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Summary Genetic ethics is the study of the moral and political implications of (A) discoveries in the field of genetics (B) advances in genetic technology. For example, a study of the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of (A) and (B) was funded as part of the Human Genome Project, started in 1986 and concluded in 2003, whose main goal was to identify all the genes in the human DNA and determine the sequence of all DNA chemical bases of a human being. Genes are units of biological hereditary information, which can be coded by different molecules (sharing similar characteristics), the most stable of which is the DNA. Since the information stored in genes influences the development of a whole organism, it is often regarded as having special importance, thus raising issues of privacy protection or discrimination. It is also apt to be used in controversial ways, e.g. deciding whether a future human person ought to exist or not (such as in selective preimplantation genetic diagnosis or abortion).  
Key works Harris 1992 argues that it is mandatory to use advances in gene therapy to remove vulnerability to infections and pollutants or to radiation damage. It advances an argument that, beside removing the genetic causes of what we regard today as "disability", it is equally mandatory to retard the ageing process, remove predispositions to heart disease, destroy carcinogens and permit human beings to tolerate other environmental pollutants.  Buchanan et al 2000 focuses on justice in the access to human genetic technology, but considers a broad range of themes and arguments: the moral heredity of eugenics, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, constrains and permissions on parental choices of genetic selection, and the disability critique of liberal eugenics. It maintains a position that is liberal, in that it permits individuals a wide range of choices concerning the genetic endowments of their future children, yet constrains it by blocking interventions which would harm the future person (by reducing future options) or society (by causing an unfair distribution of social goods). Fukuyama 2002 regards genetic technology the practice that will radically change human nature with irreversible moral implications. Genetic technology is thus objectionable, in that undermines the natural presuppositions of egalitarian liberalism. Habermas 2003 defends a principled distinction between gene-therapy to cure disease and genetic manipulation allowing parents to select the traits of future children. The latter is seen as incompatible with egalitarian relationships between human beings and their freedom of choice. 
Introductions Buchanan et al manuscript; Brock 2003.
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  2. Francisco J. Ayala (1989). Genetic Mixing. BioScience 39 (1):45-46.
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  3. Eugen Baer (forthcoming). Editing the Text of a Disease: Semiotic and Ethical Aspects of Therapeutic Genetic Engineering. Biosemiotics: The Semiotic Web.
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  4. John H. Benedict & F. W. Plapp (1984). Genetic Toxicology. BioScience 34 (5):329-329.
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  5. P. R. Billings (forthcoming). International Aspects of Genetic Discrimination in Human Genome Research and Society. Proceedings of the Second International Bioethics Seminar.
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  6. Gisela Bockenheimer-Lucius & Matthias Kettner (2000). How Television Conveys Issues of Medical Ethics-Preliminary Inquiries to Reconstruct the Enactment of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. Ethik in der Medizin 12 (3):154-170.
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  7. W. Malcolm Byrnes (2003). The Ecological Imperative and its Application to Ethical Issues in Human Genetic Technology. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 2003:63-65.
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  8. Lucy Carter (2002). The Ethics of Germ Line Gene Manipulation--A Five Dimensional Debate. Monash Bioethics Review 21 (4).
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  9. Wevelsiep Christian (2000). Genetic Advisory-Communication Structure. Ethik in der Medizin 12 (2).
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  10. Celeste Michelle Condit (1999). The Meanings of the Gene: Public Debates About Human Heredity. University of Wisconsin Press.
    The work of scientists and doctors in advancing genetic research and its applications has been accompanied by plenty of discussion in the popular press—from Good Housekeeping and Forbes to Ms. and the Congressional Record—about such ...
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  11. G. Czihak & Th Rassem (1994). Dawn of Human Genetics. Ntm International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology & Medicine 2 (1):175-182.
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  12. Magdalena Fikus (1998). Genetic Revolution—the Reflections of a Biologist. Dialogue and Universalism 8 (9):41.
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  13. John Harris & Louise Irving (2009). Biobanking. In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oup Oxford.
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  14. Vladimir I. Ivanov (forthcoming). Bioethical Aspects of Medical Applications of Human Genome and Gene Therapy Projects in Russia. Bioethics in Asia. The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services.
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  15. Yasuo Kagawa (forthcoming). 8.1. Gene Therapy of Mitochondrial Diseases. Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
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  16. Noa Sophie Kohler (2014). Genes as a Historical Archive: On the Applicability of Genetic Research to Sociohistorical Questions: The Debate on the Origins of Ashkenazi Jewry Revisited. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):105-117.
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  17. Ulrich Kortner (2001). The Challenge of Genetic Engineering to Medical Anthropology and Ethics. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 7 (1):21.
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  19. Chris MacDonald (2002). Commercialisation of Genetic Services: The Role of Genetic Counsellors. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 8 (1):1.
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  20. E. Marin, R. Amils & A. Ruiz Miguel (1993). Ethical, Legal and Medical Implications of the Human Genome Project. A Spanish Perspective. Global Bioethics 6 (2):113-119.
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  21. P. Maurizio, M. K. Gross & H. R. Scholer (1998). Errata-Maurizio P, Gross, MK, Scholer HR. 1998. In Line with Our Ancestors: Oct-4 and the Mammalian Germ. Bioessays 20 (12):1056.
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  22. P. Maurizio, M. K. Gross & H. R. Scholer (1998). In Line with Our Ancestors: Oct-4 and the Mammalian Germ (Vol 20, Pg 722, 1998). Bioessays 20 (12):1056-1056.
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  23. John H. Morgan (1982). Genetic Self-Identification and the Future. Philosophy Today 26 (4):301-311.
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  24. Nanette Newell (1986). Genetic History. BioScience 36 (3):194-196.
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  25. Michael R. Panicola (2002). Three Views on the Preimplantation Embryo. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 2 (1):69-97.
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  26. Vassilis Ragoussis, Ida Ngueng Feze & Yann Joly (2014). Sharing Genetic Information Online: An Exploration of GINA's 2.0 Frontier. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):53-55.
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  27. Troy D. Sadler & Dana L. Zeidler (2005). The Significance of Content Knowledge for Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues: Applying Genetics Knowledge to Genetic Engineering Issues. Science Education 89 (1):71-93.
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  28. Troy D. Sadler & Dana L. Zeidler (2004). The Morality of Socioscientific Issues: Construal and Resolution of Genetic Engineering Dilemmas. Science Education 88 (1):4-27.
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  29. Julian Savulescu, Melanie Hemsley, Ainsley Newson & Bennett Foddy (2006). Behavioural Genetics: Why Eugenic Selection is Preferable to Enhancement. Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):157-171.
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  30. Susumu Shimazono (2010). Reasons Against the Selection of Life: From Japan's Experience of Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis. In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oup Oxford.
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  31. Eliot Slater (1936). Human Genetics and its Social Import. The Eugenics Review 28 (3):225.
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  32. Kaoru Suzumori (forthcoming). F25. The Present State of and Issues Concerning Preimplantation Diagnosis. Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
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  33. P. S. Timiras (2001). Genetic Imaginations: Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Human Genome Research. Edited by Peter Glasner and Harry Rothman. The European Legacy 6 (1):122-122.
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  34. John E. Toll (1988). Will Biotechnology Improve Biological Controls? BioScience 38 (9):588-588.
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  35. D. Turnball (2002). Reflections on Genetic Manipulation and Duties to Posterity: An Engagement with Skene and Coady. Monash Bioethics Review 21 (4):10-31.
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  36. Kelly A. Waples & Clifford S. Stagoll (forthcoming). Ethical Issues in the Release of Animals From Captivity. BioScience.
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  37. Helen Watt (1999). Germ-Line Therapy for Mitochondrial Disease: Some Ethical Objections. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: Cq: The International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees 8 (1):88.
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  38. L. Westra (1991). Perinatal Medicine and Genetic Engineering: Some Ethical Considerations. Global Bioethics 4 (13):39-48.
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  39. Margaret L. While, Jon R. Hendrix & Thomas R. Mertens (1987). Biosocial Goals and Human Genetics: An Impact Study of NSF Workshops. Science Education 71 (2):137-144.
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  40. H. O. Wildenskov (1935). Eugenic Legislation in Denmark. The Eugenics Review 26 (4):281.
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  41. F. J. Wittelshoefer (1942). German Eugenic Legislation in Peace and War. The Eugenics Review 34 (3):91.
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  42. Susan M. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Kahn & John E. Wagner (2003). Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Issues in Using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis to Create a Stem Cell Donor. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31:327-39.
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Eugenics
  1. Mark B. Adams (2009). Eugenics. In Vardit Ravitsky, Autumn Fiester & Arthur L. Caplan (eds.), The Penn Center Guide to Bioethics. Springer Publishing Company. 371.
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  2. Mourant Ae (1964). The Eugenics Society and Social Research. The Eugenics Review 55 (4):207-209.
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  3. Nicholas Agar (2013). Eugenics. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  4. Nicholas Agar (2008). Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement. John Wiley & Sons.
    In this provocative book, philosopher Nicholas Agar defends the idea that parents should be allowed to enhance their children’s characteristics.
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  5. Nicholas Agar, Dan W. Brock, Paul Lauritzen & Bernard G. Prusak (forthcoming). The Debate Over Liberal Eugenics. Hastings Center Report.
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  6. Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) (2010). Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. The University of Chicago Press.
    An accessible survey, this collection will enlighten historians of science, their students, practicing scientists, and anyone interested in the relationship ...
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  7. F. J. Allaun (1933). Eugenics and Capitalism. The Eugenics Review 24 (4):345.
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  8. F. J. Allaun (1932). Eugenics and Socialism. The Eugenics Review 24 (1):73.
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