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Summary General Relativity is our best large-scale physical theory. One often investigates which philosophical consequences follow from the theory. 
Key works Sklar 1974 is an early text. Earman 1995 is the definitive modern survey of philosophical topics. Malament 2012 is a self-contained primer to the mathematical and logical foundations. 
Introductions Glymour 1972, Malament 1984, Earman & Norton 1987, Earman et al 2009, Manchak 2009
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  1. Diederik Aerts (1996). Relativity Theory: What is Reality? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (12):1627-1644.
    In classical Newtonian physics there was a clear understanding of “what reality is.≓ Indeed in this classical view, reality at a certain time is the collection of all what is actual at this time, and this is contained in “the present.≓ Often it is stated that three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time hare been substituted by four-dimensional space-time in relativity theory, and as a consequence the classical concept of reality, as that which is “present,≓ cannot be retained. Is reality then the (...)
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  2. Y. Aharonov & G. Carmi (1973). Quantum Aspects of the Equivalence Principle. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):493-498.
    Two thought experiments are discussed which suggest, first, a geometric interpretation of the concept of a (say, vector) potential (i.e., as a kinematic quantity associated with a transformation between moving frames of reference suitably related to the problem) and, second, that, in a quantum treatment one should extend the notion of the equivalence principle to include not only the equivalence of inertial forces with suitable “real” forces, but also the equivalence of potentials of such inertial forces and the potentials of (...)
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  3. Marcus Alfred, Petero Kwizera, James V. Lindesay & H. Pierre Noyes (2004). A Nonperturbative, Finite Particle Number Approach to Relativistic Scattering Theory. Foundations of Physics 34 (4):581-616.
    We present integral equations for the scattering amplitudes of three scalar particles, using the Faddeev channel decomposition, which can be readily extended to any finite number of particles of any helicity. The solution of these equations, which have been demonstrated to be calculable, provide a nonperturbative way of obtaining relativistic scattering amplitudes for any finite number of particles that are Lorentz invariant, unitary, cluster decomposable and reduce unambiguously in the nonrelativistic limit to the nonrelativistic Faddeev equations. The aim of this (...)
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  4. Marcus Alfred & James Lindesay (2003). A Test of the Calculability of a Three-Body Relativistic, Cluster Decomposable, Unitary, Covariant Scattering Theory. Foundations of Physics 33 (8):1253-1264.
    In this work a calculation of the cluster decomposable formalism for relativistic scattering as developed by Lindesay, Markevich, Noyes, and Pastrana (LMNP) is made for an ultra-light quantum model. After highlighting areas of the theory vital for calculation, a description is made of the process to go from the general theory to an eigen-integral equation for bound state problems, and calculability is demonstrated. An ultra-light quantum exchange model is then developed to examine calculability.
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  5. Ben Almassi (2009). Trust in Expert Testimony: Eddington's 1919 Eclipse Expedition and the British Response to General Relativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 40 (1):57-67.
  6. C. Marcio do Amaral (1969). Flat-Space Metric in the Quaternion Formulation of General Relativity. Rio De Janeiro, Centro Brasileiro De Pesquisas Físicas.
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  7. Jeeva Anandan & Harvey R. Brown (1995). On the Reality of Space-Time Geometry and the Wavefunction. Foundations of Physics 25 (2):349--60.
    The action-reaction principle (AR) is examined in three contexts: (1) the inertial-gravitational interaction between a particle and space-time geometry, (2) protective observation of an extended wave function of a single particle, and (3) the causal-stochastic or Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. A new criterion of reality is formulated using the AR principle. This criterion implies that the wave function of a single particle is real and justifies in the Bohm interpretation the dual ontology of the particle and its associated wave (...)
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  8. Hajnal Andréka, Judit X. Madarász, István Németi & Gergely Székely, A Logic Road From Special to General Relativity.
    We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in firs-order logic. From this axiom system we ``derive'' an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.
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  9. Hajnal Andréka, Judit X. Madarász, István Németi & Gergely Székely (2012). A Logic Road From Special Relativity to General Relativity. Synthese 186 (3):633 - 649.
    We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in first-order logic. From this axiom system we "derive" an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.
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  10. G. S. Asanov (1983). Gravitational Field Equations Based on Finsler Geometry. Foundations of Physics 13 (5):501-527.
    The analysis of a previous paper (see Ref. 1), in which the possibility of a Finslerian generalization of the equations of motion of gravitational field sources was demonstrated, is extended by developing the Finslerian generalization of the gravitational field equations on the basis of the complete contractionK = K lj lj of the Finslerian curvature tensorK l j hk (x, y). The relevant Lagrangian is constructed by the replacement of the directional variabley i inK by a vector fieldy i (x), (...)
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  11. G. S. Asanov (1981). A Finslerian Extension of General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 11 (1-2):137-154.
    A Finslerian extension of general relativity is examined with particular emphasis on the Finslerian generalization of the equation of motion in a gravitational field. The construction of a gravitational Lagrangian density by substituting the osculating Riemannian metric tensor in the Einstein density is studied. Attention is drawn to an interesting possibility for developing the theory of test bodies against the Finslerian background.
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  12. William K. Atkins (1983). A Fundamental Quadratic Variational Principle Underlying General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 13 (5):545-552.
    The fundamental result of Lanczos is used in a new type of quadratic variational principle whose field equations are the Einstein field equations together with the Yang-Mills type equations for the Riemann curvature. Additionally, a spin-2 theory of gravity for the special case of the Einstein vacuum is discussed.
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  13. Jonathan Bain (2004). Theories of Newtonian Gravity and Empirical Indistinguishability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (3):345--76.
    In this essay, I examine the curved spacetime formulation of Newtonian gravity known as Newton–Cartan gravity and compare it with flat spacetime formulations. Two versions of Newton–Cartan gravity can be identified in the physics literature—a ‘‘weak’’ version and a ‘‘strong’’ version. The strong version has a constrained Hamiltonian formulation and consequently a well-defined gauge structure, whereas the weak version does not (with some qualifications). Moreover, the strong version is best compared with the structure of what Earman (World enough and spacetime. (...)
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  14. Julian B. Barbour (1995). General Relativity as a Perfectly Machian Theory. In Julian B. Barbour & H. Pfister (eds.), Mach's Principle: From Newton's Bucket to Quantum Gravity. Birkhäuser. 214--36.
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  15. C. Barceló, L. J. Garay & G. Jannes (2011). Quantum Non-Gravity and Stellar Collapse. Foundations of Physics 41 (9):1532-1541.
    Observational indications combined with analyses of analogue and emergent gravity in condensed matter systems support the possibility that there might be two distinct energy scales related to quantum gravity: the scale that sets the onset of quantum gravitational effects $E_{\rm B}$ (related to the Planck scale) and the much higher scale $E_{\rm L}$ signalling the breaking of Lorentz symmetry. We suggest a natural interpretation for these two scales: $E_{\rm L}$ is the energy scale below which a special relativistic spacetime emerges, (...)
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  16. Carlos Barceló & Gil Jannes (2008). A Real Lorentz-FitzGerald Contraction. Foundations of Physics 38 (2):191-199.
    Many condensed matter systems are such that their collective excitations at low energies can be described by fields satisfying equations of motion formally indistinguishable from those of relativistic field theory. The finite speed of propagation of the disturbances in the effective fields (in the simplest models, the speed of sound) plays here the role of the speed of light in fundamental physics. However, these apparently relativistic fields are immersed in an external Newtonian world (the condensed matter system itself and the (...)
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  17. Thomas Bartelborth (1993). Hierarchy Versus Holism: A Structuralist View on General Relativity. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 39 (3):383 - 412.
    The philosophical debate whether the epistemological and conceptual structure of science is better characterized as hierarchical or as holistic cannot be decideda priori. A case study on general relativity should help to clarify our representation of this section of physics. For this purpose Sneed's model-theoretic approach is used to reconstruct the structure of relativity. The proposed axiomatization of general relativity takes into account approximations and utilizes local models for a realistic view on the functioning of the theory. A central objective (...)
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  18. A. O. Barut (1988). Combining Relativity and Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger's Interpretation of Ψ. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 18 (1):95-105.
    The incongruence between quantum theory and relativity theory is traced to the probability interpretation of the former. The classical continium interpretation of ψ removes the difficulty. How quantum properties of matter and light, and in particular the radiative problems, like spontaneous emission and Lamb shift, may be accounted in a first quantized Maxwell-Dirac system is discussed.
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  19. R. G. Beil (2003). Finsler Geometry and Relativistic Field Theory. Foundations of Physics 33 (7):1107-1127.
    Finsler geometry on the tangent bundle appears to be applicable to relativistic field theory, particularly, unified field theories. The physical motivation for Finsler structure is conveniently developed by the use of “gauge” transformations on the tangent space. In this context a remarkable correspondence of metrics, connections, and curvatures to, respectively, gauge potentials, fields, and energy-momentum emerges. Specific relativistic electromagnetic metrics such as Randers, Beil, and Weyl can be compared.
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  20. Jacob D. Bekenstein & Asaf Oron (2001). Extended Kelvin Theorem in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 31 (6):895-907.
    We prove the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem in general relativity which is applicable to perfect isentropic magnetohydrodynamic flow. The argument is based on a new version of the Lagrangian for perfect magnetohydrodynamics. We illustrate the new conserved circulation with the example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic flow possessing three symmetries.
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  21. A. B. Bell & D. M. Bell (1975). A Highly Ordered Universe. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):455-480.
    A highly ordered universe is described in terms of neutrino and electrino alone as basic particles, and length and time alone as dimensional units. New theories are obtained of particles, nuclides, atomic spectra, general relativity, and gravitation.
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  22. Gordon Belot, Background-Independence.
    Intuitively, a classical field theory is background-independent if the structure required to make sense of its equations is itself subject to dynamical evolution, rather than being imposed ab initio. The aim of this paper is to provide an explication of this intuitive notion. background-independence is not a not formal property of theories: the question whether a theory is background-independent depends upon how the theory is interpreted. Under the approach proposed here, a theory is fully backgroundindependent relative to an interpretation if (...)
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  23. Gordon Belot (1996). Why General Relativity Does Need an Interpretation. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):88.
    There is a widespread impression that General Relativity, unlike Quantum Mechanics, is in no need of an interpretation. I present two reasons for thinking that this is a mistake. The first is the familiar hole argument. I argue that certain skeptical responses to this argument are too hasty in dismissing it as being irrelevant to the interpretative enterprise. My second reason is that interpretative questions about General Relativity are central to the search for a quantum theory of gravity. I illustrate (...)
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  24. Peter Gabriel Bergmann (1942). Introduction to the Theory of Relativity. New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc..
    Comprehensive coverage of the special theory (frames of reference, Lorentz transformation, relativistic mechanics of mass points, more), the general theory ...
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  25. Frank Blume (2006). A Nontemporal Probabilistic Approach to Special and General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 36 (9):1404-1440.
    We introduce a discrete probabilistic model of motion in special and general relativity that is shown to be compatible with the standard model in the statistical limit.
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  26. Hermann Bondi (1964). Relativity and Common Sense. Garden City, N.Y.,Anchor Books.
    Radically reoriented presentation of Einstein's Special Theory and one of most valuable popular accounts available derives relativity from Newtonian ideas, ...
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  27. Giovanni Boniolo & Fernando de Felice (2000). On the Philosophical Foundations of Measurements in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 30 (10):1629-1641.
    In this paper, first, the question of what a measurement is in General Relativity is tackled; then, some foundational problems it involves are analysed. In particular, by recalling what a measurement is in general, we will try to precisely define what it is in General Relativity. Then, we will analyse, by means of a suitable example, some foundational problems it involves. It will be stressed that such foundational problems do not arise owing to the gauge invariance or the correlation among (...)
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  28. W. B. Bonnor (1969). Status of General Relativity. Guernsey, C.I.]F. Hodgson.
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  29. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. -J. Treder (1982). Quantum Theory and Einstein's General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 12 (11):1113-1129.
    We discuss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Eeinstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a “quantization of geometry.” However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according (...)
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  30. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. -J. Treder (1982). Remarks on the Relation Between General Relativity and Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 12 (4):413-418.
    A discussion of the diffraction and scattering of particles by a grating shows that the experiment discussed by H. Hönl and by L. Rosenfeld in 1965 and again in 1981 does not reveal any contradiction between general relativity and quantum theory. Moreover, these theories, in principle, cannot refute one another because the (weak) principle of equivalence, underlying general relativity theory, entails that gravitation does not alter the laws of microphysics.
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  31. Alessandro Braccesi (2008). Al di Là Dell'intuizione: Per Una Storia Della Fisica Del Ventesimo Secolo: Relatività E Quantistica. Bononia University Press.
  32. Harvey R. Brown (1997). On the Role of Special Relativity in General Relativity. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (1):67 – 81.
    The existence of a definite tangent space structure (metric with Lorentzian signature) in the general theory of relativity is the consequence of a fundamental assumption concerning the local validity of special relativity. There is then at the heart of Einstein's theory of gravity an absolute element which depends essentially on a common feature of all the non-gravitational interactions in the world, and which has nothing to do with space-time curvature. Tentative implications of this point for the significance of the vacuum (...)
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  33. Harvey R. Brown & Oliver Pooley (2001). The Origins of the Spacetime Metric: Bell's Lorentzian Pedagogy and its Significance in General Relativity. In Craig Callender & Nick Huggett (eds.), Physics Meets Philosophy at the Plank Scale. Cambridge University Press. 256--72.
    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the `Lorentzian Pedagogy' defended by J.S. Bell in his essay ``How to teach special relativity'', and to explore its consistency with Einstein's thinking from 1905 to 1952. Some remarks are also made in this context on Weyl's philosophy of relativity and his 1918 gauge theory. Finally, it is argued that the Lorentzian pedagogy---which stresses the important connection between kinematics and dynamics---clarifies the role of rods and clocks in general relativity.
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  34. Todd A. Brun & Mark M. Wilde (2012). Perfect State Distinguishability and Computational Speedups with Postselected Closed Timelike Curves. Foundations of Physics 42 (3):341-361.
    Bennett and Schumacher’s postselected quantum teleportation is a model of closed timelike curves (CTCs) that leads to results physically different from Deutsch’s model. We show that even a single qubit passing through a postselected CTC (P-CTC) is sufficient to do any postselected quantum measurement with certainty, and we discuss an important difference between “Deutschian” CTCs (D-CTCs) and P-CTCs in which the future existence of a P-CTC might affect the present outcome of an experiment. Then, based on a suggestion of Bennett (...)
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  35. Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman (eds.) (2007). Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier.
    The ambition of this volume is twofold: to provide a comprehensive overview of the field and to serve as an indispensable reference work for anyone who wants to work in it. For example, any philosopher who hopes to make a contribution to the topic of the classical-quantum correspondence will have to begin by consulting Klaas Landsman’s chapter. The organization of this volume, as well as the choice of topics, is based on the conviction that the important problems in the philosophy (...)
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  36. Tim Button (2009). Sad Computers and Two Versions of the Church–Turing Thesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4):765-792.
    Recent work on hypercomputation has raised new objections against the Church–Turing Thesis. In this paper, I focus on the challenge posed by a particular kind of hypercomputer, namely, SAD computers. I first consider deterministic and probabilistic barriers to the physical possibility of SAD computation. These suggest several ways to defend a Physical version of the Church–Turing Thesis. I then argue against Hogarth's analogy between non-Turing computability and non-Euclidean geometry, showing that it is a non-sequitur. I conclude that the Effective version (...)
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  37. Favio Ernesto Cala Vitery (2008). Sobre la Dinámica Relacional Del Espaciotiempo y la Conservación de la Energía En la Teoría General de la Relatividad. Theoria 23 (2):175-193.
    RESUMEN: En este artículo pretendo desmantelar la opinión generalizada según la cual una interpretación relacional del espaciotiempo no es posible. Centro mi atención en el hecho de que las variables dinámicas usualmente están asociadas a objetos materiales en las teorías físicas. El tensor métrico de la Teoría General de la Relatividad (TGR) es un objeto dinámico así que —sostengo— este debe ser mejor entendido como un campo material en toda regla. Este argumento me lleva a vincular la naturaleza relacional del (...)
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  38. Craig Callender & Nicholas Huggett, Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale.
    This is the table of contents and first chapter of Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale (Cambridge University Press, 2001), edited by Craig Callender and Nick Huggett. The chapter discusses the question of why there should be a theory of quantum gravity. We tackle arguments that purport to show that the gravitational field *must* be quantized. We then introduce various programs in quantum gravity and discuss areas where quantum gravity and philosophy seem to have something to say to each (...)
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  39. W. H. Cannon & O. G. Jensen (1975). An Empirical Test of the Interaction Interpretation of the Theory of Relativity. Foundations of Physics 5 (2):217-227.
    This paper presents an empirical test of Schlegel's “interaction interpretation” of the theory of special relativity. Analysis of the UTC time scales maintained at various observatory sites over the world indicates that neither Schlegel's “interaction interpretation” of the theory of relativity nor the conventional “space-time coordinate transformation interpretation” of relativity can significantly improve agreement between the UTC time scales. Instead evidence for the effects of accelerations on clock rates is suggested.
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  40. Moshe Carmeli, Stuart I. Fickler & Louis Witten (eds.) (1970). Relativity. New York,Plenum Press.
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  41. Wu Zhong Chao (1997). The Beauty of General Relativity. Foundations of Science 2 (1):61-64.
    The author proposes to add another dichotomy to the list of essential tensions proposed by Professor Duda, namely beauty and ugliness. Physicists believe that only beautiful theories describe the world correctly, and that General Relativity is one of the most beautiful physical theories. The author explains why physicists regard this theory as beautiful.
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  42. James A. Coleman (1958/1959). Relativity for the Layman. New York, Macmillan.
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  43. F. I. Cooperstock (2001). Energy and Angular Momentum of Systems in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 31 (7):1067-1082.
    Stemming from our energy localization hypothesis that energy in general relativity is localized in the regions of the energy-momentum tensor, we had devised a test with the classic Eddington spinning rod. Consistent with the localization hypothesis, we found that the Tolman energy integral did not change in the course of the motion. This implied that gravitational waves do not carry energy in vacuum, bringing into question the demand for the quantization of gravity. Also if information is conveyed by the waves, (...)
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  44. F. I. Cooperstock (1992). Energy Localization in General Relativity: A New Hypothesis. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 22 (8):1011-1024.
    A new hypothesis for energy localization in general relativity is introduced which is based upon the fact that the energy-momentum conservation laws are devoid of content in vacuum. The vanishing of pseudotensor components forms the basis of coordinate conditions consistent with the above. The implication is that energy is localized where the energy-momentum tensor is nonvanishing. As a consequence, gravitational waves are not carriers of energy in vacuum. A detailed analysis of a Feynman detector interacting with a plane gravitational wave (...)
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  45. F. I. Cooperstock & S. Tieu (2003). The Energy of a Dynamical Wave-Emitting System in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 33 (7):1033-1059.
    The problem of energy and its localization in general relativity is critically re-examined. The Tolman energy integral for the Eddington spinning rod is analyzed in detail and evaluated apart from a single term. It is shown that a higher order iteration is required to find its value. Details of techniques to solve mathematically challenging problems of motion with powerful computing resources are provided. The next phase of following a system from static to dynamic to final quasi-static state is described.
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  46. Christian Cormier-Delanoue (1989). From Relativity to the Photon. Foundations of Physics 19 (10):1171-1190.
    Two widely different conceptions of electromagnetic radiation were compared by Einstein in his 1916 papers, namely, the classically diffuse form and the fully directional form. The emission process of each kind of radiation is examined hereafter from a relativistic point of view. The necessary covariance of any physical description, further specifying the original directional property, points to a strictly quantized form of radiation as the only one consistent with relativity, thus showing a deep relationship between this latter and quantum theory.
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  47. John Cramer, Artificial Gravity: Which Way is Up?
    My interest in the physics of space station gravity developed because last year Vonda McIntyre was writing a book with a space station setting, and she asked my advice. The book, Barbary, is about a teenager who leaves Earth to live in a space station with spin-generated gravity. I helped Vonda in a very minor way by identifying the physical effects that the heroine would experience in that environment. What's it like to ride an elevator in a space station? How (...)
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  48. John Cramer, General Relativity Without Black Holes.
    This column is a milestone. It's the 100 th Alternate View column that I've written for Analog over a period of 16 years beginning in 1983. I was on a sabbatical in Berlin when Stan recruited me to write the column after Jerry Pournelle, my predecessor as AV columnist, decided to step down. The AV columns are a soapbox that was too attractive to pass up, and I've used them to promote an interst in science and to feed cutting-edge science (...)
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  49. John Cramer, Gravity Waves and LIGO.
    Curiously, in some ways gravity is also the strongest force in the universe. It always adds, never subtracts, and can build up until it overwhelms all other forces.. In normal stars gravity is balanced by heat energy from fusion reactions in the star's core. Eventually, however, the hydrogen and heavier elements fueling these reactions are used up, gravity takes over, and the star collapses in on itself. The result is a supernova explosion, which converts a sizable fraction of the star's (...)
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  50. John Cramer, The Krasnikov Tube: A Subway to the Stars.
    This page now has an access count of: Alcubierre Warp Drive (see the 11/96 issue of Analog). The Alcubierre Warp Drive is a distortion of space, a solution to the equations of general relativity that forms a sphere of flat space surrounded by a warped-space "bubble". At the front edge of the bubble, space is contracting (like a collapsing black..
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1 — 50 / 324