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  1. Mauro Adenzato (2000). Gene-Culture Coevolution Does Not Replace Standard Evolutionary Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):146-146.
    Though the target article is not without fertile suggestions, at least two problems limit its overall validity: (1) the extended gene-culture coevolutionary framework is not an alternative to standard evolutionary theory; (2) the proposed model does not explain how much time is necessary for selective pressure to determine the stabilization of a new aspect of the genotype.
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  2. Nicholas Agar (1996). Teleogy and Genes. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):289-300.
    My aim in this paper is to quickly sketch a teleological approach to the problem of isolating the impact of genes on phenotypic characters. I begin by arguing that it is a mistake to think that there will be only one analysis of genetic input suitable for all theoretical interests. My principle focus is Richard Dawkins' argument for genic selectionism. I argue that a teleological analysis of genetic input is what Dawkins requires to establish the right kind of mapping of (...)
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  3. Michael Akam (1984). What the Papers Say: A Molecular Theme for Homoeotic Genes. Bioessays 1 (2):78-79.
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  4. P. Alderson (1992). In the Genes or in the Stars? Children's Competence to Consent. Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (3):119-124.
    Children's competence to refuse or consent to medical treatment or surgery tends to be discussed in terms of the child's ability or maturity. This paper argues that the social context also powerfully influences the child's capacity to consent. Inner attributes and external influences are discussed using an analogy of the genes and the stars.
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  5. André Aleman & René S. Kahn (2004). Genes Can Disconnect the Social Brain in More Than One Way. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):855-855.
    Burns proposes an intriguing hypothesis by suggesting that the “schizophrenia genes” might not be regulatory genes themselves, but rather closely associated with regulatory genes directly involved in the proper growth of the social brain. We point out that this account would benefit from incorporating the effects of localized lesions and aberrant hemispheric asymmetry on cortical connectivity underlying the social brain. In addition, we argue that the evolutionary framework is superfluous.
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  6. Nicholas B. Allen & Paul B. T. Badcock (2006). Genes for Susceptibility to Mental Disorder Are Not Mental Disorder: Clarifying the Target of Evolutionary Analysis and the Role of the Environment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):405-406.
    In this commentary, we critique the appropriate behavioural features for evolutionary genetic analysis, the role of the environment, and the viability of a general evolutionary genetic model for all common mental disorders. In light of these issues, we suggest that the authors may have prematurely discounted the role of some of the mechanisms they review, particularly balancing selection. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  7. Patrick Amar, Pascal Ballet, Georgia Barlovatz-Meimon, Arndt Benecke, Gilles Bernot, Yves Bouligand, Paul Bourguine, Franck Delaplace, Jean-Marc Delosme, Maurice Demarty, Itzhak Fishov, Jean Fourmentin-Guilbert, Joe Fralick, Jean-Louis Giavitto, Bernard Gleyse, Christophe Godin, Roberto Incitti, François Képès, Catherine Lange, Lois Le Sceller, Corinne Loutellier, Olivier Michel, Franck Molina, Chantal Monnier, René Natowicz, Vic Norris, Nicole Orange, Helene Pollard, Derek Raine, Camille Ripoll, Josette Rouviere-Yaniv, Milton Saier, Paul Soler, Pierre Tambourin, Michel Thellier, Philippe Tracqui, Dave Ussery, Jean-Claude Vincent, Jean-Pierre Vannier, Philippa Wiggins & Abdallah Zemirline (2002). Hyperstructures, Genome Analysis and I-Cells. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (4).
    New concepts may prove necessary to profit from the avalanche of sequence data on the genome, transcriptome, proteome and interactome and to relate this information to cell physiology. Here, we focus on the concept of large activity-based structures, or hyperstructures, in which a variety of types of molecules are brought together to perform a function. We review the evidence for the existence of hyperstructures responsible for the initiation of DNA replication, the sequestration of newly replicated origins of replication, cell division (...)
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  8. Cheryl P. Andam, David Williams & J. Peter Gogarten (2010). Natural Taxonomy in Light of Horizontal Gene Transfer. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):589-602.
    We discuss the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) on phylogenetic reconstruction and taxonomy. We review the power of HGT as a creative force in assembling new metabolic pathways, and we discuss the impact that HGT has on phylogenetic reconstruction. On one hand, shared derived characters are created through transferred genes that persist in the recipient lineage, either because they were adaptive in the recipient lineage or because they resulted in a functional replacement. On the other hand, taxonomic patterns in (...)
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  9. W. French Anderson (1989). Human Gene Therapy: Why Draw a Line? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (6):681-693.
    Despite widespread agreement that it would be ethical to use somatic cell gene therapy to correct serious diseases, there is still uneasiness on the part of the public about this procedure. The basis for this concern lies less with the procedure's clinical risks than with fear that genetic engineering could lead to changes in human nature. Legitimate concerns about the potential for misuse of gene transfer technology justify drawing a moral line that includes corrective germline therapy but excludes enhancement interventions (...)
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  10. W. French Anderson (1985). Human Gene Therapy: Scientific and Ethical Considerations. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (3):275-292.
    types of application of genetic engineering for the insertion of genes into humans. The scientific requirements and the ethical issues associated with each type are discussed. Somatic cell gene therapy is technically the simplest and ethically the least controversial. The first clinical trials will probably be undertaken within the next year. Germ line gene therapy will require major advances in our present knowledge and it raises ethical issues that are now being debated. In order to provide guidelines for determining when (...)
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  11. Misha Angrist (2009). We Are the Genes We've Been Waiting For: Rational Responses to the Gathering Storm of Personal Genomics. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):30-31.
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  12. Stuart K. Archer, Charles Claudianos & Hugh D. Campbell (2005). Evolution of the Gelsolin Family of Actin-Binding Proteins as Novel Transcriptional Coactivators. Bioessays 27 (4):388-396.
    The gelsolin gene family encodes a number of higher eukaryotic actin-binding proteins that are thought to function in the cytoplasm by severing, capping, nucleating or bundling actin filaments. Recent evidence, however, suggests that several members of the gelsolin family may have adopted unexpected nuclear functions including a role in regulating transcription. In particular, flightless I, supervillin and gelsolin itself have roles as coactivators for nuclear receptors, despite the fact that their divergence appears to predate the evolutionary appearance of nuclear receptors. (...)
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  13. A. Ariew (2003). Richard Lewontin as Elvis Costello? - The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism and environmentRichard Lewontin; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA & London, 2000, Pp. 1+135, Price $25 Hardback, ISBN 0-674-00159-1, Price $15 Paperback, ISBN 0-674-00677-. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):707-712.
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  14. J. Arlebrink (1997). The Treatment of Ethics in a Swedish Government Commission on Gene Technology. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (6):388-389.
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  15. Andrew Askland (2003). Patenting Genes. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (2):267-275.
    Patents have been issued in the United States for genes and gene sequences since 1980. Patent protection has provided incentives to aggressively probe the genome of humans and non-humans alike in search of profitable applications. Yet it is not clear that patent protection should have been afforded to genes and gene sequences and it is increasingly clear that patent protection, as currently formulated, is not an appropriate means to realize the full benefits of genetic research. As we stand on the (...)
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  16. Ashkan Atry, Mats G. Hansson & Ulrik Kihlbom (2011). Gene Doping and the Responsibility of Bioethicists. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (2):149 - 160.
    In this paper we will argue: (1) that scholars, regardless of their normative stand against or for genetic enhancement indeed have a moral/professional obligation to hold on to a realistic and up-to-date conception of genetic enhancement; (2) that there is an unwarranted hype surrounding the issue of genetic enhancement in general, and gene doping in particular; and (3) that this hype is, at least partly, created due to a simplistic and reductionist conception of genetics often adopted by bioethicists.
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  17. Sunny Auyang, Are You Nothing but Genes or Neurons?
    All complex systems are complex, but some are more complex than others are. Biological systems are generally more complex than physical systems. How do biologists tackle complex systems? In this talk, we will consider two biological systems, the genome and the brain. Scientists know much about them, but much more remains unknown. Ignorance breeds philosophical speculation. Reductionism makes a strong showing here, as it does in other frontier sciences where large gaps remain in our understanding. I will show that reductionism (...)
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  18. Francisco J. Ayala (1995). Adam, Eve, and Other Ancestors: A Story of Human Origins Told by Genes. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (2):303 - 313.
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  19. Tudor M. Baetu (2012). Genes After the Human Genome Project. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):191-201.
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  20. Tudor M. Baetu (2011). A Defense of Syntax-Based Gene Concepts in Postgenomics: Genes as Modular Subroutines in the Master Genomic Program. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):712-723.
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  21. Nicholas E. Baker & Lucy C. Firth (2011). Retinal Determination Genes Function Along with Cell‐Cell Signals to Regulate Drosophila Eye Development. Bioessays 33 (7):538-546.
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  22. Paul B. Baltes (1998). Testing the Limits of the Ontogenetic Sources of Talent and Excellence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):407-408.
    Experiential factors such as long-term deliberate practice are powerful and necessary conditions for outstanding achievement. Nevertheless, to be able to reject the role of biology based individual differences (including genetic ones) in the manifestation of talent requires designs that expose heterogeneous samples to so-called testing-the-limits conditions, allowing asymptotic levels of performance to be analyzed comparatively. When such research has been conducted, as in the field of lifespan cognition, individual differences, including biology based ones, come to the fore and demonstrate that (...)
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  23. G. Winston Barber (1980). Homocystinuria and the Passing of the One Gene— One Enzyme Concept of Disease. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 5 (1):8-21.
  24. Matthew J. Barker (2007). The Empirical Inadequacy of Species Cohesion by Gene Flow. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):654-665.
    This paper brings needed clarity to the influential view that species are cohesive entities held together by gene flow, and then develops an empirical argument against that view: Neglected data suggest gene flow is neither necessary nor sufficient for species cohesion. Implications are discussed. ‡I'm grateful to Rob Wilson, Alex Rueger and Lindley Darden for important comments on earlier drafts, and to Joseph Nagel, Heather Proctor, Ken Bond, members of the DC History and Philosophy of Biology reading group, and audience (...)
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  25. Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson (2010). Cohesion, Gene Flow, and the Nature of Species. Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):59-77.
    A far-reaching and influential view in evolutionary biology claims that species are cohesive units held together by gene flow. Biologists have recognized empirical problems facing this view; after sharpening the expression of the view, we present novel conceptual problems for it. At the heart of these problems is a distinction between two importantly different concepts of cohesion, what we call integrative and response cohesion. Acknowledging the distinction problematizes both the explanandum of species cohesion and the explanans of gene flow that (...)
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  26. Tim Barnett, Ken Bass & Gene Brown (1996). Religiosity, Ethical Ideology, and Intentions to Report a Peer's Wrongdoing. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (11):1161 - 1174.
    Peer reporting is a specific form of whistelblowing in which an individual discloses the wrongdoing of a peer. Previous studies have examined situational variables thought to influence a person's decision to report the wrongdoing of a peer. The present study looked at peer reporting from the individual level. Five hypotheses were developed concerning the relationships between (1) religiosity and ethical ideology, (2) ethical ideology and ethical judgments about peer reporting, and (3) ethical judgments and intentions to report peer wrongdoing.Subjects read (...)
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  27. Tim Barnett, Ken Bass & Gene Brown (1994). Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgment Regarding Ethical Issues in Business. Journal of Business Ethics 13 (6):469 - 480.
    Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals'' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-related ethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism), as posited by Forsyth (1980). The ethical judgments of individuals regarding several business-related issues varied, depending upon their ethical ideology.
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  28. Tim Barnett, Ken Bass, Gene Brown & Frederic J. Hebert (1998). Ethical Ideology and the Ethical Judgments of Marketing Professionals. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (7):715-723.
    The present study extends the study of individuals' ethical ideology withinthe context of marketing ethics issues. A national sample of marketing professionals participated. Respondents' ethical ideologies were classified as absolutists, situationists, exceptionists, or subjectivists using the Ethical Position Questionnaire (Forsyth, 1980). Respondents then answered questions about three ethically ambiguous situations common to marketing and sales. The results indicated that marketers' ethical judgments about the situations differed based on their ethical ideology, with absolutists rating the actions as most unethical. The findings (...)
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  29. Scott Barolo (2012). Shadow Enhancers: Frequently Asked Questions About Distributed Cis‐Regulatory Information and Enhancer Redundancy. Bioessays 34 (2):135-141.
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  30. H. Clark Barrett, Willem E. Frankenhuis & Andreas Wilke (2008). Adaptation to Moving Targets: Culture/Gene Coevolution, Not Either/Or. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):511-512.
    We agree that much of language evolution is likely to be adaptation of languages to properties of the brain. However, the attempt to rule out the existence of language-specific adaptations a priori is misguided. In particular, the claim that adaptation to cannot occur is false. Instead, the details of gene-culture coevolution in language are an empirical matter.
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  31. Andrew Bateman & Hugh P. J. Bennett (2009). The Granulin Gene Family: From Cancer to Dementia. Bioessays 31 (11):1245-1254.
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  32. Robert G. Beiko (2010). Gene Sharing and Genome Evolution: Networks in Trees and Trees in Networks. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):659-673.
    Frequent lateral genetic transfer undermines the existence of a unique “tree of life” that relates all organisms. Vertical inheritance is nonetheless of vital interest in the study of microbial evolution, and knowing the “tree of cells” can yield insights into ecological continuity, the rates of change of different cellular characters, and the evolutionary plasticity of genomes. Notwithstanding within-species recombination, the relationships most frequently recovered from genomic data at shallow to moderate taxonomic depths are likely to reflect cellular inheritance. At the (...)
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  33. Christopher Beiting (2008). The Divine Irruption in Gene Wolf's The Book of the Long Sun. Logos 11 (3).
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  34. Carl T. Bergstrom & Martin Rosvall (2011). The Transmission Sense of Information. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):159-176.
    Biologists rely heavily on the language of information, coding, and transmission that is commonplace in the field of information theory developed by Claude Shannon, but there is open debate about whether such language is anything more than facile metaphor. Philosophers of biology have argued that when biologists talk about information in genes and in evolution, they are not talking about the sort of information that Shannon’s theory addresses. First, philosophers have suggested that Shannon’s theory is only useful for developing a (...)
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  35. Peter J. Beurton, Raphael Falk & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) (2000). The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution: Historical and Epistemological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
    Advances in molecular biological research in the last forty years have made the story of the gene vastly complicated: the more we learn about genes, the less sure we are of what a gene really is. Knowledge about the structure and functioning of genes abounds, but the gene has also become curiously intangible. This collection of essays renews the question: what are genes? Philosophers, historians, and working scientists re-evaluate the question in this volume, treating the gene as a focal point (...)
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  36. Jason A. Beyer (2001). Genes, Genesis and God. Teaching Philosophy 24 (1):87-91.
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  37. Alicia A. Bicknell, Can Cenik, Hon N. Chua, Frederick P. Roth & Melissa J. Moore (2012). Introns in UTRs: Why We Should Stop Ignoring Them. Bioessays 34 (12):1025-1034.
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  38. Barbara Pfeffer Billauer (1999). On Judaism and Genes: A Response to Paul Root Wolpe. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (2):159-165.
    : The following comments on Paul Root Wolpe's article "If I Am Only My Genes, What Am I? Genetic Essentialism and a Jewish Response" address (1) his presentation of the relationship between science and culture or religion as unimodal; (2) his misconception of the Jewish view of the physical corpus; and (3) his essential question of genetic determinism by examining the traditional Jewish view of the spiritual aspects of the human.
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  39. Gene Blocker (1971). Hegel on Aesthetic Internalization. British Journal of Aesthetics 11 (4):341-353.
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  40. Gene Blocker (1970). The Meaning of a Poem. British Journal of Aesthetics 10 (4):337-343.
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  41. H. Gene Blocker (1980). Autonomy, Reference and Post-Modern Art. British Journal of Aesthetics 20 (3):229-236.
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  42. H. Gene Blocker (1977). A New Look at Aesthetic Distance. British Journal of Aesthetics 17 (3):219-229.
    A defense of the embattled concept of aesthetic distance is achieved by reinstating a prominent feature of distance ignored in the current controversy. Distance is not the only supposed psychological posturing discussed by bullough, But also the space which is necessary to art between the art medium and the world represented therein. Examples from painting, Film and absurdist literature are discussed in terms of the historical tension between medium "opacity" and "transparency" in order to show how total transparency is avoided (...)
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  43. H. Gene Blocker (1977). Pictures and Photographs. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 36 (2):155-162.
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  44. H. Gene Blocker (1974). Back to Reality. Metaphilosophy 5 (3):232–241.
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  45. H. Gene Blocker (1974). The Languages of Art. British Journal of Aesthetics 14 (2):165-173.
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  46. H. Gene Blocker (1974). The Truth About Fictional Entities. Philosophical Quarterly 24 (94):27-36.
    The usual strawsonian account of referring won't do for fictional entities. The problem is that we still don't have a sufficiently clear notion of ordinary referring, And the root of this problem is that referring is still perceived in terms of a paradigm relation of a description to an existing thing. But that relation is preceded by the more fundamental relation of thought to an object of thought, Whether real or imaginary. The conclusion reached is that fictional reference is an (...)
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  47. H. Gene Blocker (1972). Another Look at Aesthetic Imagination. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 30 (4):529-536.
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  48. Knut Borch-Johnsen, Jørgen H. Olsen & Thorkild I. A. Sørensen (1994). Genes and Family Environment in Familial Clustering of Cancer. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (4).
    Familial clustering of a disease is defined as the occurrence of the disease within some families in excess of what would be expected from the occurrence in the population. It has been demonstrated for several cancer types, ranging from rare cancers as the adenomatosis-coli-associated colon cancer or the Li-Fraumeni syndrome to more common cancers as breast cancer and colon cancer. Familial clustering, however, is merely an epidemiological pattern, and it does not tell whether genetic or environmental causes or both in (...)
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  49. Pascal Borry (2004). Moss, Lenny. What Genes Can't Do. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (1):75-77.
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  50. Thorsten Botz-Bornstein (2010). Genes, Memes, and the Chinese Concept of Wen : Toward a Nature/Culture Model of Genetics. Philosophy East and West 60 (2):pp. 167-186.
    The Chinese concept of wen is examined here in the context of contemporary gene theory and the "cultural branch" of gene theory called "memetics." The Chinese notion of wen is an untranslatable term meaning "pattern," "structure," "writing," and "literature." Wen hua—generally translated as "culture"—signifies the process through which one adopts wen. However, this process is not simply one of civilizational mimesis or imitation but the "creation" of a new pattern. Within a gene-wen debate we are able to read genes neither (...)
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