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  1. Mohammed Abed (2006). Clarifying the Concept of Genocide. Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):308–330.
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  2. Debra B. Bergoffen (2003). February 22, 2001: Toward a Politics of the Vulnerable Body. Hypatia 18 (1):116-134.
    : On February 22, 2001, three Bosnian Serb soldiers were found guilty of crimes against humanity. Their offense? Rape. This is the first time that rape has been prosecuted and condemned as a crime against humanity. Appealing to Jacques Derrida's democracy of the perhaps and Judith Butler's politics of performative contradiction, I see this judgment inaugurating a politics of the vulnerable body which challenges current understandings of evil, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
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  3. Lawrence Blum * (2004). The Poles, the Jews and the Holocaust: Reflections on an AME Trip to Auschwitz. Journal of Moral Education 33 (2):131-148.
    Two trips to Auschwitz (in 1989 and 2003) provide a context for reflection on fundamental issues in civic and moral education. Custodians of the Auschwitz historical site are currently aware of its responsibility to humanity to educate about the genocide against the Jews, as a morally distinct element in its presentation of Nazi crimes at Auschwitz. Prior to the fall of Communism in 1989, the site's message was dominated by a misleading civic narrative about Polish victimization by, and resistance to, (...)
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  4. William C. Bradford (2006). Acknowledging and Rectifying the Genocide of American Indians: "Why is It That They Carry Their Lives on Their Fingernails?". Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):515–543.
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  5. William Brennan (1980). Medical Holocausts. Nordland Pub. International.
    v. 1. Exterminative medicine in Nazi Germany and contemporary America -- v. 2. The language of exterminative medicine in Nazi Germany and contemporary America.
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  6. Claudia Card (2010). Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Part I. The Concept of Evil: 1. Inexcusable wrongs; 2. Between good and evil; 3. Complicity in structural evils; 4. To whom (or to what?) can evils be done?; Part II. Terrorism, Torture, Genocide: 5. Counterterrorism; 6. Low-profile terrorism; 7. Conscientious torture?; 8. Ordinary torture; 9. Genocide is social death; 10. Genocide by forced impregnation; Bibliography; Filmography; Websites; Index.
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  7. Claudia Card (2003). Genocide and Social Death. Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    : Social death, central to the evil of genocide (whether the genocide is homicidal or primarily cultural), distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  8. Claudia Card (2002). The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. Oxford University Press.
    What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible (...)
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  9. Alisa L. Carse & Lynne Tirrell (2010). Forgiving Grave Wrongs. In Christopher Allers & Marieke Smit (eds.), Forgiveness In Perspective. Rodopi Press.
    We introduce what we call the Emergent Model of forgiving, which is a process-based relational model conceptualizing forgiving as moral and normative repair in the wake of grave wrongs. In cases of grave wrongs, which shatter the victim’s life, the Classical Model of transactional forgiveness falls short of illuminating how genuine forgiveness can be achieved. In a climate of persistent threat and distrust, expressions of remorse, rituals and gestures of apology, and acts of reparation are unable to secure the moral (...)
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  10. Sonali Chakravarti (2008). More Than "Cheap Sentimentality": Victim Testimony at Nuremberg, the Eichmann Trial, and Truth Commissions. Constellations 15 (2):223-235.
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  11. Ann E. Cudd (2008). Rape and Enforced Pregnancy as Femicide: Comments on Claudia Card's “The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy”. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):190-199.
  12. Victoria Davion (2009). Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil. Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  13. Andrew Gordon Fiala (2005). Get 'Em All! Kill 'Em! Genocide, Terrorism, Righteous Communities (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 19 (4):262-265.
  14. Andrew Gordon Fiala (2005). Get 'Em All! Kill 'Em! Genocide, Terrorism, Righteous Communities (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 19 (4):262-265.
  15. Michael Freeman (1991). Speaking About the Unspeakable: Genocide and Philosophy. Journal of Applied Philosophy 8 (1):3-18.
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  16. R. Z. Friedman (1992). Act and Idea in the Nazi Genocide Berel Lang Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1990, Xxii + 258 P. Dialogue 31 (01):171-.
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  17. Jennifer L. Geddes (2003). Banal Evil and Useless Knowledge: Hannah Arendt and Charlotte Delbo on Evil After the Holocaust. Hypatia 18 (1):104-115.
    : Hannah Arendt's and Charlotte Delbo's writings about the Holocaust trouble our preconceptions about those who do evil and those who suffer evil. Their jarring terms "banal evil" and "useless knowledge" point to limitations and temptations facing scholars of evil. While Arendt helps us to resist the temptation to mythologize evil, Delbo helps us to resist the temptation to domesticate suffering.
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  18. Hannes Gerhardt (2011). Giorgio Agamben's Lessons and Limitations in Confronting the Problem of Genocide. Journal of Global Ethics 7 (1):5 - 17.
    In this paper, I work through the possible contours of an anti-genocide based on a framework informed by the work of Giorgio Agamben. Such a framework posits the inherent need to circumvent sovereign power within any form of normative activism. To begin, I show how the nascent anti-genocide movement promotes an ideal in which ?Western? states, particularly the USA, accept the global responsibility to protect persecuted life beyond national boundaries. Using Agamben, I argue that this vision also entails an acceptance (...)
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  19. Ilan Gur‐Ze'ev (1998). The Morality of Acknowledging/Not‐Acknowledging the Other's Holocaust/Genocide. Journal of Moral Education 27 (2):161-177.
    Abstract The issue of producing and controlling the memories of the Holocaust is evaluated in this paper as a valid universal example of the struggle over self?identity and the recognition of ?the other? as a moral subject. The normal realisation of morality is presented as part of the denial of the other's identity, knowledge and value. The dialectics of the memories of the Holocaust and the possibility of a non?violent moral education is examined by questioning its treatment of the suffering (...)
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  20. Naomi Head (2011). Bringing Reflective Judgement Into International Relations: Exploring the Rwandan Genocide. Journal of Global Ethics 6 (2):191-204.
    This article explores the role of reflective judgement in international relations through the lens of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. It argues that Hannah Arendt's writings on reflective judgement, and the dual perspectives of actor and spectator she articulates, offer us a set of conceptual tools with which to examine the failure of the international community to respond to the genocide as well as more broadly to understand the moral dilemmas posed by such crimes against humanity. Having identified elements which (...)
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  21. Maureen S. Hiebert (2006). The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century - by Manus I. Midlarsky. Ethics and International Affairs 20 (4):533–534.
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  22. Sarah Lucia Hoagland (2007). Review Essay: Undivided Rights: Women of Color Organize for Reproductive Justice, Edited by Jael Silliman, Marlene Gerber Fried, Loretta Ross, and Elena R. Guti�Rrez; Policing the National Body: Race, Gender and Criminalization, Edited by Jael Silliman and Anannya Bhattacharjee; and Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide, by Andrea Smith. Hypatia 22 (2):182-188.
  23. Michael H. Hoffheimer (2001). Hegel, Race, Genocide. Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (S1):35-62.
  24. Aleksandar Jokic (2007). Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide - Edited by John K. Roth. Philosophical Books 48 (1):94-96.
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  25. Emmanuel M. Katongole (2005). Christianity, Tribalism, and the Rwandan Genocide. Logos 8 (3).
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  26. B. Kiernan (2004). The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC. Diogenes 51 (3):27-39.
    Some features of the ideology motivating the Roman destruction of Carthage in 146 BC have surprisingly modern echoes in 20th-century genocides. Racial, religious or cultural prejudices, gender and other social hierarchies, territorial expansionism, and an idealization of cultivation all characterize the thinking of Cato the Censor, like that of more recent perpetrators. The tragedy of Carthage, its details lost with most of the works of Livy and other ancient authors, and concealed behind allegory in Virgil’s Aeneid, became known to early (...)
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  27. Ben Kiernan (2003). Le Premier Génocide : Carthage, 146 A.C. Diogène 203 (3):32-.
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  28. William Korey (1997). The United States and the Genocide Convention: Leading Advocate and Leading Obstacle. Ethics and International Affairs 11 (1):271–290.
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  29. Karen Kovach (2006). Genocide and the Moral Agency of Ethnic Groups. Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):331–352.
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  30. Anthony F. Lang Jr (2002). Global Governance and Genocide in Rwanda. Ethics and International Affairs 16 (1):143–150.
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  31. Anthony F. Lang (2002). Global Governance and Genocide in Rwanda. Ethics International Affairs 16 (1):143-150.
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  32. Steven P. Lee (2010). The Moral Distinctiveness of Genocide. Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (3):335-356.
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  33. Steven P. Lee (2010). Humanitarian Intervention - Eight Theories. Diametros 23:22-43.
    Much has been written about the ethics of humanitarian intervention in the past fifteen years. In this paper I discuss a variety of justifications that have been proposed (in fact, seven theories of justification), finding difficulties with each of them, and then I offer a theory of justification of my own. My approach to justification will differ from most of the earlier accounts in two ways. First, I begin the discussion of justification at a different point. Second, I seek to (...)
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  34. Chiara Lepora & Robert E. Goodin (2011). Grading Complicity in Rwandan Refugee Camps. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (3):259-276.
    Complicity with wrongdoing comes in many forms and many degrees. We distinguish subcategories cooperation, collaboration and collusion from connivance and condoning, identifying their defining features and assessing their characteristic moral valences. We illustrate the use of these distinctions by reference to events in refugee camps in and around Rwanda after the 1994 genocide, and the extent to which international organizations and nongovernment organizations were wrongfully complicit with the misuse of refugees as human shields by the perpetrators of the genocide who (...)
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  35. Alice MacLachlan (2010). The State of 'Sorry': Official Apologies and Their Absence. [REVIEW] Journal of Human Rights 9 (3):373-385.
  36. Alice MacLachlan & C. Allen Speight (eds.) (2013). Justice, Responsibility, and Reconciliation in the Wake of Conflict. Springer.
    What are the moral obligations of participants and bystanders during—and in the wake of –a conflict? How have theoretical understandings of justice, peace and responsibility changed in the face of contemporary realities of war? Drawing on the work of leading scholars in the fields of philosophy, political theory, international law, religious studies and peace studies, the collection significantly advances current literature on war, justice and post-conflict reconciliation. Contributors address some of the most pressing issues of international and civil conflict, including (...)
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  37. Christopher Macleod, An Alternative Approach to the Harm of Genocide.
    It is a widely shared belief that genocide – the ‘crime of crimes’– is more morally significant than ‘mere’ large-scale mass murder. Various attempts have been made to capture that separate evil of genocide: some have attempted to locate it in damage done to individuals, while others have focused upon the harm done to collectives. In this article, I offer a third, neglected, option. Genocide damages humankind: it is here that the difference is to be found. I show that this (...)
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  38. Larry May (2010). Complicity and the Rwandan Genocide. Res Publica 16 (2):135-152.
    The Rwandan genocide of 1994 occurred due to widespread complicity. I will argue that complicity can be the basis for legal liability, even for criminal liability, if two conditions are met. First, the person’s actions or inactions must be causally efficacious at least in the sense that had the person not committed these actions or inactions the harm would have been made significantly less likely to occur. Second, the person must know that her actions or inactions risk contributing to a (...)
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  39. Larry May (2010). Identifying Groups in Genocide Cases. In Larry May & Zachary Hoskins (eds.), International Criminal Law and Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
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  40. Michael McGhee (2007). Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide – Edited by John K. Roth. Philosophical Investigations 30 (4):393–397.
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  41. Seumas Miller (1998). Collective Responsibility, Armed Intervention and the Rwandan Genocide. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (2):223-238.
    In this paper I explore the notion of collective moral responsibility as it pertains both to nation-states contemplating humanitarian armed intervention in international social conflicts, and as it pertains to social groups perpetrating human rights violations in such conflicts. I take the Rwandan genocide as illustrative of such conflicts and make use of it accordingly. I offer an individualist account of collective moral responsibility, according to which collective moral responsibility is a species of joint responsibility.
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  42. Kristen Renwick Monroe (1995). Review Essay: The Psychology of Genocide. Ethics and International Affairs 9 (1):215–239.
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  43. Colleen Murphy (2007). Political Reconciliation, the Rule of Law, and Genocide. The European Legacy 12 (7):853-865.
    Political reconciliation involves the repairing of damaged political relationships. This paper considers the possibility and moral justifiability of pursuing political reconciliation in the aftermath of systematic and egregious wrongdoing, in particular genocide. The first two sections discuss what political reconciliation specifically requires. I argue that it neither entails nor necessitates forgiveness. Rather, I claim, political reconciliation should be conceptualized as the (re-)establishment of Fullerian mutual respect for the rule of law. When a society governs by law, publicly declared legal rules (...)
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  44. Natalie Nenadic (2010). Feminist Philosophical Intervention in Genocide. In James R. Watson (ed.), Metacide: In the Pursuit of Excellence. Rodopi.
  45. Lisa M. Poupart (2003). The Familiar Face of Genocide: Internalized Oppression Among American Indians. Hypatia 18 (2):86-100.
    : Virtually nonexistent in traditional American Indian communities, today American Indian women and children experience family violence at rates similar to those of the dominant culture. This article explores violence within American Indian communities as an expression of internalized oppression and as an extension of Euro-American violence against American Indian nations.
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  46. Paul Prescott (2014). Unthinkable ≠ Unknowable: On Charlotte Delbo's 'II Faut Donner À Voir'. Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):457-468.
    This is my sister here, with some unidentifiable friend and many other people. They are all listening to me and it is this very story [the story of Auschwitz] that I am telling … [I] speak diffusely of our hunger and of the lice-control, and of the Kapo who hit me on the nose and then sent me to wash myself as I was bleeding. It is an intense pleasure, physical, inexpressible, to be at home, among friendly people and to (...)
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  47. Philip L. Quinn (2003). Review of Claudia Card, The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (10).
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  48. John Roth (2010). Easy to Remember?: Genocide and the Philosophy of Religion. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1):31-42.
    Philosophers of religion have written a great deal about the problem of evil. Their reflections, however, have not concentrated, at least not extensively or sufficiently, on the particularities of evil that manifest themselves in genocide. Concentrating on some of those particularities, this essay reflects on genocide, which has sometimes been called the crime of crimes, to raise questions such as: how should genocide affect the philosophy of religion and what might philosophers of religion contribute to help check that crime against (...)
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  49. John K. Roth (2008). Review of Claudia Card, Armen T. Marsoobian (Eds.), Genocide's Aftermath: Responsibility and Repair. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (9).
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  50. John K. Roth (ed.) (2005). Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Genocide is evil or nothing could be. It raises a host of questions about humanity, rights, justice, and reality, which are key areas of concern for philosophy. Strangely, however, philosophers have tended to ignore genocide. Even more problematic, philosophy and philosophers bear more responsibility for genocide than they have usually admitted. In Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide, an international group of twenty-five contemporary philosophers work to correct those deficiencies by showing how philosophy can and should repsond to genocide, (...)
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