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Summary This category is about the possibility of altering the characteristics of non human animals and plants through genetic engineering. Among those who believe that genetic engineering is wrong, some regard genetic engineering to be wrong per se and some focus on its consequences. If it is wrong per se, it might be because (1) it violates the rights of animals, (2) it fails to accord to animals the respect that is their due, (3) it is unnatural, i.e. it violates the "telos" of animals. 
Key works Rollin 1995 rejects genetic engineering based on consequentialist considerations. Rifkin 1985, Fox 1990, Fox 1992, and Dobson 1995 argue, from a biocentric perspective, that genetic engineering is wrong per se.
Introductions Burgess & Walsh 1998
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  1. Marko Ahteensuu (2012). Assumptions of the Deficit Model Type of Thinking: Ignorance, Attitudes, and Science Communication in the Debate on Genetic Engineering in Agriculture. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (3):295-313.
    This paper spells out and discusses four assumptions of the deficit model type of thinking. The assumptions are: First, the public is ignorant of science. Second, the public has negative attitudes towards (specific instances of) science and technology. Third, ignorance is at the root of these negative attitudes. Fourth, the public’s knowledge deficit can be remedied by one-way science communication from scientists to citizens. It is argued that there is nothing wrong with ignorance-based explanations per se. Ignorance accounts at least (...)
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  2. Fatima Agha Al-Hayani (2007). Biomedical Ethics: Muslim Perspectives on Genetic Modification. Zygon 42 (1):153-162.
    Technology pertaining to genetically modified foods has created an abundance of food and various methods to protect new products and enhance productivity. However, many scientists, economists, and humanitarians have been critical of the application of these discoveries. They are apprehensive about a profit-driven mentality that, to them, seems to propel the innovators rather than a poverty-elimination mentality that should be behind such innovations. The objectives should be to afford the most benefit to those in need and to prevent hunger around (...)
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  3. Rev Nicanor Austriaco (2001). Genetic Engineering, Post-Genomic Ethics, and the Catholic Tradition. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (4):497-506.
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  4. Eric Baack & Loren Rieseberg (2006). The Hope, Hype and Reality of Genetic Engineering: Remarkable Stories From Agriculture, Industry, Medicine, and the Environment (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (1):150-152.
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  5. Harold W. Baillie, William A. Galston, Sara Goering, Deborah Hellman, Mark Sagoff, Paul B. Thompson, Robert Wachbroit, David T. Wasserman & Richard M. Zaner (2003). Genetic Prospects: Essays on Biotechnology, Ethics, and Public Policy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The essays in this volume apply philosophical analysis to address three kinds of questions: What are the implications of genetic science for our understanding of nature? What might it influence in our conception of human nature? What challenges does genetic science pose for specific issues of private conduct or public policy?
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  6. L. A. Baines, W. Carpenter & G. Stanley (2000). Genetic Engineering: The Standardization of Teacher Education. Journal of Thought 35 (2):35-44.
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  7. Brian Balmer (1999). Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering, by Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan; Birth to Death: Science and Bioethics, Edited by David C. Thomasma and Thomasine Kushner. [REVIEW] Minerva 37 (1):95-97.
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  8. Philipp Balzer, Klaus Peter Rippe & Peter Schaber (2000). Two Concepts of Dignity for Humans and Non-Human Organisms in the Context of Genetic Engineering. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):7-27.
    The 1992 incorporation of an article by referendum in the SwissConstitution mandating that the federal government issue regulations onthe use of genetic material that take into account the dignity ofnonhuman organism raises philosophical questions about how we shouldunderstand what is meant by ``the dignity of nonhuman animals,'' andabout what sort of moral demands arise from recognizing this dignitywith respect to their genetic engineering. The first step in determiningwhat is meant is to clarify the difference between dignity when appliedto humans and (...)
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  9. Lynda Birke (2006). Meddling with Medusa: On Genetic Manipulation, Art and Animals. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (1):103-117.
    Turning animals into art through genetic manipulation poses many questions for how we think about our relationship with other species. Here, I explore three rather disparate sets of issues. First, I ask to what extent the production of such living “artforms” really is as transgressive as advocates claim. Whether or not it counts as radical in terms of art I cannot say: but it is not at all radical, I argue, in terms of how we think about our human place (...)
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  10. Joshua Blackburn (2010). Professor Andrew Garnar Philosophy 326 9 December 2010 Genetically Engineered Crops: For the Better or Worse? Philosophy 326:9.
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  11. Russell Blackford (2006). Dr. Frankenstein Meets Lord Devlin: Genetic Engineering and the Principle of Intangible Harm. The Monist 89 (4):526-547.
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  12. Robert Blank (1981). Genetic Engineering and Contemporary Democratic Theory. World Futures 18 (3):239-267.
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  13. Gernot Böhme (2008). Ethik Leiblicher Existenz: Über Unseren Moralischen Umgang Mit der Eigenen Natur. Suhrkamp.
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  14. Ingrid Brena Sesma (ed.) (2007). Panorama Internacional En Salud y Derecho: Culturas y Sistemas Jurídicos Comparados. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
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  15. Frans W. A. Brom (2000). The Good Life of Creatures with Dignity Some Comments on the Swiss Expert Opinion. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):53-63.
    The notion of Dignity of Creatures has been voted into the Swiss Federal Constitution by a plebiscite. Philipp Balzer, Klaus-Peter Rippe, and Peter Schaber have given an expert opinion for the Swiss government to clarify the notion of Dignity of Creatures. According to them, by voting this notion into the Swiss constitution, the Swiss have chosen for a limited biocentric approach towards biotechnology. In such an approach genetic engineering of non-human beings is only allowed insofar that their own good is (...)
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  16. Richard Geoffrey Brown (1989). The Image of God: Theological Ethics for Human Creative Genetic Engineering. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    The dissertation deals with the protestant doctrine of the Imago Dei as espoused by Karl Barth, Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich. The dissertation seeks to answer the question whether or not there will be an harmonious ethical approach arising from their diverse formulations of the Imaqo Dei from which to address human creative genetic engineering, or more specifically, the scientific likelihood of the chimera and the specialized human mutant. ;The opening two chapters are spent in establishing the legitimacy of this (...)
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  17. Eva M. Buccioni (1998). Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan, Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (1):49-55.
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  18. Glenn Bugos (1996). Molecular Politics: Developing American and British Regulatory Policy for Genetic Engineering, 1972–1982. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 29 (1):118-119.
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  19. J. A. Burgess & Adrian Walsh (1998). Is Genetic Engineering Wrong, Per Se? Journal of Value Inquiry 32 (3):393-406.
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  20. Derek Burke (forthcoming). Genetic Engineering of Food. Christians and Bioethics.
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  21. Jeremy Caddick (1999). Essay Reviews-Genetic Engineering and Ethical Arithmetic. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (4):545.
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  22. Claude Calame (2005). From the Civiliation of Prometheus to Genetic Engineering: The Role of Technology and the Uses of Metaphor. Arion 13 (2).
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  23. Daniel Callahan (1981). Arguing the Morality of Genetic Engineering. In Marc D. Hiller (ed.), Medical Ethics and the Law: Implications for Public Policy. Ballinger Pub. Co.
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  24. A. Caplan (forthcoming). A Dark Side of Glowing Fish? More Oversight of Genetic Engineering Needed. Bioethics on Msnbc.
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  25. Carlos María Romeo Casabona (1999). Biotechnology, Law and Bioethics Comparative Perspectives.
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  26. Esther Casanueva, Ruben Lisker, Alessandra Carnevale & Elisa Alonso (1998). Opinions of Mexican Physicians on the Use of Genetic Engineering. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 8 (1):6-9.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare the opinion on matters related to genetic engineering among Mexican physicians with different specialties. Physicians from four of Mexico City's National Health Institutes were selected for the study. The following specialties were sampled: internists ; pediatricians ; gynecologists and obstetricians and neurologists . The questionnaires designed by Macer were used. Even when 8 out of 10 physicians questioned responded they were interested or very interested in science, their knowledge on science (...)
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  27. Liebe F. Cavalieri (1981/1985). The Double-Edged Helix: Genetic Engineering in the Real World. Praeger.
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  28. T. Chappell (1997). Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):329-331.
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  29. Larry R. Churchill, Myra L. Collins, Nancy M. R. King, Stephen G. Pemberton & Keith A. Wailoo (1998). Genetic Research as Therapy: Implications of "Gene Therapy" for Informed Consent. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 26 (1):38-47.
  30. Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):436 – 443.
    Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses Homo Sapiens might mount. The tasks to relate two species (systems) constitutes a postformal, Metasystematic task. Developing a system of discourse (...)
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  31. Marilyn E. Coors (2006). Considering Chimeras: The Confluence of Genetic Engineering and Ethics. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 6 (1):75-87.
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  32. Stéphane Courtois (2006). Genetic Engineering, Moral Autonomy, and Equal Treatment. The Monist 89 (4):442-465.
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  33. Yvonne M. Cripps (1980). Controlling Technology: Genetic Engineering and the Law. Praeger.
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  34. John Danaher (forthcoming). Human Enhancement, Social Solidarity and the Distribution of Responsibility. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-20.
    This paper tries to clarify, strengthen and respond to two prominent objections to the development and use of human enhancement technologies. Both objections express concerns about the link between enhancement and the drive for hyperagency (i.e. the ability to control and manipulate all aspects of one’s agency). The first derives from the work of Sandel and Hauskeller and is concerned with the negative impact of hyperagency on social solidarity. In responding to their objection, I argue that although social solidarity is (...)
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  35. Richard Dawkins, Where Do the Real Dangers of Genetic Engineering Lie?
    To listen to some people, you'd think genetically modified foods were radioactive. But genetic engineering is not, of itself, either bad or..
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  36. Peter Day (1992). Science and Industry Biotechnology and the Future of World Agriculture Henk Hobbelink. BioScience 42 (4):306-307.
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  37. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2013). Sex Selection and the Procreative Liberty Framework. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (1):1-18.
    Although surprising to some proponents of sex selection for non-medical reasons (Dahl 2005), a considerable amount of critical debate has been raised by this practice (Blyth, Frith, and Crawshaw 2008; Dawson and Trounson 1996; Dickens 2002; Harris 2005; Heyd 2003; Holm 2004; Macklin 2010; Malpani 2002; McDougall 2005; Purdy 2007; Seavilleklein and Sherwin 2007; Steinbock 2002; Strange and Chadwick 2010; Wilkinson 2008). While abortion or infanticide has long been used as means of sex selection, a new technology—preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)—has (...)
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  38. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2008). Chimeras and Human Dignity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):pp. 331-346.
    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I (...)
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  39. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2004). On Our Obligation to Select the Best Children: A Reply to Savulescu. Bioethics 18 (1):72–83.
  40. Castaño de Restrepo, María Patricia, Romeo Casabona & Carlos María (eds.) (2004). Derecho, Genoma Humano y Biotecnología. Temis.
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  41. Rob De Vries (2006). Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (5):469-493.
    Genetic engineering evokes a number of objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. The concept of animal integrity is often invoked to articulate these kind of objections. Moreover, in reaction to the advent of genetic engineering, the concept has been extended from the level of the individual animal to the level of the genome and of the species. However, the concept of animal integrity was not (...)
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  42. Celia E. Deane-drummond (1995). Genetic Engineering for the Environment: Ethical Implications of the Biotechnology Revolution. Heythrop Journal 36 (3):307–327.
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  43. James Delaney (2009). The Catholic Position on Germ Line Genetic Engineering. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (11):33-34.
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  44. R. DiSilvestro (2012). Three Christian Arguments Against Germline Engineering. Christian Bioethics 18 (2):201-218.
    Are there any specifically Christian grounds for prohibiting, in principle, human germline engineering? In addressing this question, I deliberately limit my investigation in scope (by focusing narrowly on germline engineering itself) and in perspective (by focusing narrowly on the direct and often distinctive contributions of Christian theology). The three arguments I consider for the conclusion that germline engineering is morally prohibited are the argument from playing God, the argument from self-defeat, and the argument from genetic prevention.
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  45. Andrew Dobson (1997). Genetic Engineering and Environmental Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (2):205-.
    When God gave humankind dominion over the earth he may not have known exactly what we would be able to do with it. The technical capacities to which the production and reproduction of our everyday life have given rise have grown at an astonishing and, it seems, ever-increasing rate. The instruments that we use to do work on the world have become sharper and more refined, and the implications of human interventions in the nonhuman environment are much more far-reaching than (...)
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  46. Andrew Dobson (1995). Biocentrism and Genetic Engineering. Environmental Values 4 (3):227 - 239.
    I consider the contribution that a biocentric perspective might make to the ethical debate concerning the practice of genetic engineering. I claim that genetic engineering itself raises novel ethical questions, and particularly so when confronted with biocentric sensibilities. I outline the nature of these questions and describe the biocentric basis for them. I suggest that fundamentalist opposition to projects of genetic engineering is unhelpful, but that biocentric claims should now be a feature of ethical consideration. I conclude, though, that while (...)
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  47. Scott Eastham (2003). Biotech Time-Bomb: How Genetic Engineering Could Irreversibly Change Our World. Rsvp Pub..
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  48. Ezekiel J. Emanuel (1994). Prescribing Our Future: Ethical Challenges in Genetic Counseling (Book). Ethics and Behavior 4 (1):69 – 73.
  49. H. Tristram Engelhardt (1996). Germ-Line Genetic Engineering and Moral Diversity: Moral Controversies in a Post-Christian World. Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (02):47-.
    The prospect of germ-line genetic engineering, the ability to engineer genetic changes that can be passed on to subsequent generations, raises a wide range of moral and public policy questions. One of the most provocative questions is, simply put: Are there moral reasons that can be articulated in general secular terms for accepting human nature as we find it? Or, at least in terms of general secular moral restraints, may we reshape human nature better to meet our own interests, as (...)
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  50. Ron Epstein, A Modest Proposal Regarding Genetic Engineering in Mendocino County.
    The new millennium will be ushered in by the biotech century. The earlier we prepare the better. In the short term, we will be affected in these main areas: medical treatment; industrial, agricultural, and forest use; and food. First, let us take a brief look at some problems with the use of genetic engineering in agriculture and in our food. Then I would like to make some simple suggestions about steps we can take to assess the situation here in Mendocino (...)
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