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General Philosophy of Science

Assistant editor: Justin Bzovy (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. Agustín Adúriz-Bravo (2014). Revisiting School Scientific Argumentation From the Perspective of the History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 1443-1472.
    This chapter aims to revisit the notion of argumentation that is currently used in science education. After acknowledging a consolidated tendency of linguistics-based approaches to the study of ‘school scientific argumentation’, the chapter proposes to shift the interest towards an examination of the epistemic aspects of argumentation, i.e. those that derive from its central participation in science as a process and as a product. The premise of the chapter is that the contributions of the philosophy and history of science and (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Models and Idealization
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  2. Mervi A. Asikainen & Pekka E. Hirvonen (2014). Thought Experiments in Science and in Science Education. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 1235-1256.
    This chapter will discuss the role of thought experiments in science and in science teaching. The constructive and destructive roles played by thought experiments in the construction of scientific theories can be used in science teaching to help students to understand the processes of science. In addition, they have potential to be used as a teaching tool for developing students’ conceptual understanding. The use of thought experiments can also increase students’ interest in science and help them in understanding situations beyond (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Models and Idealization
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  3. Joan Solomon (2006). Notes on 'No Man is an Island'. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (5):71-79.
    John Ziman, like most other scientists, learnt about the social nature of science by becoming a scientist. He travelled through the various stages of passing examinations, having articles that he had written reviewed by peers, and applying for academic posts. Better still he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society because of the problems he had solved-- at least for the time being-- in several landmark papers. There was little written about the social nature of science at this time (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Models and Idealization
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  4. Charles Whitehead (2008). You Do an Empirical Experiment and You Get an Empirical Result. What Can Any Anthropologist Tell Me That Could Change That? Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (10-11):7-41.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Models and Idealization
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  5. John Ziman (2006). No Man is an Island: The Axiom of Subjectivity. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (5):17-42.
    Western thought since the seventeenth century has been dominated by methodological solipsism (Krieger, 1991). The famous sound-bite of René Descartes 'cogito, ergo sum': 'I think, therefore I am', became the starting point for most discourse on the nature of things. This dictum does not advocate idealism. It does not assert that everything is necessarily a construct of the human mind. But it assumes that the world of things and beings is surveyed and interpreted from the point of view of a (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Models and Idealization
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
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