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  1. Eliana Aaron (2013). Ethical Challenges in Refugee Health: A Global Public Health Concern. Hastings Center Report 43 (3).
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  2. Elmer D. Abbo & Angelo E. Volandes (2006). Teaching Residents to Consider Costs in Medical Decision Making. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):33 – 34.
  3. H. E. Abdulhameed, M. M. Hammami & E. A. Hameed Mohamed (2011). Disclosure of Terminal Illness to Patients and Families: Diversity of Governing Codes in 14 Islamic Countries. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):472-475.
    Background The consistency of codes governing disclosure of terminal illness to patients and families in Islamic countries has not been studied until now. Objectives To review available codes on disclosure of terminal illness in Islamic countries. Data source and extraction Data were extracted through searches on Google and PubMed. Codes related to disclosure of terminal illness to patients or families were abstracted, and then classified independently by the three authors. Data synthesis Codes for 14 Islamic countries were located. Five codes (...)
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  4. Tineke A. Abma & Vivianne Baur (2012). Seeking Connections, Creating Movement: The Power of Altruistic Action. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis (4):1-19.
    Participation of older people in designing and improving the care and services provided in residential care settings is limited. Traditional forms of democratic representation, such as client councils, and consumer models are management-driven. An alternative way of involving older people in the decisions over their lives, grounded in notions of care ethics and deliberative democracy, was explored by action research. In line with this tradition older people engage in collective action to enhance the control over their lives and those of (...)
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  5. Desiree Abu-Odeh (2014). Fat Stigma and Public Health: A Theoretical Framework and Ethical Analysis. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (3):247-265.
    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012), a drastic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States over the past 20 years constitutes an epidemic. The World Health Organization (2013) speaks of the global obesity epidemic, or “globesity,” as “taking over many parts of the world.” In the world of public health, obesity is understood to be a major health issue in need of immediate intervention.In attempts to address the obesity epidemic, public health (...)
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  6. S. A. Abu-Sahlieh (1995). No Distinction Between Male and Female Circumcision. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):311-311.
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  7. W. Andrew Achenbaum (1994). Why U.S. Health Care Reform Is So Difficult. Hastings Center Report 24 (5):23-24.
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  8. Felicia Ackerman (1991). The Significance of a Wish. Hastings Center Report 21 (4):27-29.
  9. Terrence F. Ackerman (1982). Why Doctors Should Intervene. Hastings Center Report 12 (4):14-17.
  10. D. E. Ackroyd (1981). Mr Kennedy and Consumerism. Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (4):180-181.
    I welcome Mr Kennedy's general approach, but query whether the concept of consumerism is so closely applicable to medical care as he maintains. However, in particular aspects, especially the handling of complaints, his criticisms echo those made by the Patients Association. Finally, I detect some ground for hope in the more enlightened attitude creeping in to the eduction of the medical student.
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  11. George J. Agich (2009). The Issue of Expertise in Clinical Ethics. Diametros 22:3-20.
    The proliferation of ethics committees and ethics consultation services has engendered a discussion of the issue of the expertise of those who provide clinical ethics consultation services. In this paper, I discuss two aspects of this issue: the cognitive dimension or content knowledge that the clinical ethics consultant should possess and the practical dimension or set of dispositions, skills, and traits that are necessary for effective ethics consultation. I argue that the failure to differentiate and fully explicate these dimensions contributes (...)
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  12. George J. Annas (1982). The Emerging Stowaway: Patients' Rights in the 1980s. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 10 (1):32-35.
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  13. George J. Annas (1980). How to Make the Massachusetts Patients'Bill of Rights Work. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 8 (1):6-8.
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  14. George J. Annas, Patricia Roche & Robert C. Green (2008). Gina, Genism, and Civil Rights. Bioethics 22 (7).
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  15. Armand H. Matheny Antommaria (2008). Adjudicating Rights or Analyzing Interests: Ethicists' Role in the Debate Over Conscience in Clinical Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):201-212.
    The analysis of a dispute can focus on either interests, rights, or power. Commentators often frame the conflict over conscience in clinical practice as a dispute between a patient’s right to legally available medical treatment and a clinician’s right to refuse to provide interventions the clinician finds morally objectionable. Multiple sources of unresolvable moral disagreement make resolution in these terms unlikely. One should instead focus on the parties’ interests and the different ways in which the health care delivery system can (...)
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  16. J. Appleyard (1998). The Rights of Children to Health Care. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):293-294.
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  17. Zbigniew Bańkowski & John H. Bryant (eds.) (1995). Poverty, Vulnerability, the Value of Human Life, and the Emergence of Bioethics: Highlights and Papers of the Xxviiith Cioms Conference, Ixtapa, Guerrero State, Mexico, 17-20 April 1994. [REVIEW] Cioms.
  18. Zbigniew Bańkowski, John H. Bryant & J. Gallagher (eds.) (1997). Ethics, Equity, and the Renewal of Who's Health-for-All Strategy: Proceedings of the Xxixth Cioms Conference, Geneva, Switzerland 12-14 March 1997. [REVIEW] Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (Cioms).
  19. Y. M. Barilan (2004). Is the Clock Ticking for Terminally Ill Patients in Israel? Preliminary Comment on a Proposal for a Bill of Rights for the Terminally Ill. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):353-357.
    This paper presents and discusses a recent Israeli proposal to legislate on the rights of the dying patient. A gap exists between elitist biases of the committee proposing the law, and popular values and sentiments. The proposed law divides the dying patients into two groups: “those who wish to go on living” and “those who wish to die”. The former will have a right to life prolonging extraordinary care. It is not clear who would foot the bill for this care. (...)
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  20. T. L. Beauchamp & R. R. Faden (1979). The Right to Health and the Right to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):118-131.
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  21. Violeta Beširević (2010). End-of-Life Care in the 21st Century: Advance Directives in Universal Rights Discourse. Bioethics 24 (3):105-112.
    ABSTRACTThis article explores universal normative bases that could help to shape a workable legal construct that would facilitate a global use of advance directives. Although I believe that advance directives are of universal character, my primary aim in approaching this issue is to remain realistic. I will make three claims. First, I will argue that the principles of autonomy, dignity and informed consent, embodied in the Oviedo Convention and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, could arguably be regarded (...)
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  22. Jerome Bickenbach (2013). Disability, “Being Unhealthy,” and Rights to Health. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (4):821-828.
    Often advocates for persons with disabilities strongly object to the claim that disability essentially involves a decrement in health. Yet, it is a mystery why anyone with an impairment would ever deny, or feel uncomfortable being told that, their impairment is at bottom a health problem. In this paper, I investigate the conceptual linkages between health and disability, relying on robust conceptualizations of both notions, and conclude it makes no conceptual sense to insist that a person can be seriously impaired (...)
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  23. João Biehl (2010). Medication is Me Now? : Human Values and Political Life in the Wake of Global AIDS Treatment. In Ilana Feldman & Miriam Iris Ticktin (eds.), In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care. Duke University Press.
  24. Louis-jacquesvan Bogaert (2006). Rights of and Duties to Non-Consenting Patients – Informed Refusal in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 6 (1):13–22.
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  25. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with at least typical efficiency. (...)
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  26. James Bopp & Daniel Avila (1995). When Worlds Collide: Disability Rights and Medical Prerogatives in Matters of Life and Death. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 7 (2-3):132-149.
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  27. Lisa Bortolotti & Heather Widdows (2011). The Right Not to Know: The Case of Psychiatric Disorders. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):673-676.
    This paper will consider the right not to know in the context of psychiatric disorders. It will outline the arguments for and against acquiring knowledge about the results of genetic testing for conditions such as breast cancer and Huntington’s disease, and examine whether similar considerations apply to disclosing to clients the results of genetic testing for psychiatric disorders such as depression and Alzheimer’s disease. The right not to know will also be examined in the context of the diagnosis of psychiatric (...)
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  28. Suzanne Bouclin, Abortion in Post-X Ireland.
    The author examines Ireland's Supreme Court decision in the X case and its effects on this country's constitutionally entrenched position of fetal rights. This decision is found to be inadequate for women’s groups and their supporters because of the Court’s adoption of ‘proper candidates’ for abortions. The Irish government’s subsequent efforts to strike a balance between the competing interests only serve to create more ambiguity in determining the legal status of abortion in Ireland. Further, the legal amendments and judicial interpretation (...)
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  29. Vernon J. Bourke (1980). Life and Death with Liberty and Justice: A Contribution to the Euthanasia Debate. By Germain Grisez and Joseph M. Boyle, Jr. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 57 (3):259-261.
  30. Dan W. Brock (2001). Children's Rights to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (2):163 – 177.
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  31. Allen Buchanan (2009). Moral Status and Human Enhancement. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (4):346-381.
  32. Allen Buchanan (1978). Medical Paternalism. Philosophy and Public Affairs 7 (4):370-390.
  33. S. Buetow (1998). The Scope for the Involvement of Patients in Their Consultations with Health Professionals: Rights, Responsibilities and Preferences of Patients. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (4):243-247.
    The degree and nature of patient involvement in consultations with health professionals influences problem and needs recognition and management, and public accountability. This paper suggests a framework for understanding the scope for patient involvement in such consultations. Patients are defined as co-producers of formal health services, whose potential for involvement in consultations depends on their personal rights, responsibilities and preferences. Patients' rights in consultations are poorly defined and, in the National Health Service (NHS), not legally enforceable. The responsibilities of patients (...)
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  34. Scott Bums, Zita Lazzarini & Lawrence O. Gostin (2002). Taking Rights Seriously in Health. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 30 (4):490-491.
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  35. Samantha Byrne, Paul Davey, Kirsti McFarlane, John O'Brien & Craig Templeton (2006). Patent Rights or Patent Wrongs? The Case of Patent Rights on AIDS Drugs. Business Ethics 15 (3):299–305.
  36. Oscar A. Cabrera & Juan Carballo (2013). Tobacco Control Litigation: Broader Impacts on Health Rights Adjudication. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (1):147-162.
    This paper argues that there are instances in which tobacco control litigation is strengthening the justiciability of the right to health and health-related rights. This is happening in different parts of the world, but in particular in Latin America. In part this is because, to a certain extent, tobacco control litigation based on fundamental rights overcomes the traditional arguments against economic, social and cultural rights adjudication: the anti-democratic argument, the lack of technical competency argument, the problem of the misallocation of (...)
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  37. Lisa Sowle Cahill (1989). Moral Traditions, Ethical Language, and Reproductive Technologies. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (5):497-522.
    on reproductive technologies and the OTA report, Infertility , both use "rights" language to advance quite different views of the same subject matter. The former focuses on the rights and welfare of the embryo, and the protection of the family, while the latter stresses the freedom and rights of couples. This essay uses the work of Alasdair Maclntyre and Jeffrey Stout to consider the different traditions grounding these definitions of rights. It is proposed that a potentially effective mediating language could (...)
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  38. R. Alta Charo (1995). Book Review: Women's Health and Human Rights. [REVIEW] Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 23 (2):195-198.
  39. Jean-Claude Chevrolet & Bara Ricou (2009). Hospital Clinical Ethics Committees. The Geneva Experience - Switzerland. Diametros 22:21-38.
    Hospital ethics committees were created in the United States of America in the 1970s. Their aims were the education of the hospital personnel in the field of ethics, the development of policies and the publication of guidelines concerning ethical issues, as well as consultations and case reviews of hospitalized patients when an ethical concern was present. During the last thirty years, these committees disseminated, particularly in Western Europe. In this manuscript, we describe the benefit, but also some difficulties with these (...)
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  40. Michèle Clément & Éric Gagnon (2013). Le comité d'éthique, la vie privée et l'intimité. Interpréter les droits des usagers. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 8 (1):70-90.
    Le respect de la vie privée et de l’intimité est un droit reconnu aux usagers des services de santé et des services sociaux par différents codes d’éthique, par la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne du Québec et par la Loi sur les services de santé et les services sociaux. Pour autant, la signification que prend ce droit demeure incertaine. Il n’y a pas une signification, mais bien des significations. S’appuyant sur un important travail d’observation dans deux comités (...)
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  41. Rowan Cruft & Maksymilian Del Mar (2013). Introduction (Symposium on the Human Right to Subsistence). Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):53-56.
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  42. Thana Cristina de Campos (2012). Health as a Basic Human Need: Would This Be Enough? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (2):251-267.
    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us — states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals — bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the (...)
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  43. Michel Désy (2010). Introduction: Pourquoi l’éthique de la santé publique devrait-elle s’intéresser à l’impact des politiques publiques sur la santé? Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 5 (1):101-104.
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  44. Ulrich Diehl (2005). Gesundheit – hohes oder höchstes Gut? Über den Wert und Stellenwert der Gesundheit. In Hermes Andreas Kick (ed.), Gesundheitswesen zwischen Wirtschaftlichkeit und Menschlichkeit. LIST. 10--113.
    Was kann ein Philosoph dazu beitragen, dass wir uns nicht nur ein adäquates Bild vom tatsächlichen Gesundheitswesen machen, sondern auch verstehen, wie in der Gesundheitspolitik ökonomische Rationalität dem übergeordneten Ziel der Realisierung humaner Verhältnisse dienen könnte? Wenn er kein weltfremder Utopist ist, dann wird er zunächst einmal anerkennen, dass die ökonomische Rationalität und die rechtsstaatliche Regulierung des Gesundheitswesens selbst schon notwendige Bedingungen für die Realisierung von Humanität sind. Denn humane Verhältnisse im Gesundheitswesen sind unter den Realbedingungen von mehr oder weniger (...)
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  45. Andrea Dörries (2009). The 4-Step Approach. Ethics Case Discussion in Hospitals. Diametros 22:39-46.
    The goal of an ethics case discussion is to find the best decision for the patient and the other persons involved (relatives, doctors, nurses and others) from an ethical point of view, in a communicative respect and from a psychosocial view. In the end, it may not mean changing one’s view or even one’s own position, but rather to exchange arguments, weight them and come to a consensus as to further action. The latter is important as the topics concern patients (...)
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  46. Pavlos Eleftheriadis (2012). A Right to Health Care. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (2):268-285.
    What does it mean to say that there is a right to health care? Health care is part of a cooperative project that organizes finite resources. How are these resources to be distributed? This essay discusses three rival theories. The first two, a utilitarian theory and an interst theory, are both instrumental, in that they collapse rights to good states of affairs. A third theory, offered by Thomas Pogge, locates the question within an institutional legal context and distinguishes between a (...)
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  47. Bernice Elger & David Shaw (forthcoming). Confidentiality in Prison Health Care – A Practical Guide. In Bernice Elger, Catherine Ritter & Heino Stöver (eds.), Emerging Issues in Prison Health. Springer.
    The importance of medical confidentiality is obvious to anyone who has ever been a patient, and protecting private information about patients is one of the key responsibilities of healthcare professionals. However, maintaining the confidentiality of patients who are incarcerated in prisons poses several ethical challenges. In this chapter we explain the importance of confidentiality in general, and the dilemmas that sometimes face doctors with regard to it, before describing some of the specific difficulties faced by prison doctors. Although healthcare professionals (...)
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  48. David S. Festinger, Kattiya Ratanadilok, Douglas B. Marlowe, Karen L. Dugosh, Nicholas S. Patapis & David S. DeMatteo (2007). Neuropsychological Functioning and Recall of Research Consent Information Among Drug Court Clients. Ethics and Behavior 17 (2):163 – 186.
    Evidence suggests that research participants often fail to recall much of the information provided during the informed consent process. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of consent information recalled by drug court participants following a structured informed consent procedure and the neuropsychological factors that were related to recall. Eighty-five participants completed a standard informed consent procedure to participate in an ongoing research study, followed by a 17-item consent quiz and a brief neuropsychological battery 2 weeks later. Participants performed (...)
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  49. Dani Filc (2007). The Liberal Grounding of the Right to Health Care: An Egalitarian Critique. Theoria 54 (112):51-72.
    The language of rights is increasingly used to regulate access to health care and allocation of resources in the health care field. The right to health has been grounded on different theories of justice. Scholars within the liberal tradition have grounded the right to health care on Rawls's two principles of justice. Thus, the right to health care has been justified as being one of the basic liberties, as enabling equality of opportunity, or as being justified by the maximin principle. (...)
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  50. Azam Golam (2008). Moral Obligation of Pharmaceutical Companies Towards HIV Victims in Developing Countries. The Dhaka University Studies 64 (1):197-212.
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