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Summary Genetic ethics is the study of the moral and political implications of (A) discoveries in the field of genetics (B) advances in genetic technology. For example, a study of the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of (A) and (B) was funded as part of the Human Genome Project, started in 1986 and concluded in 2003, whose main goal was to identify all the genes in the human DNA and determine the sequence of all DNA chemical bases of a human being. Genes are units of biological hereditary information, which can be coded by different molecules (sharing similar characteristics), the most stable of which is the DNA. Since the information stored in genes influences the development of a whole organism, it is often regarded as having special importance, thus raising issues of privacy protection or discrimination. It is also apt to be used in controversial ways, e.g. deciding whether a future human person ought to exist or not (such as in selective preimplantation genetic diagnosis or abortion).  
Key works Harris 1992 argues that it is mandatory to use advances in gene therapy to remove vulnerability to infections and pollutants or to radiation damage. It advances an argument that, beside removing the genetic causes of what we regard today as "disability", it is equally mandatory to retard the ageing process, remove predispositions to heart disease, destroy carcinogens and permit human beings to tolerate other environmental pollutants.  Buchanan et al 2000 focuses on justice in the access to human genetic technology, but considers a broad range of themes and arguments: the moral heredity of eugenics, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, constrains and permissions on parental choices of genetic selection, and the disability critique of liberal eugenics. It maintains a position that is liberal, in that it permits individuals a wide range of choices concerning the genetic endowments of their future children, yet constrains it by blocking interventions which would harm the future person (by reducing future options) or society (by causing an unfair distribution of social goods). Fukuyama 2002 regards genetic technology the practice that will radically change human nature with irreversible moral implications. Genetic technology is thus objectionable, in that undermines the natural presuppositions of egalitarian liberalism. Habermas 2003 defends a principled distinction between gene-therapy to cure disease and genetic manipulation allowing parents to select the traits of future children. The latter is seen as incompatible with egalitarian relationships between human beings and their freedom of choice. 
Introductions Buchanan et al manuscript; Brock 2003.
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  1. Joseph S. Alper (2002). The Double-Edged Helix Social Implications of Genetics in a Diverse Society. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  2. E. M. Armstrong (2002). Book Review: Playing God: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate by John H. Evans. [REVIEW] Princeton Journal of Bioethics 5:105-110.
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  3. Michael Arribas-Ayllon (2010). Beyond Pessimism: The Dialectic of Promise and Complexity in Genomic Research. Genomics, Society and Policy 6:1-12.
    How should we reflect upon the last 10 years since the completion of the human genome? One dominant response from within the humanities and the social sciences is to cast these events within a dialectic of promise and disappointment. Indeed, this contrast would seem to hold if we take Clinton’s historic announcement as our point of departure. I choose an alternative departure: not in the rhetoric of press releases but from scientists’ ambivalent accounts of complexity. Perhaps a dialectic of promise (...)
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  4. British Medical Association (1992). Our Genetic Future the Science and Ethics of Genetic Technology. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  5. Francisco J. Ayala (1989). Genetic Mixing. BioScience 39 (1):45-46.
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  6. Eugen Baer (forthcoming). Editing the Text of a Disease: Semiotic and Ethical Aspects of Therapeutic Genetic Engineering. Biosemiotics: The Semiotic Web.
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  7. John Jacob Baumann (1999). The Ethics of Human Genetic Enhancement: Extending the Public Policy Debate. Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University
    Mammalian one-cell embryos can be genetically altered, implanted into the female's uterus, and subsequently develop into biologically mature organisms in the usual manner. If the resultant adult organisms reproduce, the genetic change may be passed on to future generations. In humans, the procedure is known alternatively as "human genetic engineering" or "human germline gene therapy." Bioethicists distinguish between genetic engineering intended for the prevention or treatment of disease and genetic engineering intended for non-medical enhancement of certain characteristics . Human genetic (...)
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  8. John H. Benedict & F. W. Plapp (1984). Genetic Toxicology. BioScience 34 (5):329-329.
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  9. Roberta Marie Berry (2004). Re-Creating Adam: A Philosophical Investigation of the Genetic Engineering of Human Beings. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    It now seems possible, if not likely, that germ-line genetic engineering of human beings will become technologically possible at some time in the twenty-first century, raising a host of ethical and policy questions. This dissertation examines in some detail the capacity of each of three prominent approaches to philosophical ethics---utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics---to provide guidance in individual ethical decision making and policymaking regarding genetic engineering. The author concludes that utilitarianism fails in its own project to vindicate universal benevolence and (...)
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  10. P. R. Billings (forthcoming). International Aspects of Genetic Discrimination in Human Genome Research and Society. Proceedings of the Second International Bioethics Seminar.
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  11. Charles Birch & Paul Abrecht (1975). Genetics and the Quality of Life [Papers of a Symposium].
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  12. Gisela Bockenheimer-Lucius & Matthias Kettner (2000). How Television Conveys Issues of Medical Ethics-Preliminary Inquiries to Reconstruct the Enactment of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. Ethik in der Medizin 12 (3):154-170.
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  13. John F. Brehany (2003). Germ Line Genetic Engineering: An Analysis of Principled Argumentation in Light of a Critical Theology of the Body. Dissertation, Saint Louis University
    This dissertation evaluates the ethical challenges posed by the prospect of human germ line gene transfer . It argues that GLGT presents a new, unprecedented and complex ethical challenge. While GLGT has not yet been attempted with human beings, it has the potential not only to introduce changes into human nature that are radical and different, but also to substantially affect attitudes about human dignity and human rights. This dissertation focuses on the principled ethical arguments and the frameworks, both rational (...)
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  14. W. Malcolm Byrnes (2003). The Ecological Imperative and its Application to Ethical Issues in Human Genetic Technology. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 2003:63-65.
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  15. C. O. Carter (1973). Nature and Distribution of Genetic Abnormalities. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (2):261.
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  16. Lucy Carter (2002). The Ethics of Germ Line Gene Manipulation--A Five Dimensional Debate. Monash Bioethics Review 21 (4).
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  17. Wevelsiep Christian (2000). Genetic Advisory-Communication Structure. Ethik in der Medizin 12 (2).
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  18. Catholic Church (1996). Genetic Intervention on Human Subjects. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  19. Bernice H. Cohen, Abraham M. Lilienfeld & P. C. Huang (1978). Genetic Issues in Public Health and Medicine.
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  20. Celeste Michelle Condit (1999). The Meanings of the Gene: Public Debates About Human Heredity. University of Wisconsin Press.
    The work of scientists and doctors in advancing genetic research and its applications has been accompanied by plenty of discussion in the popular press—from Good Housekeeping and Forbes to Ms. and the Congressional Record—about such ...
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  21. Marilyn Elizabeth Coors (1998). The Ethical Boundary of Human Germ-Line Alteration: Who Will We Become If We Cannot "Draw the Lines?". Dissertation, The Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver
    The successful demonstration of the alteration of germline cells in mouse has prompted an appeal from ethicists, theologians, scientists, and non-professionals to reflect upon this novel technology and its unforseen consequences for future human beings. We regularly make decisions or take action which affect future generations: have children, use pesticides, pollute our environment, or explode an atomic bomb. However, biogenetic technology is seen as a qualitative departure from the former parameters of human action in that its effects upon the human (...)
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  22. G. Czihak & Th Rassem (1994). Dawn of Human Genetics. Ntm International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology & Medicine 2 (1):175-182.
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  23. Scott Eugene Daniels (1990). Justifying Human Gene Therapy: An Assessment of Some of the Central Ethical Considerations Underlying the Application of Genetic Knowledge to Human Subjects From the Perspective of the Traditional Conscience. Dissertation, The University of Tennessee
    The argument of this dissertation regards the moral limitation on advancing biomedical knowledge in human genetics. The author discusses three general ethical schemes that contribute to the manner in which moral restriction develop. The central issue in the ethics of applying genetic knowledge is how to reconcile the apparent conflict between scientific explanations of human nature and human subjectivity, and to do so in a way that provides effective moral limits that protect human beings, as well as offer guidance to (...)
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  24. Arthur Ernest Davies (1910). Library of Genetic Science and Philosophy. Vol. I: The Moral Life. A Study in Genetic Ethics. Philosophical Review 19 (4):450-452.
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  25. Peter Doherty & Agneta Sutton (1997). Man-Made Man Ethical and Legal Issues in Genetics.
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  26. Pino Donghi (2002). La Nuova Odissea. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  27. Edward M. East & Donald F. Jones (1920). Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Their Genetic and Sociological Significance. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 17 (14):388-390.
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  28. Alan E. H. Emery (1980). Human Genetics: Possibilities and Realities. Journal of Biosocial Science 12 (2):243.
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  29. Alan E. H. Emery (1973). Textbook of Human Genetics. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (1):137.
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  30. Phd Eric Juengst (1999). Genetic Enhancement: A Conceptual and Ethical Challenge for Gene Therapy Regulation. Lahey Clinic Medical Ethics Journal 1:1-2.
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  31. John Hyde Evans (1998). Playing God? Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Bioethics, 1959-1995. Dissertation, Princeton University
    At the beginning of this century Max Weber concluded that institutions in Western societies were being transformed from substantively rational to formally rational. Many scholars following Weber have expanded his insights into other spheres, with some noting that even our collective values were becoming subject to formal rationality. How this process actually occurs has remained unexamined. In this dissertation I examine the transformation from 1959-1995 in the form of rationality employed in the ethical debate about whether or not we should (...)
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  32. Magdalena Fikus (1998). Genetic Revolution—the Reflections of a Biologist. Dialogue and Universalism 8 (9):41.
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  33. Kevin Timothy Fitzgerald (2000). Ethical Analysis of Human Genetic Interventions: A Response From Karl Rahner to the Need for Integrating Philosophical Anthropologies and Current Scientific Knowledge. Dissertation, Georgetown University
    Genetic technology offers an opportunity to modify human genes in order to combat genetic disease. However, if it is possible to alter the human genome in an attempt to improve health, it will also be possible to alter the human genome in an attempt to effect a fundamental change in human nature. These possibilities raise obvious and profound ethical questions. ;These ethical questions raise the further issue of what it means to be a human being. Hence, an analysis of the (...)
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  34. Lisa Anne Gannett (1998). Genetic Variation: Difference, Deviation, or Deviance? Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    The dissertation focuses on scientific understandings of genetic variation in view of the Human Genome Project's aim to map the estimated 50,000 to 100,000 genes and to sequence the approximately three billion nucleotides of the haploid human nuclear genome by the year 2005. There is legitimate concern that the "presumably representative" composite DNA reference sequence that is produced may institute a standard of genetic normality that treats departures from the sequence as at least potentially pathological and fails to appreciate the (...)
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  35. John B. Gibson (1973). Social Mobility and the Genetic Structure of Populations. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (2):251.
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  36. Peter E. Glasner & Bristol Economic and Social Research Council Britain) (2001). Esrc Seminar New Genetics in Society : Final Report to the Esrc.
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  37. Martin Gunderson (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Consent of Future Persons. Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):86-93.
    The debate over whether germ-line genetic engineering is justified on the basis of the consent or presumed consent of future generations is mired in philosophical confusion. Because of this, the principle of informed consent fails to provide a reason to restrict germ-line genetic engineering. Most recent bioethicists ground the consent requirement on individual autonomy. While conceptually coherent, the notion of individual autonomy also fails to provide a reason for prohibiting germ-line genetic engineering. Moreover, it offers little in the way of (...)
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  38. John Harris & Louise Irving (2009). Biobanking. In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. OUP Oxford
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  39. David Jayne Hill (1894). Genetic Philosophy. Philosophical Review 3 (1):81-85.
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  40. Stefan HjÖrleifsson, Roger Strand & Edvin Schei (2005). Health as a Genetic Planning Project: Enthusiasm and Second Thoughts Among Biomedical Researchers and Their Research Subjects. Genomics, Society and Policy 1:52-65.
    This paper presents an interview study among scientists working with Decode genetics in Iceland and lay individuals having recently donated blood to Decode. While genuinely enthusiastic that genetic technologies hold great potential to avert disease, the informants shared concerns that extensive predictive genetic testing, preventive treatment and tailoring of lifestyle to avoid potential disease may cause loss of freedom – people can “worry themselves sick”. Undiscriminating use of genetic technologies in privileged populations was seen as a potential source of injustice (...)
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  41. Richard Hull (1997). "Genetic Carrier Status And The Contextual Reality Of Genetic Disease; A Contribution To Uram Genome Studies": Texas Council for the Humanities and University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA. Ultimate Reality and Meaning 20 (4).
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  42. Vladimir I. Ivanov (forthcoming). Bioethical Aspects of Medical Applications of Human Genome and Gene Therapy Projects in Russia. Bioethics in Asia. The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services.
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  43. William Michael Joensen (2002). Genetic Enhancement and the Ends of Medicine and Human Life. Dissertation, The Catholic University of America
    Human gene modification is proposed for two reasons: to treat diseases and for "genetic enhancement." The success of the Human Genome Project has encouraged speculation that we might pursue nontherapeutic gene enhancements for our children and ourselves. ;While the dissertation examines the ethical arguments for and against genetic enhancement, its major purpose is to evaluate various philosophical anthropologies that accompany the development of genetic technologies and science. Chapter 1 surveys some basic methods and trends in genetic research. Chapter 2 addresses (...)
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  44. Maureen Junker-Kenny (1999). Designing Life? Genetics, Procreation and Ethics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  45. Yasuo Kagawa (forthcoming). 8.1. Gene Therapy of Mitochondrial Diseases. Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
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  46. Eleni Kalokairinou (2009). Enhancing and Genetic Technologies: The Central Role of Health. Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 20.
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  47. Jane Kaye, Paula Boddington, Jantina de Vries, Naomi Hawkins & Karen Melham, Ethical Implications of the Use of Whole Genome Methods in Medical Research.
    The use of genome-wide association studies in medical research and the increased ability to share data give a new twist to some of the perennial ethical issues associated with genomic research. GWAS create particular challenges because they produce fine, detailed, genotype information at high resolution, and the results of more focused studies can potentially be used to determine genetic variation for a wide range of conditions and traits. The information from a GWA scan is derived from DNA that is a (...)
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  48. Ken Knisely, Peter Keating & Rhoda Perozzi (forthcoming). Genetic Engineering: No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed. DVD.
    What are the ethical implications of our use of new methods and tools for reading and recoding our genetic information? What is the state of our knowledge of the human genome, including the connection between certain genes and diseases? What are some possible moral guidelines for fiddling around with the immense genetic archive within each of us? Do we - as individuals and as a species - have the right to do so? With Peter Keating and Rhoda Perozzi.
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  49. Ken Knisely & Rhoda Perozzi (2002). Genetic Engineering: Dvd. Milk Bottle Productions.
    What are the ethical implications of our use of new methods and tools for reading and recoding our genetic information? What is the state of our knowledge of the human genome, including the connection between certain genes and diseases? What are some possible moral guidelines for fiddling around with the immense genetic archive within each of us? Do we - as individuals and as a species - have the right to do so? With Peter Keating and Rhoda Perozzi.
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  50. Noa Sophie Kohler (2014). Genes as a Historical Archive: On the Applicability of Genetic Research to Sociohistorical Questions: The Debate on the Origins of Ashkenazi Jewry Revisited. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):105-117.
    Researching patterns of genetic diversity has become a method for geneticists to attempt to tell the story of human populations over time: their demographic history, the distance or scope of relatedness between ethnic groups or sub-groups. Lately, accounts of genetic studies aimed at shedding light on questions of history have been widely successful with the lay public. Invariably though, the original studies were, first and foremost, academic and technical papers in natural sciences. At first glance, applying genetic tools to find (...)
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