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Summary George Berkeley (1685-1753) was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and bishop. He is best known for his immaterialism (denial of the existence of material substances) and anti-abstractionism (denial of abstract ideas). Berkeley is traditionally listed as one of the three British Empiricists, along with Locke and Hume.
Key works Berkeley's most widely-read works are his Treatise on the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous (1713). An earlier work, An Essay Toward a New Theory of Vision (1709) has also been quite influential in both philosophical and psychological theorizing about sensory perception. The standard scholarly edition of Berkeley's works is Luce & Jessop 1948-1957. Influential book-length expositions of Berkeley's philosophy include Winkler 1989 and Pappas 2000. Atherton 1990 provides an account of Berkeley's theory of vision. Important collections of essays on Berkeley include Turbayne 1982, Sosa 1987, and Daniel 2007.
Introductions A variety of student editions of the Principles and Dialogues are available. The only collection of Berkeley's philosophical works currently in print is Clarke 2008. Encyclopedia articles on Berkeley's philosophy include Downing 2008 and Flage 2004. An account of Berkeley's life with emphasis on the development of his philosophical views can be found in Berman 1994. Winkler 2005 is a collection of essays on a variety of aspects of Berkeley's philosophy accessible to non-specialists. Stoneham 2002 provides an introduction to various issues in the Three Dialogues suitable for students as well as scholars.
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  1. Joseph William Browne (1972). Berkeley and Scholasticism. Modern Schoolman 49 (2):113-123.
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  2. Andrea Cachel (2010). Crença no mundo exterior: um diálogo entre Hume e Berkeley. Princípios 14 (21):125-146.
    No Tratado, Hume procura investigar as causas da crença nos objetos exteriores, admitindo ser impossível provar se os mesmos existem ou náo. Sua análise consistirá na investigaçáo da origem da inteligibilidade das noções de continuidade e distinçáo dos objetos sensíveis, em última instância, a crença do senso comum na continuidade e distinçáo das próprias percepções. Este texto pretende mostrar como essa discussáo humeana é um diálogo direto com a filosofia berkeleyana, a defesa humeana da crença na matéria implicando inicialmente uma (...)
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  3. Sébastien Charles (2008). Berkeley and the Lumières : Misconception and Reconstruction. In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), New Interpretations of Berkeley's Thought. Humanity Books.
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  4. Gabe Eisenstein (1988). Berkeley's Presence. Idealistic Studies 18 (3):207-229.
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  5. Roger Gallie & Stephen Priest (1991). The British Empiricists. Philosophical Quarterly 41 (163):260.
    The Empiricists represent the central tradition in British philosophy as well as some of the most important and influential thinkers in human history. Their ideas paved the way for modern thought from politics to science, ethics to religion. The British Empiricists is a wonderfully clear and concise introduction to the lives, careers and views of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Mill, Russell, and Ayer. Stephen Priest examines each philosopher and their views on a wide range of topics including mind and matter, (...)
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  6. Ralf Goeres (2007). Putnam Versus Berkeley? Facta Philosophica 9 (1):177-202.
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  7. Adam Grzeliński (2010). Człowiek I Duch Nieskończony: Immaterializm George'a Berkeleya. Wydawn. Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika.
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  8. Andrew Janiak (2009). Review: Garber & Longuenesse (Eds.), Kant and the Early Moderns. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (2).
  9. Michael P. Levine (1993). Berkeley: How to Make a Mistake. Philosophia 22 (1-2):29-39.
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  10. Michael P. Levine (1992). Robinson on Berkeley. Idealistic Studies 22 (2):163-178.
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  11. Andrzej Lubomirski (1982). Problem Locke'a-Berkeleya, Kant, Poincare i mate­matyczna zasada indukcji. Archiwum Historii Filozofii I Myśli Społecznej 28.
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  12. Bruno Marciano (2011). Fra Empirismo E Platonismo: L'Estetica di Berkeley E Il Suo Contesto Filosofico. De Ferrari.
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  13. Bruno Marciano (2010). George Berkeley: Estetica E Idealismo. Nova Scripta.
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  14. David Sobrevilla (2013). El idealismo de Berkeley. Areté. Revista de Filosofía 7 (2):331-352.
    En esta conferencia se examina en qué consiste el idealismo de Berkeley. Para ello se sigue el mismo camino propuesto por G .J. Warnock: se indaga contra qué se opone Berkeley, el materialismo, y cómo lo entiende, y por qué está en contra del mismo. A continuación se reexamina el idealismo berkeleyano, y en la consideración final se juzgan sus virtudes y defectos: algunas de las críticas fundadas que se le han formulado y la visión de la ciencia que se (...)
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  15. Gideon Spicker (1874/2006). Über Das Verhältnis der Naturwissenschaft Zur Philosophie: Kant, Hume Und Berkeley: Eine Kritik der Erkenntnistheorie. G. Olms.
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Berkeley: Epistemology
  1. I. T. Ramsay (1966). Berkeley and the Possibility of an Empirical Metaphysics. In Warren E. Steinkraus (ed.), New Studies in Berkeley's Philosophy. University Press of America.
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Berkeley: Skepticism
  1. Timo Airaksinen (1987). Berkeley and the Justification of Beliefs. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (2):235-256.
    This paper analyzes berkeley's philosophy in the light of modern epistemology and philosophy of mind. It is shown that our knowledge of spatio-Temporal bodies cannot be certain. Certainty is restricted to the realm of sensory ideas themselves. But there is hardly any reason to be interested in ideas as such. Berkeley is a common sense thinker who wants to know the world and its scientific laws. Bodies are constructed on the basis of both real and imaginary ideas. This topic is (...)
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  2. Jeffrey Barnouw (2008). The Two Motives Behind Berkeley's Expressly Unmotivated Signs : Sure Perception and Personal Providence. In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), New Interpretations of Berkeley's Thought. Humanity Books.
  3. S. Seth Bordner (2011). Berkeley's "Defense" of "Commonsense". Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (3):315-338.
    Berkeley scholars can hardly resist dealing with the question of how his philosophical system relates to commonsense. It is an irresistible question because it first appears to have a sensational answer. On the one hand, Berkeley claims to "side in all things with the Mob," and on the other, his denial of the existence of matter seems as contrary to commonsense as any philosophical view can be. The articles, chapters, books and conference papers on this one aspect of Berkeley's philosophy (...)
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  4. George Botterill (2007). God and First Person in Berkeley. Philosophy 82 (1):87-114.
    Berkeley claims idealism provides a novel argument for the existence of God. But familiar interpretations of his argument fail to support the conclusion that there is a single omnipotent spirit. A satisfying reconstruction should explain the way Berkeley moves between first person singular and plural, as well as providing a powerful argument, once idealism is accepted. The new interpretation offered here represents the argument as an inference to the best explanation of a shared reality. Consequently, his use of the first (...)
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  5. Harry M. Bracken (2004). Berkeley and Skepticism : Berkeley's Diagnosis of Skepticism, and His Proposed Cure. In Maia Neto, José Raimundo & Richard H. Popkin (eds.), Skepticism in Renaissance and Post-Renaissance Thought: New Interpretations. Humanity Books.
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  6. Anthony Brueckner (2011). Idealism and Scepticism. Theoria 77 (4):368-371.
    It is argued that contrary to appearances, Berkeleyan Idealism lacks anti-sceptical force. The problem stems from the way in which the idealist draws the appearance/reality distinction.
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  7. M. F. Burnyeat (1982). Idealism and Greek Philosophy: What Descartes Saw and Berkeley Missed. Philosophical Review 91 (1):3-40.
  8. Eric Bush (1977). Berkeley, Truth, and the World. Inquiry 20 (1-4):205 – 225.
    There is a structural similarity between an influential argument of Berkeley's against causal realism and a traditional, and recently revived, argument against the correspondence theory of truth. Both arguments chide the realist for positing a relation between his conceptions (perceptions) of reality and a world independent of those conceptions (perceptions). Man could have no epistemic access to such a relation, it is said, for, by the realist's own admission, he has access to only one of the relata - his conceptions (...)
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  9. Sébastian Charles (2004). Berkeley no país das Luzes: ceticismo e solipsismo no século XVIII. Doispontos 1 (2).
    A influência do ceticismo nos século XVI e XVII é por demais evidente para ser posta em questão. De Montaigne a Bayle, parece que o cético foi o promotor tanto de uma refutação radical dos princípios metafísicos escolásticos e depois cartesianos quanto de uma crítica feroz às autoridades religiosas e políticas. Ora, esse papel parece ter se amenizado no Século das Luzes, ou melhor, se deslocado - somente as dimensões críticas do social continuaram pertinentes. Pretende-se mostrar aqui o pressuposto de (...)
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  10. Daniel Garber (1982). Locke, Berkeley, and Corpuscular Scepticism. In Colin Murray Turbayne (ed.), Berkeley: Critical and Interpretive Essays. University of Minnesota Press.
  11. Jody Graham (1997). Common Sense and Berkeley's Perception by Suggestion. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (3):397 – 423.
    Significant attention has been paid to Berkeley's account of perception; however, the interpretations of Berkeley's account of perception by suggestion are either incomplete or mistaken. In this paper I begin by examining a common interpretation of suggestion, the 'Propositional Account'. I argue that the Propositional Account is inadequate and defend an alternative, non-propositional, account. I then address George Pitcher's objection that Berkeley's view of sense perception forces him to adopt a 'non-conciliatory' attitude towards common sense. I argue that Pitcher's charge (...)
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  12. Robert A. Imlay (1992). Berkeley and Scepticism. Hume Studies 18 (2):501-510.
  13. E. J. Lowe (2006). Radical Externalism or Berkeley Revisited? Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (s 7-8):78-94.
    Ted Honderich's 'Radical Externalism' concerning the nature of consciousness is a refreshing, and in many ways very appealing, approach to a long- standing and seemingly intractable philosophical conundrum. Although I sympathize with many of his motivations in advancing the theory and share his hostility for certain alternative approaches that are currently popular, I will serve him better by playing devil's advocate than by simply recording my points of agreement with him. If his theory is a good one, it should be (...)
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  14. Lex Newman (2002). Berkeley's Thought. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 111 (2):314-318.
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  15. Douglas Odegard (1981). Berkeleian Idealism and the Dream Argument. Idealistic Studies 11 (2):93-99.
  16. George Pappas (1999). Berkeley and Scepticism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):133 - 149.
    In both the Principles and the Three Dialogues, Berkeley claims that he wants to uncover those principles which lead to scepticism; to refute those principles; and to refute scepticism itself. This paper examines the principles Berkeley says have scepticial consequences, and contends that only one of them implies scepticism. It is also argued that Berkeley's attempted refutation of scepticism rests not on his acceptance of the esse est percipi principle, but rather on the thesis that physical objects and their sensible (...)
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  17. George S. Pappas (2007). Berkeley's Assessment of Locke's Epistemology. In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), Reexamining Berkeley's Philosophy.
    In this essay, the author analyses Berkeley’s conformity and inference argument against Locke’s theory of percep tion. Both arguments are not as decisive as traditionally has been perceived and fail to engage in Locke’s actual position. The main reason for this is that Berkeley does not see that Locke’s position is compatible with the non-inferential nature of perceptual knowledge.
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  18. George Sotiros Pappas (2000). Berkeley's Thought. Cornell University Press.
    He assesses the validity of this self-description and considers why Berkeley might have chosen to align himself with a commonsense position.Pappas shows how ...
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  19. Richard H. Popkin (1951). Berkeley and Pyrrhonism. Review of Metaphysics 5 (2):223 - 246.
  20. Stephen Puryear (2013). Idealism and Scepticism: A Reply to Brueckner. Theoria 79 (1):290-293.
    Anthony Brueckner argues that Berkeleyan idealism lacks anti-sceptical force because of the way Berkeley draws the appearance/reality distinction. But Brueckner's case rests on a misunderstanding of Berkeley's view. Properly understood, Berkeleyan idealism does indeed have anti-sceptical force.
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  21. John Russell Roberts, Reply to Seth Bordner’s “Berkeley’s Defense of Common Sense”.
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  22. Todd Ryan (2004). Berkeley au siecle des lumieres. Immaterialisme et scepticisme au XVIIIe siecle (review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (4):495-496.
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  23. Todd Ryan (2002). Berkeley et Les Philosophes du XVIIe Siecle: Perception et Scepticisme (review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (3):402-404.
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  24. Plínio Junqueira Smith (2005). As respostas de Berkeley ao ceticismo. Doispontos 1 (2):35-55.
    O artigo compara alguns aspectos da refutação do ceticismo nos Princípios e nos Três diálogos. Embora normalmente não se veja nenhuma diferença importante entre essas obras, duas hipóteses são defendidas aqui: de um lado, Berkeley desloca o foco de sua crítica das idéias abstratas para a noção de matéria e, de outro, muda sua estratégia de combate, da enunciação imediata da verdade para a lenta elaboração das consequências céticas da noção de matéria. Berkeley’s answers to skepticismThe topic of this paper (...)
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  25. Ian Tipton (1992). Descartes' Demon and Berkeley's World. Philosophical Investigations 15 (2):111-130.
  26. Russell Wahl & Jonathan Westphal (1992). Descartes, Leibniz and Berkeley on Whether We Can Dream Marks of the Waking State. Studia Leibnitiana 24 (2):177-181.
Berkeley: Epistemology, Misc
  1. Fred Ablondi (2005). Berkeley, Archetypes, and Errors. Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (4):493-504.
  2. Robert Merrihew Adams (1987). Berkeley and Epistemology. In Ernest Sosa (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of George Berkeley. D. Reidel.
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  3. A. C. Armstrong (1914). Bergson, Berkeley, and Philosophical Intuition. Philosophical Review 23 (4):430-438.
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  4. Michael Ayers (2005). Was Berkeley an Empiricist or a Rationalist? In Kenneth Winkler (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Berkeley. Cambridge University Press. 34.
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  5. Daniel Flage (2008). Berkeley's Epistemic Ontology : The Three Dialogues. In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), New Interpretations of Berkeley's Thought. Humanity Books.
  6. Daniel E. Flage (2004). Berkeley's Epistemic Ontology: The Principles. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (1):25 - 60.
  7. David S. Forth (1971). Berkeley and Buber: An Epistemological Comparison. Dialogue 10 (04):690-707.
  8. Lesley Friedman (2003). Pragmatism: The Unformulated Method of Bishop Berkeley. Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (1):81-96.
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