and EDAs themselves are human arguments, then EDAs are not justified, and we should not accept their conclusions about the fact that human (...)
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  10. added 2015-08-25
    Mikkel Gerken (forthcoming). The Epistemic Norms of Intra-Scientific Testimony. Philosophy of the Social Sciences:0048393115600527.
    What is the epistemic position that a scientist must be in vis-à-vis a proposition, p, to be in a good enough epistemic position to assert that p to a fellow scientist within the scientific process? My aim is to provide an answer to this question and, more generally, to connect the epistemological debates about the epistemic norms of assertion to the debates about the nature of the scientific process. The question is important because science is a collaborative enterprise based on (...)
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  11. added 2015-08-25
    Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti (2015). Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion: Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines Around the Renaissance. Acta Baltica Historiae Et Philosophiae s Cientiarum 3 (1):69-87.
    This paper is the second part of our recent paper ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of m achines around the r enaissance: How s cience and t echnique Work’ (Pisano & Bussotti 2014a). In the first paper—which discussed some aspects of the relations between science and technology from Antiquity to the Renaissance—we highlighted the differences between the Aristotelian/Euclidean tradition and the Archimedean tradition. We also pointed out the way in which the two traditions were perceived around the r (...)
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  12. added 2015-08-25
    Fabio Sterpetti (2015). Scientific Realism, Adaptationism and the Problem of the Criterion. Kairos. Journal of Philosophy and Science 13:7-45.
    Scientific Realism (SR) has three crucial aspects: 1) the centrality of the concept of truth, 2) the idea that success is a reliable indicator of truth, and 3) the idea that the Inference to the Best Explanation is a reliable inference rule. It will be outlined how some realists try to overcome the difficulties which arise in justifying such crucial aspects relying on an adaptationist view of evolutionism, and why such attempts are inadequate. Finally, we will briefly sketch some of (...)
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  13. added 2015-08-25
    Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti (2015). Galileo in Padua: Architecture, Fortifications, Mathematics and “Practical” Science. Lettera Matematica Pristem International 2 (4):209-222.
    During his stay in Padua ca. 1592–1610, Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was a lecturer of mathematics at the University of Padua and a tutor to private students of military architecture and fortifications. He carried out these activities at the Academia degli Artisti. At the same time, and in relation to his teaching activities, he began to study the equilibrium of bodies and strength of materials, later better structured and completed in his Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences of 1638. This paper examines (...)
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  14. added 2015-08-25
    Pisano Raffaele & Capecchi Danilo (2015). Tartaglia’s Science of Weights and Mechanics in the Sixteenth Century Selections From Quesiti Et Inventioni Diverse: Books VII–VIII. Springer.
    This book presents a historical and scientific analysis as historical epistemology of the science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century, particularly as developed by Tartaglia in his Quesiti et inventioni diverse, Book VII and Book VIII (1546; 1554). -/- In the early 16th century mechanics was concerned mainly with what is now called statics and was referred to as the Scientia de ponderibus, generally pursued by two very different approaches. The first was usually referred to as Aristotelian, where (...)
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  15. added 2015-08-25
    Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti (2014). On the Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Principia. Science and Advanced Researches in the Western Civilization. Advances in Historical Studies 3 (1):33-55.
    In this research, we present the most important characteristics of the so called and so much explored Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Philosophi? Naturalis Principia Mathematica edited by Thomas Le Seur and Fran?ois Jacquier in the 1739-1742. The edition, densely annotated by the commentators (the notes and the comments are longer than Newton’s text itself) is a very treasure concerning Newton’s ideas and his heritage, e.g., Newton’s geometry and mathematical physics. Conspicuous pieces of information as to history of physics, history of (...)
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  16. added 2015-08-25
    Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti (2014). Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica "Jesuit" Edition: The Tenor of a Huge Work. Rendiconti Accademia Dei Lincei Matematica E Applicazioni 25 (4):413-444.
    This paper has the aim to provide a general view of the so called Jesuit Edition (hereafter JE) of Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1739–1742). This edition was conceived to explain all Newton’s methods through an apparatus of notes and commentaries. Every Newton’s proposition is annotated. Because of this, the text – in four volumes – is one of the most important documents to understand Newton’s way of reasoning. This edition is well known, but systematic works on it are still (...)
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  17. added 2015-08-25
    Raffaele Pisano & Danilo Capecchi (2013). Conceptual and Mathematical Structures of Mechanical Science in the Western Civilization Around 18th Century. Almagest 4 (2):86-21.
    One may discuss the role played by mechanical science in the history of scientific ideas, particularly in physics, focusing on the significance of the relationship between physics and mathematics in describing mathematical laws in the context of a scientific theory. In the second Newtonian law of motion, space and time are crucial physical magnitudes in mechanics, but they are also mathematical magnitudes as involved in derivative operations. Above all, if we fail to acknowledge their mathematical meaning, we fail to comprehend (...)
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  18. added 2015-08-25
    Raffaele Pisano (2010). On Principles In Sadi Carnot’s Theory (1824). Epistemological Reflections. Almagest 2/1:128–179 2 (1):128-179.
    In 1824 Sadi Carnot published Réflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu in which he founded almost the entire thermodynamics theory. Two years after his death, his friend Clapeyron introduced the famous diagram PV for analytically representing the famous Carnot’s cycle: one of the main and crucial ideas presented by Carnot in his booklet. Twenty-five years later, in order to achieve the modern version of the theory, Kelvin and Clausius had to reject the caloric hypothesis, which had influenced a few (...)
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  19. added 2015-08-24
    Tuomas E. Tahko, Fundamentality and Ontological Minimality.
    In this paper, a generic definition of fundamentality as an ontological minimality thesis is sought and its applicability examined. Most discussions of fundamentality are focused on a mereological understanding of the hierarchical structure of reality, which entails an atomistic, object-oriented metaphysics. But recent work in structuralism calls for an alternative understanding and it is not immediately clear that the conception of fundamentality at work in structuralism is commensurable with the mereological conception – even some sort of metaphysical infinitism might fare (...)
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  20. added 2015-08-24
    Peter Brössel (forthcoming). On the Role of Explanatory and Systematic Power in Scientific Reasoning. Synthese.
    The paper investigates measures of explanatory power and how to define the inference schema “Inference to the Best Explanation” (IBE). It argues that these measures can also be used to quantify the systematic power of a hypothesis and the inference schema “Inference to the Best Systematization” (IBS) is defined. It demonstrates that systematic power is a fruitful criterion for theory choice and IBS is truth-conducive. It also shows that even radical Bayesians must admit that systemic power is an integral component (...)
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  21. added 2015-08-24
    Peter Brössel (forthcoming). On the Role of Explanatory and Systematic Power in Scientific Reasoning. Synthese.
    The paper investigates measures of explanatory power and how to define the inference schema “Inference to the Best Explanation” (IBE). It argues that these measures can also be used to quantify the systematic power of a hypothesis and the inference schema “Inference to the Best Systematization” (IBS) is defined. It demonstrates that systematic power is a fruitful criterion for theory choice and IBS is truth-conducive. It also shows that even radical Bayesians must admit that systemic power is an integral component (...)
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  22. added 2015-08-24
    Kevin R. Busch (2015). Reason, Induction, and the Humean Objection to Kant. Kant Yearbook 7 (1):23-45.
    While Kant does not address the problem of induction often attributed to Hume, he does, by way of a transcendental deduction of an a priori principle of reflecting empirical judgment, address a distinct problem Hume raises indirectly. This problem is that induction cannot be justified so long as it presupposes some empirical concept applying to or some empirical principle true of more than one object in nature, a presupposition neither determined by nor founded on reason. I draw on Hume’s positive (...)
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  23. added 2015-08-22
    Robert W. P. Luk (forthcoming). A Theory of Scientific Study. Foundations of Science.
    This paper presents a theory of scientific study which is regarded as a social learning process of (working) scientific knowledge creation, revision, application, monitoring (e.g., confirmation) and dissemination (e.g., publication) with the aim of securing good quality, general, objective, testable and complete scientific knowledge of the domain. The theory stipulates the aim of scientific study that forms the basis of its principles. It also makes seven assumptions about scientific study and defines the major participating entities (i.e., scientists, scientific knowledge and (...)
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  24. added 2015-08-22
    Cory Wright (2015). The Ontic Conception of Scientific Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:20-30.
    Wesley Salmon’s version of the ontic conception of explanation is a main historical root of contemporary work on mechanistic explanation. This paper examines and critiques the philosophical merits of Salmon’s version, and argues that his conception’s most fundamental construct is either fundamentally obscure, or else reduces to a non-ontic conception of explanation. Either way, the ontic conception is a misconception.
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  25. added 2015-08-19
    Andrew Thomas Holster, The Death of Science.
    A COMPANION STUDY TO MARTÍN LÓPEZ CORREDOIRA’S THE TWILIGHT OF THE SCIENTIFIC AGE. The last decade has seen a growing flood of complaints against the corruption and failure of scientific culture, not from radicalised social critics or religious extremists, but from leading figures within the scientific establishment itself. In The Twilight of the Scientific Age (2013, Brown Walker), Martín López Corredoira has written a vivid and scathing analysis of the state of modern science. In Part 1 of this essay I (...)
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  26. added 2015-08-19
    Andrew Thomas Holster, Water The Mystery.
    This article looks at startling new claims about the nature of water, and controversies about electromagnetic treatment of water. Professor Gerald Pollock of Washington University has recently claimed in a 2013 book that water has many properties unrecognised in orthodox science, and proposes these are explained by a fourth phase of water. Austin Darragh and collegues from Limerick University, Ireland, have created an electromagnetic water treatment that is widely attacked by debunkers. This article reviews these controversies and some of their (...)
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  27. added 2015-08-19
    Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). Why Simpler Arguments Are Better. Argumentation:1-15.
    In this paper, I argue that, other things being equal, simpler arguments are better. In other words, I argue that, other things being equal, it is rational to prefer simpler arguments over less simple ones. I sketch three arguments in support of this claim: an argument from mathematical proofs, an argument from scientific theories, and an argument from the conjunction rule.
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  28. added 2015-08-19
    Liesbet de Kock (2014). Hermann von Helmholtz's Empirico-Transcendentalism Reconsidered: Construction and Constitution in Helmholtz's Psychology of the Object. Science in Context 27 (4):709-44.
    This paper aims at contributing to the ongoing efforts to get a firmer grasp of the systematic significance of the entanglement of idealism and empiricism in Helmholtz's work. Contrary to existing analyses, however, the focal point of the present exposition is Helmholtz's attempt to articulate a psychological account of objectification. Helmholtz's motive, as well as his solution to the problem of the object are outlined, and interpreted against the background of his scientific practice on the one hand, and that of (...)
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  29. added 2015-08-18
    Massimiliano Badino, How Typical! An Epistemological Analysis of Typicality in Statistical Mechanics.
    The recent use of typicality in statistical mechanics for foundational purposes has stirred an important debate involving both philosophers and physicists. While this debate customarily focuses on technical issues, in this paper I try to approach the problem from an epistemological angle. The discussion is driven by two questions: (1) What does typicality add to the concept of measure? (2) What kind of explanation, if any, does typicality yield? By distinguishing the notions of `typicality-as-vast-majority' and `typicality-as-best-exemplar', I argue that the (...)
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  30. added 2015-08-13
    Gordon Belot (2013). Failure of Calibration is Typical. Statistics and Probability Letters 83:2316--2318.
    Schervish (1985b) showed that every forecasting system is noncalibrated for uncountably many data sequences that it might see. This result is strengthened here: from a topological point of view, failure of calibration is typical and calibration rare. Meanwhile, Bayesian forecasters are certain that they are calibrated---this invites worries about the connection between Bayesianism and rationality.
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  31. added 2015-08-04
    Conrad Heilmann (forthcoming). A New Interpretation of the Representational Theory of Measurement. Philosophy of Science.
    On the received view, the Representational Theory of Measurement reduces measurement to the numerical representation of empirical relations. This account of measurement has been widely criticized. In this paper, I provide a new interpretation of the Representational Theory of Measurement that sidesteps these debates. I propose to view the Representational Theory of Measurement as a library of theorems that investigate the numerical representability of qualitative relations. Such theorems are useful tools for concept formation which, in turn, is one crucial aspect (...)
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  32. added 2015-08-02
    Gordon Belot (forthcoming). Objectivity and Bias. Mind.
    The twin goals of this essay are: (i) to investigate a family of cases in which the goal of guaranteed convergence to the truth is beyond our reach; and (ii) to argue that each of three strands prominent in contemporary epistemological thought has undesirable consequences when confronted with the existence of such problems. Approaches that follow Reichenbach in taking guaranteed convergence to the truth to be the characteristic virtue of good methods face a vicious closure problem. Approaches on which there (...)
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  33. added 2015-08-02
    Gordon Belot (forthcoming). Curve-Fitting for Bayesians? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Bayesians often assume, suppose, or conjecture that for any reasonable explication of the notion of simplicity a prior can be designed that will enforce a preference for hypotheses simpler in just that sense. Further, it is often claimed that the Bayesian framework automatically implements Occam’s razor—that conditionalizing on data consistent with both a simple theory and a complex theory more or less inevitably favours the simpler theory. But it is shown here that there are simplicity-driven approaches to curve-fitting problems that (...)
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  34. added 2015-08-01
    Robert Smithson (forthcoming). The Principle of Indifference and Inductive Scepticism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv029.
    Many theorists have proposed that we can use the principle of indifference to defeat the inductive sceptic. But any such theorist must confront the objection that different ways of applying the principle of indifference lead to incompatible probability assignments. Huemer offers the explanatory priority proviso as a strategy for overcoming this objection. With this proposal, Huemer claims that we can defend induction in a way that is not question-begging against the sceptic. But in this article, I argue that the opposite (...)
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  35. added 2015-07-31
    Zee R. Perry (forthcoming). Properly Extensive Quantities. Philosophy of Science 82.
    This paper introduces and motivates the notion of a "properly extensive" quantity by means of a puzzle about the reliability of certain canonical length measurements. An account of these measurements' success, I argue, requires a modally robust connection between quantitative structure and mereology which is not mediated by the dynamics and is stronger than the constraints imposed by “mere additivity”. I outline what it means to say that length is not just extensive but properly so, and then briefly sketch an (...)
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  36. added 2015-07-29
    Todd Davies, Analogy.
    This essay (my undergraduate honors thesis at Stanford, issued by the Center for the Study of Language and Information in November 1985) constructs a theory of analogy as it applies to argumentation and reasoning, especially as used in fields such as philosophy and law. The word analogy has been used in different senses, which the essay defines. The theory developed herein applies to analogia rationis, or analogical reasoning. Building on the framework of situation theory, a type of logical relation called (...)
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  37. added 2015-07-29
    Todd R. Davies & Stuart J. Russell (1987). A Logical Approach to Reasoning by Analogy. In John P. McDermott (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI'87). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. 264-270.
    We analyze the logical form of the domain knowledge that grounds analogical inferences and generalizations from a single instance. The form of the assumptions which justify analogies is given schematically as the "determination rule", so called because it expresses the relation of one set of variables determining the values of another set. The determination relation is a logical generalization of the different types of dependency relations defined in database theory. Specifically, we define determination as a relation between schemata of first (...)
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  38. added 2015-07-28
    Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Do We Need a ‘Theory’ of Development? Biology and Philosophy:1-15.
    Edited by Alessandro Minelli and Thomas Pradeu, Towards a Theory of Development gathers essays by biologists and philosophers, which display a diversity of theoretical perspectives. The discussions not only cover the state of art, but broaden our vision of what development includes and provide pointers for future research. Interestingly, all contributors agree that explanations should not just be gene-centered, and virtually none use design and other engineering metaphors to articulate principles of cellular and organismal organization. I comment in particular on (...)
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  39. added 2015-07-28
    Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Social Values Influence the Adequacy Conditions of Scientific Theories: Beyond Inductive Risk. Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    The ‘death of evidence’ issue in Canada raises the specter of politicized science, and thus the question of what role social values may have in science and how this meshes with objectivity and evidence. I first criticize philosophical accounts that have to separate different steps of research to restrict the influence of social and other non-epistemic values. A prominent account that social values may play a role even in the context of theory acceptance is the argument from inductive risk. It (...)
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  40. added 2015-07-27
    Michael Lissack & Abraham Graber (eds.) (2014). Modes of Explanation: Affordances for Action and Prediction. Palgrave.
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  41. added 2015-07-26
    Russ Abbott, Causality, Computing, and Complexity.
    I discuss two categories of causal relationships: primitive causal interactions of the sort characterized by Phil Dowe and the more general manipulable causal relationships as defined by James Woodward. All primitive causal interactions are manipulable causal relationships, but there are manipulable causal relationships that are not primitive causal interactions. I’ll call the latter constructed causal relationships, and I’ll argue that constructed causal relationships serve as a foundation for both computing and complex systems. -/- Perhaps even more interesting are autonomous causal (...)
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  42. added 2015-07-24
    Lydia Patton (2015). Incommensurability and the Bonfire of the Meta-Theories: Response to Mizrahi. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 4 (7):51-58.
    Scientists working within a paradigm must play by the rules of the game of that paradigm in solving problems, and that is why incommensurability arises when the rules of the game change. If we deny the thesis of the priority of paradigms, then there is no good argument for the incommensurability of theories and thus for taxonomic incommensurability, because there is no invariant way to determine the set of results provable, puzzles solvable, and propositions cogently formulable under a given paradigm.
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  43. added 2015-07-21
    Alyssa Ney (2014). Review of Steven French * The Structure of the World. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2014.
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  44. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean (2008). Mechanisms of Unification in Kaluza-Klein Theory. In D. Dieks (ed.), Ontology of Spacetime.
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  45. added 2015-07-13
    Lajos L. Brons (2015). Anarchism as Metaphilosophy. The Science of Mind 53:139-158.
    Philosophy once started as the critical reflection on relatively ordinary human concerns. Increasing specialization has moved the discipline farther and farther away from these concerns, however, undermining its relevance outside the academy, but has also resulting in an ever increasing fragmentation. This fragmentation has further divided the field into a large number of esoteric communities that hardly understand each other. "Further divided", because philosophy was already divided into schools and traditions that seem to speak mutually unintelligible languages. In addition to (...)
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  46. added 2015-07-11
    Kenneth R. Westphal (forthcoming). Causal Realism and the Limits of Empiricism: Some Unexpected Insights From Hegel. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
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  47. added 2015-07-10
    Guillaume Rochefort-Maranda (forthcoming). On the Correct Interpretation of P Values and the Importance of Random Variables. Synthese:1-17.
    The p value is the probability under the null hypothesis of obtaining an experimental result that is at least as extreme as the one that we have actually obtained. That probability plays a crucial role in frequentist statistical inferences. But if we take the word ‘extreme’ to mean ‘improbable’, then we can show that this type of inference can be very problematic. In this paper, I argue that it is a mistake to make such an interpretation. Under minimal assumptions about (...)
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  48. added 2015-07-10
    Seungbae Park (2015). Accepting Our Best Scientific Theories. Filosofija. Sociologija 26 (3):218-227.
    Dawes (2013) claims that we ought not to believe but to accept our best scientific theories. To accept them means to employ them as premises in our reasoning with the goal of attaining knowledge about unobservables. I reply that if we do not believe our best scientific theories, we cannot gain knowledge about unobservables, our opponents might dismiss the predictions derived from them, and we cannot use them to explain phenomena. We commit an unethical speech act when we explain a (...)
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  49. added 2015-07-09
    Gregory Reed, Mikel Petty, Nicholaos Jones, Anthony Morris, John Ballenger & Harry Delugach (forthcoming). A Principles-Based Model of Ethical Considerations in Military Decision Making. Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation.
    When comparing alternative courses of action, modern military decision makers often must consider both the military effectiveness and the ethical consequences of the available alternatives. The basis, design, calibration, and performance of a principles-based computational model of ethical considerations in military decision making are reported in this article. The relative ethical violation (REV) model comparatively evaluates alternative military actions based upon the degree to which they violate contextually relevant ethical principles. It is based on a set of specific ethical principles (...)
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  50. added 2015-07-08
    Marvin E. Kirsh (2015). The Spaces in the Looking Glass: Stilling the Frame/ Framing the Still. Philosophy and Cosmology Http://En.Bazaluk.Com/Journals 15:62-83.
    The purpose of this writing is to propose a frame of view, a form as the eternal world element, that is compatible with paradox within the history of ideas, modern discovery as they confront one another. Under special consideration are problems of representation of phenomena, life, the cosmos as the rational facility of mind confronts the physical/perceptual, and itself. Current topics in pursuit are near as diverse and numbered as are the possibilities for a world composed strictly of uniqueness able (...)
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