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General Philosophy of Science

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  1. Peter Achinstein (1977). What Is an Explanation? American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (1):1 - 15.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
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     Explanation in the Sciences
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    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
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    Laws of Nature
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     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
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     Explanation and Laws
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    Interlevel Relations in Science
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    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
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  2. Peter Achinstein (ed.) (1969). Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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    Explanation
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    History of Science
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    Laws of Nature
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    Interlevel Relations in Science
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  3. Peter Achinstein (1963). Theoretical Terms and Partial Interpretation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14 (54):89-105.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
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    History of Science
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Lawlikeness
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
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     Explanation and Laws
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     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
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    Interlevel Relations in Science
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  4. Emmanuel E. Achor (2003). Issues in Science and Society. Ap Express Publishers.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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    Explanation
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    History of Science
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    Laws of Nature
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  5. Robert Ackermann (1963). Inductive Simplicity in Special Cases. Synthese 15 (1):436 - 444.
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    Scientific Method
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  6. Matthias Adam, Theoriebeladenheit Und Objektivität. Zur Rolle Von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften.
    Ever since work of Paul Feyerabend, Russell Hanson and Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the thesis of the theory-ladenness of scientific observation has attracted much attention both in the philosophy and the sociology of science. The main concern has always been epistemic. It was argued –or feared– that if scientific observations depend on prevalent theories, an objective empirical test of theories and hypotheses by independent observation and experience is impossible. This suggests that theories might appear to be well confirmed by (...)
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  7. Ernest W. Adams (1982). Approximate Generalizations and Their Idealization. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:199 - 207.
    Aspects of a formal theory of approximate generalizations, according to which they have degrees of truth measurable by the proportions of their instances for which they are true, are discussed. The idealizability of laws in theories of fundamental measurement is considered: given that the laws of these theories are only approximately true "in the real world", does it follow that slight changes in the extensions of their predicates would make them exactly true?
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  8. Agustín Adúriz-Bravo (2014). Revisiting School Scientific Argumentation From the Perspective of the History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 1443-1472.
    This chapter aims to revisit the notion of argumentation that is currently used in science education. After acknowledging a consolidated tendency of linguistics-based approaches to the study of ‘school scientific argumentation’, the chapter proposes to shift the interest towards an examination of the epistemic aspects of argumentation, i.e. those that derive from its central participation in science as a process and as a product. The premise of the chapter is that the contributions of the philosophy and history of science and (...)
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  9. Joseph Agassi (1984). III. The Cheapening of Science∗. Inquiry 27 (1-4):166-172.
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  10. Evandro Agazzi (2012). Rethinking Philosophy of Science Today. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):85-101.
    Modern philosophy of science was, initially, an epistemology of science based on the logical analysis of the language of science. It was superseded by a “sociological epistemology,” according to which the acceptance of scientific statements and theories depends on conditioningscoming from the social context and powers, and this view has fueled anti-scientific attitudes.This happened because the sociological turn still expressed an epistemology of science. Science, however, is not only a system of knowledge, but also a complex human activity. Hence, ethical, (...)
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  11. Johan Åkerman (1940). The Meaning of Induction in Social Science. Theoria 6 (3):171-190.
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  12. F. Michael Akeroyd (1993). Laudan's Problem Solving Model. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (4):785-788.
    A historical example is considered which conflicts with Laudan's Problem Solving Model [1981]. In the period 1840–85 chemists preferred a theory with 3 major conceptual problems (the Liebig Theory of Acids) to Lavoisier's which had only one major conceptual problem (why are the halogen hydrides acids?). The overall conceptual merits of Lavoisier's scheme have been revived in the modern Lux-Flood classification of Acids. Larry Laudan [1977], [1981] proposed a problem solving model of scientific rationality which not only applied to global (...)
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  13. M. Emrah Aktunç (2009). Scientific Pluralism.Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Vol. XIX. Annals of Science 66 (2):299-302.
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  14. S. Alexander (1930). Science and Art. Philosophy 5 (19):331-.
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  15. Liliana Alexandrova (ed.) (1982). Some Philosophical and Methodological Problems of the Scientific and Technological Revolution: Lecture. Academy of Social Sciences and Social Management at the C.C. Of the B.C.P..
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  16. Fritz Allhoff, Philosophy of Science.
    Course Description: Science appears to be extraordinarily successful is two crucial respects. First, science apparently serves as an extremely reliable vehicle for arriving at the truth (as contrasted with astrology or palm reading). Second, the methodology of science seems eminently rational (again as opposed to the methodologies of astrology or palm reading). Philosophers have been quite interested in these two apparent virtues of science. Some philosophers think that the two virtues are illusory and that, upon reflection, science is not significantly (...)
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  17. Alice Ambrose (1947). The Problem of Justifying Inductive Inference. Journal of Philosophy 44 (10):253-272.
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  18. Wilda Anderson (1985). Rhetoric and Nomenclature in Lavoisier's Chemical Language. Topoi 4 (2):165-169.
    Implicit in the theoretical chemical writings of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier is a theory of language that is not in complete harmony with the philosopher of language whom he takes as his explicit authority, Condillac. Lavoisier's reform of the nomenclature of chemistry leads to his dividing scientific language into two sets with different properties: a denotative artificial nomenclature and connotative natural language. This division supposedly permits knowledge to be stored in the nomenclature while the natural language retains the rhetorical tools necessary (...)
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  19. Kjell Andersson (2008). Transparency and Accountability in Science and Politics: The Awareness Principle. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  20. Ignacio Angelelli (1983). MD Grmek, RS Cohen and G. Cimino, Eds., On Scientific Discovery. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 3 (3):122-124.
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  21. Nicola Angius & Guglielmo Tamburrini (2011). Scientific Theories of Computational Systems in Model Checking. Minds and Machines 21 (2):323-336.
    Model checking, a prominent formal method used to predict and explain the behaviour of software and hardware systems, is examined on the basis of reflective work in the philosophy of science concerning the ontology of scientific theories and model-based reasoning. The empirical theories of computational systems that model checking techniques enable one to build are identified, in the light of the semantic conception of scientific theories, with families of models that are interconnected by simulation relations. And the mappings between these (...)
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  22. John Peter Anton & George Kimball Plochmann (eds.) (1966). Science, Philosophy, and Our Educational Tasks. [Buffalo]University Council for Educational Administration.
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  23. Bryan Appleyard (1992/1993). Understanding the Present: Science and the Soul of Modern Man. Doubleday.
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  24. Theodore Arabatzis (2011). Integrating History and Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 263:125-139.
    In this chapter I investigate the prospects of integrated history and philosophy of science, by examining how philosophical issues raised by “hidden entities”, entities that are not accessible to unmediated observation, can enrich the historical investigation of their careers. Conversely, I suggest that the history of those entities has important lessons to teach to the philosophy of science. Hidden entities have played a crucial role in the development of the natural sciences. Despite their centrality to past scientific practice, however, several (...)
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  25. Roger Ariew, Pierre Duhem. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  26. Roger Ariew & Peter Barker (1992). Duhem and Continuity in the History of Science. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 46 (182):323-343.
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  27. Raymond Aron, Anthony R. Michaelis & Hugh Harvey (eds.) (1973). Scientists in Search of Their Conscience. New York,Springer-Verlag.
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  28. A. B. Arons (1964). Science & Ideas. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,Prentice-Hall.
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  29. Jerrold L. Aronson (1969). Explanations Without Laws. Journal of Philosophy 66 (17):541-557.
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  30. Eric Dietrich Art Markman (ed.) (2000). Cognitive Dynamics: Conceptual Change in Humans and Machines. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  31. Maurice Arthus & Henry E. Sigerist (1943). Maurice Arthus' Philosophy of Scientific Investigation Preface to de l'Anaphylaxie Á l'Immunité, Paris, L921. Johns Hopkins Press.
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  32. Keith Ashman & Phillip Barringer (2001). After the Science Wars: Science and the Study of Science. Routledge.
    The "War" in science is largely the discussion between those who believe that science is above criticism and those who do not. After the Science Wars is a collection of essays by leading philosophers and scientists, all attempting to bridge interdisciplinary gulfs in this discussion.
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  33. Mervi A. Asikainen & Pekka E. Hirvonen (2014). Thought Experiments in Science and in Science Education. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 1235-1256.
    This chapter will discuss the role of thought experiments in science and in science teaching. The constructive and destructive roles played by thought experiments in the construction of scientific theories can be used in science teaching to help students to understand the processes of science. In addition, they have potential to be used as a teaching tool for developing students’ conceptual understanding. The use of thought experiments can also increase students’ interest in science and help them in understanding situations beyond (...)
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  34. Audun (1962). Some Problems of Counter-Inductive Policy as Opposed to Inductive. Inquiry 5 (1-4):267 – 283.
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  35. Bruce Aune (1971). Two Theories of Scientific Knowledge. Critica 5 (13):3 - 20.
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