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  1. Gloria Ayob (2009). The Aspect-Perception Passages: A Critical Investigation of Köhler's Isomorphism Principle. Philosophical Investigations 32 (3):264-280.
    In this paper I argue that Wittgenstein's aim in the aspect-perception passages is to critically evaluate a specific hypothesis. The target hypothesis in these passages is the Gestalt psychologist Köhler's "isomorphism principle." According to this principle, there are neural correlates of conscious perceptual experience, and these neural correlates determine the content of our perceptual experiences. Wittgenstein's argument against the isomorphism principle comprises two steps. First, he diffuses the substantiveness of the principle by undermining an important assumption that underpins this principle, (...)
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  2. Thomas Baldwin (ed.) (2003/2012). The Cambridge History of Philosophy, 1870-1945. Cambridge University Press.
    The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870-1945 comprises over sixty specially commissioned essays by experts on the philosophy of this period, and is designed to be accessible to non-specialists. The first part of the book traces the history of philosophy from its remarkable flowering in the 1870s through to the early years of the twentieth century. After a brief discussion of the impact of the First World War, the second part of the book describes further developments in philosophy in the first (...)
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  3. Luciano Boi (2007). Phénoménologie et méréologie de la perception spatiale, de Husserl aux théoriciens de la Gestalt. In Luciano Boi, Pierre Kerszberg & Frédéric Patras (eds.), Rediscovering Phenomenology: Phenomenological Essays on Mathematical Beings, Physical Reality, Perception and Consciousness (Phaenomenologica) (English and French Edition). Springer. 33-66.
  4. Robert Briscoe, Depiction, Pictorial Experience, and Vision Science.
    Pictures are 2D surfaces designed to elicit 3D-scene-representing experiences from their viewers. In this essay, I argue that philosophers have tended to underestimate the relevance of research in vision science to understanding the nature of pictorial experience or ‘seeing-in’, to use Richard Wollheim’s familiar expression. Both the deeply entrenched methodology of virtual psychophysics as well as empirical studies of pictorial space perception provide compelling support for the view that seeing-in and seeing face-to-face are experiences of the same psychological, explanatory kind. (...)
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  5. Robert Briscoe (2011). Mental Imagery and the Varieties of Amodal Perception. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):153-173.
    The problem of amodal perception is the problem of how we represent features of perceived objects that are occluded or otherwise hidden from us. Bence Nanay (2010) has recently proposed that we amodally perceive an object's occluded features by imaginatively projecting them into the relevant regions of visual egocentric space. In this paper, I argue that amodal perception is not a single, unitary capacity. Drawing appropriate distinctions reveals amodal perception to be characterized not only by mental imagery, as Nanay suggests, (...)
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  6. Robert Briscoe (2008). Vision, Action, and Make‐Perceive. Mind and Language 23 (4):457-497.
    In this paper, I critically assess the enactive account of visual perception recently defended by Alva Noë (2004). I argue inter alia that the enactive account falsely identifies an object’s apparent shape with its 2D perspectival shape; that it mistakenly assimilates visual shape perception and volumetric object recognition; and that it seriously misrepresents the constitutive role of bodily action in visual awareness. I argue further that noticing an object’s perspectival shape involves a hybrid experience combining both perceptual and imaginative elements (...)
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  7. Carmelo Calì (2013). Gestalt Models for Data Decomposition and Functional Architecture in Visual Neuroscience. Gestalt Theory 35 (227-264).
    Attempts to introduce Gestalt theory into the realm of visual neuroscience are discussed on both theoretical and experimental grounds. To define the framework in which these proposals can be defended, this paper outlines the characteristics of a standard model, which qualifies as a received view in the visual neurosciences, and of the research into natural images statistics. The objections to the standard model and the main questions of the natural images research are presented. On these grounds, this paper defends the (...)
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  8. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2003). Sfondo e figura. Rivista di Estetica 43 (24):38-40.
    A dialogue between a figure and its background, illustrating that the perceptual conditions that determine which is which are not as clear as standard Gestalt theory dictates.
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  9. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2013). Gestalt, Equivalency, and Functional Dependency. Kurt Grelling’s Formal Ontology. In Nikolay Milkov & Volker Peckhaus (eds.), The Berlin Group and the Philosophy of Logical Empiricism. Springer. 245--261.
    In his ontological works Kurt Grelling tries to give a rigorous analysis of the foundations of the so-called Gestalt-psychology. Gestalten are peculiar emergent qualities, ontologically dependent on their foundations, but nonetheless non reducible to them. Grelling shows that this concept, as used in psychology and ontology, is often ambiguous. He distinguishes two important meanings in which the word “Gestalt” is used: Gestalten as structural aspects available to transposition and Gestalten as causally self-regulating wholes. Gestalten in the first meaning are, according (...)
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  10. Christian Diehm (2006). Arne Naess and the Task of Gestalt Ontology. Environmental Ethics 28 (1):21-35.
    While much of Arne Naess’s ecosophy underscores the importance of understanding one’s ecological Self, his analyses of gestaltism are significant in that they center less on questions of the self than on questions of nature and what is other-than-human. Rather than the realization of a more expansive Self, gestalt ontology calls for a “gestalt shift” in our thinking about nature, one that allows for its intrinsic value to emerge clearly. Taking such a gestalt shift as a central task enables Naess (...)
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  11. M. C. Dillon (1971). Gestalt Theory and Merleau-Ponty's Concept of Intentionality. Man and World 4 (4):436-459.
    The intent of the article is to define merleau-ponty's place in the phenomenological tradition and, at the same time, to defend his standpoint, especially on those issues where his thought represents a departure from the tradition. although merleau-ponty espouses a form of the husserlian doctrine of the intentionality of consciousness, his understanding of intentionality differs in several fundamental respects from husserl's. the article attempts to show specifically where merleau-ponty's gestalt- theoretical orientation leads him to modify such basic aspects of husserl's (...)
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  12. Walter H. Ehrenstein, Lothar Spillmann & Viktor Sarris (2003). Gestalt Issues in Modern Neuroscience. Axiomathes 13 (3-4):433-458.
    We present select examples of how visual phenomena can serve as tools to uncoverbrain mechanisms. Specifically, receptive field organization is proposed as a Gestalt-like neural mechanism of perceptual organization. Appropriate phenomena, such as brightness and orientation contrast, subjective contours, filling-in, and aperture-viewed motion, allow for a quantitative comparison between receptive fields and their psychophysical counterparts, perceptive fields. Phenomenology might thus be extended from the study of perceptual qualities to their transphenomenal substrates, including memory functions. In conclusion, classic issues of Gestalt (...)
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  13. Willis D. Ellis (ed.) (1938). Source Book of Gestalt Psychology. Harcourt, Brace and Co.
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  14. William M. Epstein & Gary Hatfield (1994). Gestalt Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):163-181.
    The Gestalt psychologists adopted a set of positions on mind-body issues that seem like an odd mix. They sought to combine a version of naturalism and physiological reductionism with an insistence on the reality of the phenomenal and the attribution of meanings to objects as natural characteristics. After reviewing basic positions in contemporary philosophy of mind, we examine the Gestalt position, characterizing it m terms of phenomenal realism and programmatic reductionism. We then distinguish Gestalt philosophy of mind from instrumentalism and (...)
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  15. William Epstein & Gary Hatfield, The Status of the Minimum Principle in the Theoretical Analysis of Visual Perception.
    metric. A minimum principle is a theoretical construct imputed to the visual system to explain minimum tendencies. After examining a number of studies of..
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  16. Uljana Feest (forthcoming). Phenomenal Experiences, First-Person Methods, and the Artificiality of Experimental Data. Philosophy of Science.
    This paper argues that whereas philosophical discussions of first-person methods often turn on the veridicality of first-person reports, more attention should be paid to the experimental circumstances under which the reports are generated, and to the purposes of designing such experiments. After pointing to the ‘constructedness’ of first-person reports in the science of perception, I raise questions about the criteria by which to judge whether the reports illuminate something about the nature of perception. I illustrate this point with a historical (...)
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  17. Ash Gobar (1968). Philosophic Foundations Of Genetic Psychology And Gestalt Psychology. Martinus Nilboff.
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  18. Reinhardt S. Grossman (1977). Structures Versus Sets: The Philosophical Background of Gestalt Psychology. Critica 9 (December):3-21.
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  19. Aron Gurwitsch (1964). The Field of Consciousness. Duquesne University Press.
  20. D. W. Hamlyn (1951). Psychological Explanation and the Gestalt Hypothesis. Mind 60 (240):506-520.
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  21. David W. Hamlyn (1957). The Psychology Of Perception: A Philosophical Examination Of Gestalt Theory And Derivative Theories Of Perception. The Humanities Press.
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  22. Gary Hatfield (2012). Koffka, Köhler, and the “Crisis” in Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):483-492.
  23. Gary Hatfield (2011). Good Gestalt: Metzger on Seeing. [REVIEW] Metascience 20 (1):81-85.
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  24. Eugene H. Hunt & Ronald K. Bullis (1991). Applying the Principles of Gestalt Theory to Teaching Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):341 - 347.
    Teaching ethics poses a dilemma for professors of business. First, they have little or no formal training in ethics. Second, they have established ethical values that they may not want to impose upon their students. What is needed is a well-recognized, yet non-sectarian model to facilitate the clarification of ethical questions. Gestalt theory offers such a framework. Four Gestalt principles facilitate ethical clarification and another four Gestalt principles anesthetize ethical clarification. This article examines each principle, illustrates that principle through current (...)
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  25. Gaetano Kanizsa (1994). Gestalt Theory has Been Misinterpreted, but has Had Some Real Conceptual Difficulties. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):149-162.
    In the present article, the role of Gestalt concepts in clarifying the issues of perception is evaluated. Grounded in anti-atomism, Gestalt assumed organizing forces intrinsic to perception. Insofar these were identified with singularity preference, Gestalt is criticized for having failed to distinguish between perception and thought.
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  26. Jacob Robert Kantor (1925). The Significance of the Gestalt Conception in Psychology. Journal of Philosophy 22 (9):234-241.
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  27. Joseph J. Kockelmans (1972). Gestalt Psychology and Phenomenology in Gurwitsch's Conception of Thematics. In Life-World And Consciousness. Evanston Il: Northwestern University Press.
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  28. Joseph J. Kockelmans (1972). Life-World And Consciousness. Evanston Il: Northwestern University Press.
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  29. Kurt Koffka (1922). Perception: An Introduction to the Gestalt Theory. Psychological Bulletin 19:531-585.
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  30. Szekely Lajos (1959). The Problem of Experience in the Gestalt Psychology. Theoria 25:179-186.
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  31. Thomas H. Leahey (2003). Gestalt Psychology. In Thomas Baldwin (ed.), The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  32. Steven Lehar (2003). Gestalt Isomorphism and the Primacy of Subjective Conscious Experience: A Gestalt Bubble Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):357-408.
    A serious crisis is identified in theories of neurocomputation, marked by a persistent disparity between the phenomenological or experiential account of visual perception and the neurophysiological level of description of the visual system. In particular, conventional concepts of neural processing offer no explanation for the holistic global aspects of perception identified by Gestalt theory. The problem is paradigmatic and can be traced to contemporary concepts of the functional role of the neural cell, known as the Neuron Doctrine. In the absence (...)
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  33. Steven Lehar, Computational Implications of Gestalt Theory: The Role of Feedback in Visual Processing.
    Neurophysiological investigations of the visual system by way of single-cell recordings have revealed a hierarchical architecture in which lower level areas, such as the primary visual cortex, contain cells that respond to simple features, while higher level areas contain cells that respond to higher order features apparently composed of combinations of lower level features. This architecture seems to suggest a feed-forward processing strategy in which visual information progresses from lower to higher visual areas. However there is other evidence, both neurophysiological (...)
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  34. John Macnamara & Geert-Jan Boudewijnse (1995). Brentano’s Influence on Ehrenfels’ Theory of Perceptual Gestalts. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 25 (4):401-418.
  35. Edward H. Madden (1953). Science, Philosophy, and Gestalt Theory. Philosophy of Science 20 (4):329-331.
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  36. Edward H. Madden (1952). The Philosophy of Science in Gestalt Theory. Philosophy of Science 19 (3):228-238.
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  37. Johann Christian Marek & Barry Smith (1987). Einleitung zu Anton Marty, "Elemente der deskriptiven Psychologie". Conceptus 21 (53-54):33-47.
    This essay is an introduction to a lecture course "Elements of Descriptive Psychology" delivered by Anton Marty in around 1903/04. Marty offered courses on descriptive psychology at regular intervals in the course of his career at the University of Prague. The content of these courses follows closely the ideas of Marty’s teacher Franz Brentano, though with some interesting divergences and extrapolations. The present work is a historical and systematic introduction to an extract from notes taken of Marty’s lecture, with some (...)
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  38. Rainer Mausfeld (2011). Intrinsic Multiperspectivity: Conceptual Forms and the Functional Architecture of the Perceptual System. In Welsch Wolfgang, Singer Wolf & Wunder Andre (eds.), Interdisciplinary Anthropology. Springer. 19--54.
    It is a characteristic feature of our mental make-up that the same perceptual input situation can simultaneously elicit conflicting mental perspectives. This ability pervades our perceptual and cognitive domains. Striking examples are the dual character of pictures in picture perception, pretend play, or the ability to employ metaphors and allegories. I argue that traditional approaches, beyond being inadequate on principle grounds, are theoretically ill equipped to deal with these achievements. I then outline a theoretical perspective that has emerged from a (...)
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  39. Rainer Mausfeld (2010). Intrinsic Multiperspectivity: On the Architectural Foundations of a Distinctive Mental Capacity. In P. A. Frensch & R. Schwarzer (eds.), Cognition and Neuropsychology: International Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol.1. Psychology Press.
    It is a characteristic feature of our mental make-up that the same perceptual input situation can simultaneously elicit conflicting mental perspectives. This ability pervades our perceptual and cognitive domains. Striking examples are the dual character of pictures in picture perception, pretend play, or the ability to employ metaphors and allegories. I will argue that traditional approaches, beyond being inadequate on principle grounds, are theoretically ill-equipped to deal with these achievements. I will then outline a theoretical perspective that has been emerging (...)
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  40. Rainer Mausfeld (2003). The Dual Coding of Colour. In Rainer Mausfeld & Dieter Heyer (eds.), Colour Perception: Mind and the Physical World. Oxford University Press. 381--430.
  41. Rainer Mausfeld & Dieter Heyer (eds.) (2003). Colour Perception: Mind and the Physical World. Oxford University Press.
    Colour has long been a source of fascination to both scientists and philosophers. In one sense, colours are in the mind of the beholder, in another sense they belong to the external world. Colours appear to lie on the boundary where we have divided the world into 'objective' and 'subjective' events. They represent, more than any other attribute of our visual experience, a place where both physical and mental properties are interwoven in an intimate and enigmatic way. -/- The last (...)
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  42. Noah Moss Brender (2013). Sense-Making and Symmetry-Breaking: Merleau-Ponty, Cognitive Science, and Dynamic Systems Theory. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 17 (2):247-273.
    From his earliest work forward, phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty attempted to develop a new ontology of nature that would avoid the antinomies of realism and idealism by showing that nature has its own intrinsic sense which is prior to reflection. The key to this new ontology was the concept of form, which he appropriated from Gestalt psychology. However, Merleau-Ponty struggled to give a positive characterization of the phenomenon of form which would clarify its ontological status. Evan Thompson has recently taken up (...)
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  43. Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (1988). Mach and Ehrenfels: The Foundations of Gestalt Theory. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. 1988. 124.
    Ernst Mach's atomistic theory of sensation faces problems in doing justice to our ability to perceive and remember complex phenomena such as melodies and shapes. Christian von Ehrenfels attempted to solve these problems with his theory of "Gestalt qualities", which he sees as entities depending one-sidedly on the corresponding simple objects of sensation. We explore the theory of dependence relations advanced by Ehrenfels and show how it relates to the views on the objects of perception advanced by Husserl and by (...)
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  44. Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (1986). Mach und Ehrenfels: Über Gestaltqualitäten und das Problem der Abhängigkeit. In R. Fabian (ed.), Christian von Ehrenfels: Leben Und Werk. Rodopi. 85-111.
    Ernst Mach's atomistic theory of sensation faces problems in doing justice to our ability to perceive and remember complex phenomena such as melodies and shapes. Christian von Ehrenfels attempted to solve these problems with his theory of "Gestalt qualities", which he sees as entities depending one-sidedly on the corresponding simple objects of sensation. We explore the theory of dependence relations advanced by Ehrenfels and show how it relates to the views on the objects of perception advanced by Husserl and by (...)
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  45. Giulia Parovel (1999). Gestalt Qualities and Artistic Experience. Axiomathes 10 (1-3):179-194.
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  46. Moreland Perkins (1953). Intersubjectivity and Gestalt Psychology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 13 (June):437-451.
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  47. Oliver L. Reiser (1930). Gestalt Psychology and the Philosophy of Nature. Philosophical Review 39 (6):556-572.
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  48. Nicholas Rescher (1953). Mr Madden on Gestalt Theory. Philosophy of Science 20 (October):327-328.
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  49. Nicholas Rescher & Paul Oppenheim (1955). Logical Analysis of Gestalt Concepts. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 6 (August):89-106.
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  50. Steven M. Rosen (1999). Evolution of Attentional Processes in the Human Organism. Group Analysis 32 (2):243-253.
    This article explores the evolution of human attention, focusing particularly on the phylogenetic and ontogenetic implications of the work of the American social psychiatrist Trigant Burrow. Attentional development is linked to the emergence of visual perspective, and this, in turn, is related to Burrow's notion of `ditention' (divided or partitive attention). Burrow's distinction between `ditention' and `cotention' (total organismic awareness) is examined, and, expanding on this, a threefold pattern of perceptual change is identified: prototention-->ditention-->cotention. Next, ditentive visual perspective is related (...)
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