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  1. A. Agard, R. Lofmark, N. Edvardsson & I. Ekman (2007). Views of Patients with Heart Failure About Their Role in the Decision to Start Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Treatment: Prescription Rather Than Participation. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):514-518.
    Background: There is a shortage of reports on what potential recipients of implantable cardioverter–defibrillators need to be informed about and what role they can and want to play in the decision-making process when it comes to whether or not to implant an ICD.Aims: To explore how patients with heart failure and previous episodes of malignant arrhythmia experience and view their role in the decision to initiate ICD treatment.Patients and methods: A qualitative content analysis of semistructured interviews was used. The study (...)
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  2. Catholic Medical Association (2010). Health Care in America. Journal of Catholic Social Thought 7 (1):181-209.
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  3. Marco Antonio Azevedo (2015). Health as a Clinic-Epidemiological Concept. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):365-373.
    I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse’s ‘theoretical’ approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse’s view that health is a theoretical concept, a (...)
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  4. Rosangela Barcaro (2014). L'invention des maladies à but lucratif [On disease mongering]. Arc En Ciel. La Revue de Nouveaux Droits de L’Homme (72):24-25.
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  5. Cinthia Gondim Pereira Calou (2014). Health Related Quality of Life of Pregnant Women and Associated Factors: An Integrative Review. Health 6:2375-2387.
    Objective: The objectives were to characterize the scientific production on Health-Related Quality of Life of pregnant women, identify the areas that are most affected during pregnancy and puerperal period and identify the instruments used to assess quality of life related to health in pregnant women. Methods: For the integrative review, 11 articles published from 2006 to 2013 in the PUBMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS and SCIELO were selected. Result: Data showed scarce publication from nursing professionals, prevalence of non-experimental studies conducted mainly (...)
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  6. Daniele Chiffi & Renzo Zanotti (2015). Perspectives on Clinical Possibility: Elements of Analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:DOI: 10.1111/jep.12447.
  7. Speranta Dumitru (2010). Consentement présumé, famille et équité dans le don d'organes. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (67):341-354.
    Cet article propose une évaluation éthique des institutions qui organisent la transplantation avec donneurs décédés, au travers du rôle qu’elles accordent à la famille survivante. Son objectif est double. Il s’agit, premièrement, de montrer que la famille possède un pouvoir de décision considérable en matière de prélèvement posthume bien que les législations soient habituellement décrites comme fondées sur le consentement ou l’opposition des personnes concernées. Deuxièmement, il s’agit de montrer que les politiques qui octroient un tel pouvoir aux familles manquent (...)
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  8. Antoine C. Dussault & Anne-Marie Gagné-Julien (2015). Health, Homeostasis, and the Situation-Specificity of Normality. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):61-81.
    Christopher Boorse’s Biostatistical Theory of Health has been the main contender among naturalistic accounts of health for the last 40 years. Yet, a recent criticism of this theory, presented by Elselijn Kingma, identifies a dilemma resulting from the BST’s conceptual linking of health and statistical typicality. Kingma argues that the BST either cannot accommodate the situation- specificity of many normal functions or cannot account for many situation-specific diseases. In this article, we expand upon with Daniel Hausman’s response to Kingma’s dilemma. (...)
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  9. Élodie Giroux & Maël Lemoine (2012). Textes Clés de Philosophie de la Médecine: Vol. Ii : Santé, Maladie, Pathologie. Vrin.
    Depuis le célèbre essai de Georges Canguilhem sur le normal et le pathologique publié initialement en 1943 et dont l’un des objectifs était la clarification des concepts de santé et de maladie, une littérature philosophique abondante, principalement anglo-saxonne, s’est attachée à définir ces concepts et à analyser leur statut. Le principal débat de ce domaine émergent de la philosophie de la médecine porte sur la question : peut-on décrire la santé et la maladie comme des phénomènes naturels ou s’agit-il d’états (...)
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  10. Maya J. Goldenberg (2012). Defining Quality of Care Persuasively. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):243-261.
    As the quality movement in health care now enters its fourth decade, the language of quality is ubiquitous. Practitioners, organizations, and government agencies alike vociferously testify their commitments to quality and accept numerous forms of governance aimed at improving quality of care. Remarkably, the powerful phrase ‘‘quality of care’’ is rarely defined in the health care literature. Instead it operates as an accepted and assumed goal worth pursuing. The status of evidence-based medicine, for instance, hinges on its ability to improve (...)
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  11. Ray Greek, Annalea Pippus & Lawrence Hansen (2012). The Nuremberg Code Subverts Human Health and Safety by Requiring Animal Modeling. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16-.
    Background: The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations.DiscussionWe review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for (...)
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  12. Arévalo Benito Héctor & Cuenca R. C. (2014). Ética para Psicólogos. Psicoética. UTPL.
    Ética para la psicología. Filosofía de la Psicología. Ética Aplicada. Psicoética.
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  13. Odireleng Jankey & Tirelo Modie-Moroka (2011). The Daily Grind of the Forgotten Heroines: Experiences of HIV/AIDS Informal Caregivers in Botswana. Ethics and Social Welfare 5 (2):217-224.
    With the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS and the escalating costs of health care, there is an increasing demand for informal caregiving in the community. Currently, much emphasis is placed on individuals who are living with HIV/AIDS (in terms of the provision of social, psychological and economic support), but very little attention has been paid to the well-being and quality of life of informal caregivers. Lack of support and care for caregivers may have a negative impact on the (...)
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  14. Jitendra Jethani (2014). Correlation of Macular Thickness, Multifocal ERG with Visual Acuity in Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA). Health 6:2109-2114.
    Background and Aim: Ocular albinism eww140918dxn is known to have nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia. A study was done to evaluate the correlation of visual acuity with macular thickness (MT) and mf ERG. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 eyes (10 patients) with OCA were selected. Macular thickness was evaluated with optical coherence tomography and mf ERG was done in all the patients. Results: Mean age was 16.1 ± 7.3 years. The patients were divided into three groups based on their (...)
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  15. Juliana L. Kahrs (2014). Clustering of Multiple Risk Behaviors Among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents Living in Hawaii. Health 6:2333-2341.
    The current study examined the prevalence and clustering of 5 health-risk behaviors among adolescents in Hawaii, including physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, junk food consumption, excessive television time, and inadequate sleep. High school students were recruited from 5 classrooms in Oahu Hawaii. Data were collected in the spring semester of 2011. Proportions were used to describe the prevalence of single and multiple health risk behaviors. Significant health behavior clusters were revealed using an observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio method. Participating adolescents (...)
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  16. J. Paul Kelleher (2015). Evaluating Health Inequalities: Residual Worries. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (3):50-51.
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  17. Elselijn Kingma (2012). A Note on Being Healthy – Reply. Diametros 31 (31):136-137.
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  18. Meena Krishnamurthy & Matthew Herder (2013). Justice in Global Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Analysis Based on the Values of Contribution, Ownership and Reciprocity. Public Health Ethics (3):pht027.
    In December 2006, Indonesia decided to stop sending influenza virus specimens to the World Health Organization’s Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). Indonesia justified its actions by claiming that they were in protest of the injustice of GISN. Its actions stimulated negotiations to improve the workings of GISN by developing and implementing a more just framework for ‘sharing influenza viruses and other benefits’. These negotiations eventually led to the adoption of a new framework for virus and benefit sharing in May 2011, (...)
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  19. Maël Lemoine (2014). The Naturalization of the Concept of Disease. In Philippe Huneman, Gérard Lambert & Marc Silberstein (eds.), History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences. Springer 19-41.
    Science starts by using terms such as ‘temperature’ or ‘fish’ or ‘gene’ to preliminarily delimitate the extension of a phenomenon, and concludes by giving most of them a technical meaning based on an explanatory model. This transforma- tion of the meaning of the term is an essential part of its naturalization. Debating on the definition of ‘disease’, what most philosophers of medicine have examined is the pre-naturalized meaning of the term: for that reason they have focused on the task of (...)
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  20. Maël Lemoine (2014). The Naturalization of the Concept of Disease. In Philippe Huneman, Gérard Lambert & Marc Silberstein (eds.), History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences. Springer 19-41.
    Science starts by using terms such as ‘temperature’ or ‘fish’ or ‘gene’ to preliminarily delimitate the extension of a phenomenon, and concludes by giving most of them a technical meaning based on an explanatory model. This transforma- tion of the meaning of the term is an essential part of its naturalization. Debating on the definition of ‘disease’, what most philosophers of medicine have examined is the pre-naturalized meaning of the term: for that reason they have focused on the task of (...)
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  21. Hallvard Lillehammer (2012). Autonomy, Value and the First Person. In Lubomira Radoilska (ed.), Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press
    This paper explores the claim that someone can reasonably consider themselves to be under a duty to respect the autonomy of a person who does not have the capacities normally associated with substantial self-governance.
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  22. B. I. B. Lindahl (2000). Health and Evolution. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 28:309-311.
  23. Alan M. Martinez (2014). Sexual Satisfaction Is Reduced in the Female Patient and Sexually Intimate Partners Following Cancer Therapy. ASM 4:65-70.
    As cancer survival has continued to improve, cancer patients and their sexually intimate partner (SIP) are confronted with a number of issues including sexual function and overall sexual health. Our study objective was to assess changes in sexual function in women undergoing cancer treatment and their SIP, and attempt to identify areas of needed support and improvement. In this questionnaire-based observational study, females (n = 11) completed a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and for SIP’s (n = 11), a Brief (...)
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  24. Ignacio Mastroleo (2012). Guías para los comités de ética de investigación del Reino Unido sobre atención de la salud después de la investigación: un comentario crítico sobre la traducción al español del borrador versión 8.0. Perspectivas Bioéticas 17 (33):71-81.
    [RESUMEN] Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la primera traducción al español de las guías del Reino Unido “Atención después de la investigación: un marco para los comités de ética de investigación del NHS (borrador versión 8.0)”. El comentario se divide en tres partes. En la primera parte, se busca resumir la información básica necesaria para mejorar la lectura comprensiva de la traducción de las guías. En la segunda parte, se analiza una selección de la normativa argentina que trata sobre (...)
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  25. Claudio Mattiussi (2013). Can an Engineer Fix an Immune System?: Rethinking Theoretical Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):223-258.
    In an instant classic paper ; 2002: 179–182) biologist Yuri Lazebnik deplores the poor effectiveness of the approach adopted by biologists to understand and “fix” biological systems. Lazebnik suggests that to remedy this state of things biologist should take inspiration from the approach used by engineers to design, understand, and troubleshoot technological systems. In the present paper I substantiate Lazebnik’s analysis by concretely showing how to apply the engineering approach to biological problems. I use an actual example of electronic circuit (...)
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  26. Andrew Molas (2016). “Defending the CRPD: Dignity, Flourishing, and the Universal Right to Mental Health.”. International Journal of Human Rights:1-13.
    I argue that the right to mental health should be viewed as a universal human right and that the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), as an international standard, protects it because it places a positive duty on states to actively promote the mental well-being of its citizens for the purpose of preserving their dignity and allowing them to flourish. I begin by discussing the discrimination that persons with psychiatric disabilities experience, including the systemic barriers (...)
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  27. Anne Marie Moulin (1992). La Métaphore Vaccine. De l'Inoculation À la Vaccinologie. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (2):271 - 297.
    The episodes of cowpox inoculation (1798) and rabies preventive treatment (1885) are celebrated as the landmark of modern medicine. Paradoxically, these two advances have been accomplished without any theoretical breakthrough in the understanding of immunity. Going further, they were made possible by a long past of empirical procedures among which smallpox inoculation played an outstanding role. The paper explores the paradox of 'Immunization without Immunology' and Pasteur's reconstruction of the past, through his successful use of a metaphor. 'Vaccine', originally linked (...)
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  28. Anne Marie Moulin (1989). The Immune System: A Key Concept for the History of Immunology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 11 (2):221 - 236.
    The definition of immunology as the science of the immune system that emerged in the 1960s provides a sound basis for both reconstructing its past and constructing its future. The choice of this point in time of course involves important consequences, on the one hand, sociological and institutional, epistemological and conceptual on the other. I will attempt to demonstrate that this perspective allows us to assess the history of immunology in an innovative way1 while elucidating in the process some of (...)
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  29. Anne-Marie Moulin (1995). Introduction: Hasard et rationalité dans l'approche vaccinale. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (1):5 - 29.
    The aim of this paper is to introduce the one hundred years of vaccination that has passed since Louis Pasteur first coined this generic term. According to the late Jonas Salk, vaccinology is a science encompassing all aspects of vaccine from its conception in the laboratory to its production by companies and its application and distribution in the field. In this historical survey I explore how vaccination never consisted of a simple and uniform application of a rational model, but rather (...)
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  30. Tsuguo Nishijima (2014). Significant Association of Nightly Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Using Time with Weight Change in Japanese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome. Health 6:2295-2302.
    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the representative sleep disorders believed to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) ventilation is the first choice therapy for OSAS, which has been reported to cause an improvement in body fat mass, hepatocellular damage and hypertension. Study Objectives: We evaluated whether the changes in the body weight observed in patients with OSAS may have potential associations with the sleep time during which the patients are under nCPAP. (...)
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  31. Priyantha Perera (2014). Accuracy of Measuring Axillary Temperature Using Mercury in Glass Thermometers in Children Under Five Years: A Cross Sectional Observational Study. Health 6:2115-2120.
    Measuring axillary temperature with mercury in glass thermometers is continued in clinical practice though there are many limitations. This is mainly due to convenience and cost. This study was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of measuring axillary temperature with mercury thermometers in preschool children. Methods: Axillary temperature was measured in 250 preschool children using standardized mercury thermometers. Time taken to record the final temperature and its correlates were assessed. Results: Time taken to record the final temperature extended up to six (...)
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  32. Jason R. Raibley (2013). Health and Well-Being. Philosophical Studies 165 (2):469-489.
    Eudaimonistic theorists of welfare have recently attacked conative accounts of welfare. Such accounts, it is claimed, are unable to classify states normally associated with physical and emotional health as non-instrumentally good and states associated with physical and psychological damage as non-instrumentally bad. However, leading eudaimonistic theories such as the self-fulfillment theory and developmentalism have problems of their own. Furthermore, conative theorists can respond to this challenge by dispositionalizing their theories, i.e., by saying that it is not merely the realization of (...)
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  33. Alison Reiheld (2015). With All Due Caution: Global Anti-Obesity Campaigns and the Individualization of Responsibility. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (2):226-249.
    Obesity is one of several targets of public health efforts related to availability of and access to healthy foods. The tension between individual food decisions and social contexts of food production, preparation, and consumption makes targeting individuals deeply problematic and yet tempting. Such individualization of responsibility for obesity and nutrition is unethical and impractical. This article warns public health campaigns against giving into the temptation to individualize responsibility, and presents an argument for why they should proceed with all due caution, (...)
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  34. S. Andrew Schroeder (forthcoming). Value Choices in Summary Measures of Population Health. Public Health Ethics:phw032.
    Summary measures of health, such as the quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life year, have long been known to incorporate a number of value choices. In this paper, though, I show that the value choices in the construction of such measures extend far beyond what is generally recognized. In showing this, I hope both to improve the understanding of those measures by epidemiologists, health economists and policy-makers, and also to contribute to the general debate about the extent to which such (...)
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  35. S. Andrew Schroeder (2016). Health, Disability, and Well-Being. In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge
    Much academic work (in philosophy, economics, law, etc.), as well as common sense, assumes that ill health reduces well-being. It is bad for a person to become sick, injured, disabled, etc. Empirical research, however, shows that people living with health problems report surprisingly high levels of well-being - in some cases as high as the self-reported well-being of healthy people. In this chapter, I explore the relationship between health and well-being. I argue that although we have good reason to believe (...)
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  36. S. Andrew Schroeder (2013). Rethinking Health: Healthy or Healthier Than? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):131-159.
    Theorists of health have, to this point, focused exclusively on trying to define a state—health—that an organism might be in. I argue that they have overlooked the possibility of a comparativist theory of health, which would begin by defining a relation—healthier than—that holds between two organisms or two possible states of the same organism. I show that a comparativist approach to health has a number of attractive features, and has important implications for philosophers of medicine, bioethicists, health economists, and policy (...)
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  37. David Shaw & Bernice Elger (2013). Evidence-Based Persuasion: An Ethical Imperative. Journal of the American Medical Association 309 (16):1689-90.
    The primacy in modern medical ethics of the principle of respect for autonomy has led to the widespread assumption that it is unethical to change someone’s beliefs, because doing so would constitute coercion or paternalism., In this Viewpoint we suggest that persuasion is not necessarily paternalistic and is an essential component of modern medical practice.
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  38. Joshua Shepherd (2014). Minimizing Harm Via Psychological Intervention: Response to Glannon. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (10):662-663.
    In a recent discussion, Walter Glannon discusses a number of ways we might try to minimize harm to patients who experience intraoperative awareness. In this response I direct attention to a possibility that deserves further attention. It might be that a kind of psychological intervention – namely, informing patients of the possibility of intraoperative awareness and of what to expect in such a case – would constitute a unique way to respect patient autonomy, as well as minimize the harm that (...)
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  39. Margaret Steele, Health As Embodied Authenticity.
    This dissertation offers a phenomenological and existential account of health. It considers the model of health that is dominant in the contemporary USA. Using the example of fatness, this dissertation argues that the dominant model of health is deeply flawed, because of its largely unexamined commitment to naturalism and positivism. It concludes that purported alternatives to the dominant model, such as the Foucault-influenced constructivist approach to health, fail to respond adequately to the problems posed by naturalism and positivism. Instead, this (...)
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  40. Jacob Stegenga (2015). Effectiveness of Medical Interventions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:34-44.
    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either (...)
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  41. Significant Association of Nightly Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Using Time, Weight Change in Japanese Patients & Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (2014). Significant Association of Nightly Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Using Time with Weight Change in Japanese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome. Health 6:2295-2302.
    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the representative sleep disorders believed to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) ventilation is the first choice therapy for OSAS, which has been reported to cause an improvement in body fat mass, hepatocellular damage and hypertension. Study Objectives: We evaluated whether the changes in the body weight observed in patients with OSAS may have potential associations with the sleep time during which the patients are under nCPAP. (...)
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  42. Sean A. Valles (2012). Lionel Penrose and the Concept of Normal Variation in Human Intelligence. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):281-289.
    Lionel Penrose (1898–1972) was an important leader during the mid-20th century decline of eugenics and the development of modern medical genetics. However, historians have paid little attention to his radical theoretical challenges to mainline eugenic concepts of mental disease. Working from a classification system developed with his colleague, E. O. Lewis, Penrose developed a statistically sophisticated and clinically grounded refutation of the popular position that low intelligence is inherently a disease state. In the early 1930s, Penrose advocated dividing “mental defect” (...)
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  43. Simon Peter van Rysewyk & Matthijs Pontier (eds.) (2014). Machine Medical Ethics. Springer.
    In medical settings, machines are in close proximity with human beings: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. Machines in these contexts are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. -/- As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What (...)
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  44. Simon van Rysewyk & Janneke van Leeuwen (2014). Picturing Mind Machines, An Adaptation by Janneke van Leeuwen. In Simon Peter van Rysewyk & Matthijs Pontier (eds.), Machine Medical Ethics. Springer
  45. Peter George Negus West-Oram (2014). Global Health Care Injustice: An Analysis of the Demands of the Basic Right to Health Care. Dissertation, The University of Birmingham
    Henry Shue’s model of basic rights and their correlative duties provides an excellent framework for analysing the requirements of global distributive justice, and for theorising about the minimum acceptable standards of human entitlement and wellbeing. Shue bases his model on the claim that certain ‘basic’ rights are of universal instrumental value, and are necessary for the enjoyment of any other rights, and of any ‘decent life’. Shue’s model provides a comprehensive argument about the importance of certain fundamental goods for all (...)
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  46. Heather Widdows & Peter G. N. West-Oram (2013). Why Bioethics Must Be Global. In John Coggon & Swati Gola (eds.), Global Health and International Community: Ethical, Political and Regulatory Challenges. Bloomsbury 43-62.
    This chapter considers what type of bioethics is necessary to address contemporary issues in global health. It explores what kind of ethics, or bioethics, is needed to adequately address such concerns, and argues that because the most pressing ethical dilemmas are global, a global framework must be adopted. Moreover, it argues that to adopt a local model of ethics (whether one community, one nation state or one area of jurisdiction) will fail to illuminate key issues of injustice and thus will (...)
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  47. Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski (2012). A Note on Being Healthy. Diametros 31 (31):133-135.
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  48. Addis Tamire Woldemariam (forthcoming). The Administrator's Perspective. Health Econonics, Policy and Law.
    Offers a commentary on the Report 'A Fair Path to Universal Health Coverage' from the perspective of the Director of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health.
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