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  1. George J. Agich (2009). The Issue of Expertise in Clinical Ethics. Diametros 22:3-20.
    The proliferation of ethics committees and ethics consultation services has engendered a discussion of the issue of the expertise of those who provide clinical ethics consultation services. In this paper, I discuss two aspects of this issue: the cognitive dimension or content knowledge that the clinical ethics consultant should possess and the practical dimension or set of dispositions, skills, and traits that are necessary for effective ethics consultation. I argue that the failure to differentiate and fully explicate these dimensions contributes (...)
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  2. George J. Annas (1982). The Emerging Stowaway: Patients' Rights in the 1980s. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 10 (1):32-35.
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  3. George J. Annas (1980). How to Make the Massachusetts Patients'Bill of Rights Work. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 8 (1):6-8.
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  4. George J. Annas, Patricia Roche & Robert C. Green (2008). Gina, Genism, and Civil Rights. Bioethics 22 (7):ii-iv.
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  5. Armand H. Matheny Antommaria (2008). Adjudicating Rights or Analyzing Interests: Ethicists' Role in the Debate Over Conscience in Clinical Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):201-212.
    The analysis of a dispute can focus on either interests, rights, or power. Commentators often frame the conflict over conscience in clinical practice as a dispute between a patient’s right to legally available medical treatment and a clinician’s right to refuse to provide interventions the clinician finds morally objectionable. Multiple sources of unresolvable moral disagreement make resolution in these terms unlikely. One should instead focus on the parties’ interests and the different ways in which the health care delivery system can (...)
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  6. J. Appleyard (1998). The Rights of Children to Health Care. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):293-294.
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  7. Zbigniew Bańkowski & John H. Bryant (eds.) (1995). Poverty, Vulnerability, the Value of Human Life, and the Emergence of Bioethics: Highlights and Papers of the Xxviiith Cioms Conference, Ixtapa, Guerrero State, Mexico, 17-20 April 1994. [REVIEW] Cioms.
  8. Zbigniew Bańkowski, John H. Bryant & J. Gallagher (eds.) (1997). Ethics, Equity, and the Renewal of Who's Health-for-All Strategy: Proceedings of the Xxixth Cioms Conference, Geneva, Switzerland 12-14 March 1997. [REVIEW] Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (Cioms).
  9. Y. M. Barilan (2004). Is the Clock Ticking for Terminally Ill Patients in Israel? Preliminary Comment on a Proposal for a Bill of Rights for the Terminally Ill. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):353-357.
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  10. T. L. Beauchamp & R. R. Faden (1979). The Right to Health and the Right to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):118-131.
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  11. Violeta Beširević (2010). End-of-Life Care in the 21st Century: Advance Directives in Universal Rights Discourse. Bioethics 24 (3):105-112.
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  12. Jerome Bickenbach (2013). Disability, “Being Unhealthy,” and Rights to Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):821-828.
    Often advocates for persons with disabilities strongly object to the claim that disability essentially involves a decrement in health. Yet, it is a mystery why anyone with an impairment would ever deny, or feel uncomfortable being told that, their impairment is at bottom a health problem. In this paper, I investigate the conceptual linkages between health and disability, relying on robust conceptualizations of both notions, and conclude it makes no conceptual sense to insist that a person can be seriously impaired (...)
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  13. João Biehl (2010). Medication is Me Now? : Human Values and Political Life in the Wake of Global AIDS Treatment. In Ilana Feldman & Miriam Iris Ticktin (eds.), In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care. Duke University Press.
  14. Louis-jacquesvan Bogaert (2006). Rights of and Duties to Non-Consenting Patients – Informed Refusal in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 6 (1):13–22.
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  15. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with at least typical efficiency. (...)
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  16. James Bopp & Daniel Avila (1995). When Worlds Collide: Disability Rights and Medical Prerogatives in Matters of Life and Death. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 7 (2-3):132-149.
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  17. Lisa Bortolotti & Heather Widdows (2011). The Right Not to Know: The Case of Psychiatric Disorders. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):673-676.
    This paper will consider the right not to know in the context of psychiatric disorders. It will outline the arguments for and against acquiring knowledge about the results of genetic testing for conditions such as breast cancer and Huntington’s disease, and examine whether similar considerations apply to disclosing to clients the results of genetic testing for psychiatric disorders such as depression and Alzheimer’s disease. The right not to know will also be examined in the context of the diagnosis of psychiatric (...)
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  18. Vernon J. Bourke (1980). Life and Death with Liberty and Justice: A Contribution to the Euthanasia Debate. By Germain Grisez and Joseph M. Boyle, Jr. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 57 (3):259-261.
  19. Dan W. Brock (2001). Children's Rights to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (2):163 – 177.
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  20. Allen Buchanan (2009). Moral Status and Human Enhancement. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (4):346-381.
  21. Allen Buchanan (1978). Medical Paternalism. Philosophy and Public Affairs 7 (4):370-390.
  22. S. Buetow (1998). The Scope for the Involvement of Patients in Their Consultations with Health Professionals: Rights, Responsibilities and Preferences of Patients. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (4):243-247.
    The degree and nature of patient involvement in consultations with health professionals influences problem and needs recognition and management, and public accountability. This paper suggests a framework for understanding the scope for patient involvement in such consultations. Patients are defined as co-producers of formal health services, whose potential for involvement in consultations depends on their personal rights, responsibilities and preferences. Patients' rights in consultations are poorly defined and, in the National Health Service (NHS), not legally enforceable. The responsibilities of patients (...)
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  23. Scott Bums, Zita Lazzarini & Lawrence O. Gostin (2002). Taking Rights Seriously in Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (4):490-491.
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  24. Samantha Byrne, Paul Davey, Kirsti McFarlane, John O'Brien & Craig Templeton (2006). Patent Rights or Patent Wrongs? The Case of Patent Rights on AIDS Drugs. Business Ethics 15 (3):299–305.
  25. Oscar A. Cabrera & Juan Carballo (2013). Tobacco Control Litigation: Broader Impacts on Health Rights Adjudication. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):147-162.
    This paper argues that there are instances in which tobacco control litigation is strengthening the justiciability of the right to health and health-related rights. This is happening in different parts of the world, but in particular in Latin America. In part this is because, to a certain extent, tobacco control litigation based on fundamental rights overcomes the traditional arguments against economic, social and cultural rights adjudication: the anti-democratic argument, the lack of technical competency argument, the problem of the misallocation of (...)
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  26. Lisa Sowle Cahill (1989). Moral Traditions, Ethical Language, and Reproductive Technologies. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (5):497-522.
    on reproductive technologies and the OTA report, Infertility , both use "rights" language to advance quite different views of the same subject matter. The former focuses on the rights and welfare of the embryo, and the protection of the family, while the latter stresses the freedom and rights of couples. This essay uses the work of Alasdair Maclntyre and Jeffrey Stout to consider the different traditions grounding these definitions of rights. It is proposed that a potentially effective mediating language could (...)
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  27. R. Alta Charo (1995). Book Review: Women's Health and Human Rights. [REVIEW] Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):195-198.
  28. Jean-Claude Chevrolet & Bara Ricou (2009). Hospital Clinical Ethics Committees. The Geneva Experience - Switzerland. Diametros 22:21-38.
    Hospital ethics committees were created in the United States of America in the 1970s. Their aims were the education of the hospital personnel in the field of ethics, the development of policies and the publication of guidelines concerning ethical issues, as well as consultations and case reviews of hospitalized patients when an ethical concern was present. During the last thirty years, these committees disseminated, particularly in Western Europe. In this manuscript, we describe the benefit, but also some difficulties with these (...)
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  29. Michèle Clément & Éric Gagnon (2013). Le comité d'éthique, la vie privée et l'intimité. Interpréter les droits des usagers. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 8 (1):70-90.
    Le respect de la vie privée et de l’intimité est un droit reconnu aux usagers des services de santé et des services sociaux par différents codes d’éthique, par la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne du Québec et par la Loi sur les services de santé et les services sociaux. Pour autant, la signification que prend ce droit demeure incertaine. Il n’y a pas une signification, mais bien des significations. S’appuyant sur un important travail d’observation dans deux comités (...)
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  30. Rowan Cruft & Maksymilian Del Mar (2013). Introduction (Symposium on the Human Right to Subsistence). Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):53-56.
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  31. Thana Cristina de Campos (2012). Health as a Basic Human Need: Would This Be Enough? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):251-267.
    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us — states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals — bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the (...)
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  32. Ulrich Diehl (2005). Gesundheit – hohes oder höchstes Gut? Über den Wert und Stellenwert der Gesundheit. In Hermes Andreas Kick (ed.), Gesundheitswesen zwischen Wirtschaftlichkeit und Menschlichkeit. LIST. 10--113.
    Was kann ein Philosoph dazu beitragen, dass wir uns nicht nur ein adäquates Bild vom tatsächlichen Gesundheitswesen machen, sondern auch verstehen, wie in der Gesundheitspolitik ökonomische Rationalität dem übergeordneten Ziel der Realisierung humaner Verhältnisse dienen könnte? Wenn er kein weltfremder Utopist ist, dann wird er zunächst einmal anerkennen, dass die ökonomische Rationalität und die rechtsstaatliche Regulierung des Gesundheitswesens selbst schon notwendige Bedingungen für die Realisierung von Humanität sind. Denn humane Verhältnisse im Gesundheitswesen sind unter den Realbedingungen von mehr oder weniger (...)
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  33. Andrea Dörries (2009). The 4-Step Approach. Ethics Case Discussion in Hospitals. Diametros 22:39-46.
    The goal of an ethics case discussion is to find the best decision for the patient and the other persons involved (relatives, doctors, nurses and others) from an ethical point of view, in a communicative respect and from a psychosocial view. In the end, it may not mean changing one’s view or even one’s own position, but rather to exchange arguments, weight them and come to a consensus as to further action. The latter is important as the topics concern patients (...)
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  34. Pavlos Eleftheriadis (2012). A Right to Health Care. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):268-285.
    What does it mean to say that there is a right to health care? Health care is part of a cooperative project that organizes finite resources. How are these resources to be distributed? This essay discusses three rival theories. The first two, a utilitarian theory and an interst theory, are both instrumental, in that they collapse rights to good states of affairs. A third theory, offered by Thomas Pogge, locates the question within an institutional legal context and distinguishes between a (...)
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  35. Bernice Elger & David Shaw (forthcoming). Confidentiality in Prison Health Care – A Practical Guide. In Bernice Elger, Catherine Ritter & Heino Stöver (eds.), Emerging Issues in Prison Health. Springer.
    The importance of medical confidentiality is obvious to anyone who has ever been a patient, and protecting private information about patients is one of the key responsibilities of healthcare professionals. However, maintaining the confidentiality of patients who are incarcerated in prisons poses several ethical challenges. In this chapter we explain the importance of confidentiality in general, and the dilemmas that sometimes face doctors with regard to it, before describing some of the specific difficulties faced by prison doctors. Although healthcare professionals (...)
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  36. David S. Festinger, Kattiya Ratanadilok, Douglas B. Marlowe, Karen L. Dugosh, Nicholas S. Patapis & David S. DeMatteo (2007). Neuropsychological Functioning and Recall of Research Consent Information Among Drug Court Clients. Ethics and Behavior 17 (2):163 – 186.
    Evidence suggests that research participants often fail to recall much of the information provided during the informed consent process. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of consent information recalled by drug court participants following a structured informed consent procedure and the neuropsychological factors that were related to recall. Eighty-five participants completed a standard informed consent procedure to participate in an ongoing research study, followed by a 17-item consent quiz and a brief neuropsychological battery 2 weeks later. Participants performed (...)
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  37. Dani Filc (2007). The Liberal Grounding of the Right to Health Care: An Egalitarian Critique. Theoria 54 (112):51-72.
    The language of rights is increasingly used to regulate access to health care and allocation of resources in the health care field. The right to health has been grounded on different theories of justice. Scholars within the liberal tradition have grounded the right to health care on Rawls's two principles of justice. Thus, the right to health care has been justified as being one of the basic liberties, as enabling equality of opportunity, or as being justified by the maximin principle. (...)
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  38. Vic Larcher (2009). The Development and Function of Clinical Ethics Committees (CECs) in the United Kingdom. Diametros 22:47-63.
    In the UK an increasing number of Clinical Ethics Committees (CECs) have been developed mainly in response to local need and interest. Their functions include education of health professionals, of policy and guideline development, and case review (both retrospective analysis of topics and advice on acute cases). The UK Clinical Ethics Network, a charitable foundation provides CEC s with help, support and advice and enables them to share their experience The legal status of UK CECs is unclear but some legal (...)
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  39. Ignacio Mastroleo (forthcoming). Introducción al problema de la continuidad del tratamiento beneficioso para los sujetos de investigación. In Jorge Alberto Álvarez Díaz (ed.), Ensayos sobre ética de la salud. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Unidad Xochimilco.
    ¿Qué ocurre con la continuidad del tratamiento de los sujetos de investigación después de que realizan la última visita del ensayo en el que participan? En algunos casos, la falta de continuidad de atención de la salud apropiada podría poner en peligro la salud de estas personas. Por lo tanto, es probable que los sujetos de investigación que al terminar su participación en un ensayo todavía se encuentran enfermos, necesiten continuar con el tratamiento en estudio u otra atención de la (...)
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  40. Ignacio Mastroleo (2014). Consideraciones sobre las obligaciones posinvestigación en la Declaración de Helsinki 2013. Revista de Bioética y Derecho 31:51-65.
    [RESUMEN] El problema de la transición de los participantes desde una investigación hacia la atención de la salud apropiada es un problema global. La publicación de una nueva versión de la Declaración de Helsinki es una excelente oportunidad para repensar este problema. Según mi interpretación, la Declaración de Helsinki 2013 introduce dos tipos diferentes de obligaciones posinvestigación, a saber, (1) obligaciones de acceso a atención de la salud y (2) obligaciones de acceso a información. Los beneficiarios pretendidos de estas obligaciones (...)
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  41. Ignacio Mastroleo (2012). Guías para los comités de ética de investigación del Reino Unido sobre atención de la salud después de la investigación: un comentario crítico sobre la traducción al español del borrador versión 8.0. Perspectivas Bioéticas 17 (33):71-81.
    [RESUMEN] Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la primera traducción al español de las guías del Reino Unido “Atención después de la investigación: un marco para los comités de ética de investigación del NHS (borrador versión 8.0)”. El comentario se divide en tres partes. En la primera parte, se busca resumir la información básica necesaria para mejorar la lectura comprensiva de la traducción de las guías. En la segunda parte, se analiza una selección de la normativa argentina que trata sobre (...)
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  42. James T. McHugh (1994). Health Care Reform and Abortion: A Catholic Moral Perspective. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (5):491-500.
    The Catholic Church in the United States provides extensive health care service through its more than 600 health facilities. The Church, on the basis of its moral teaching, sees health care as a basic human right and supports universal coverage. At the same time, the Church considers abortion morally wrong and opposes coverage of abortion as a health service in a national health plan. Mandated coverage of abortion would violate the moral commitments of Catholic hospitals and the consciences of Catholics (...)
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  43. Sheila A. M. McLean (2009). Clinical Ethics Consultation in the United Kingdom. Diametros 22:76 – 89.
    The system of clinical ethics committees (CECs) in the United Kingdom is based on goodwill. No formal requirements exist as to constitution, membership, range of expertise or the status of their recommendations. Healthcare professionals are not obliged to use CECs where they exist, nor to follow any advice received. In addition, the make-up of CECs suggests that ethics itself may be under-represented. In most cases, there is one member with a training in ethics – the rest are healthcare professionals or (...)
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  44. Richard W. Momeyer (1983). Medical Decisions Concerning Noncompetent Patients. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (3).
    Medical decisions concerning noncompetent patients that are most morally problematical are those that involve life and death choices. In making these choices for others, I urge that decision-makers carefully attend to the degree and history of a person's noncompetence, and distinguish four relevant categories of competence: partial, potential, lost and never possessed. Attending to these will help enable us to sort out when and how autonomous choice is possible and desirable and when and how to rely upon a judgment of (...)
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  45. Jagat Pal (1998). The Right to Suicide. Journal of Value Inquiry 32 (4):555-557.
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  46. Craig Paterson, Health Care, Social Justice and the Common Good.
    This paper is essentially concerned with defending the idea of a universal right to adequate health care coverage. It will argue for the existence of a human right grounded in Catholic social thought. At the outset, a statement of clarification is needed. This paper does not pretend to offer the panacea for all ills relating to health care provision. Rather, it is an inquiry into the kinds of value that should inform decision making relating to health policy. A universal right (...)
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  47. Kathryn L. Ponder & Melissa Nothnagle (2010). Damage Control: Unintended Pregnancy in the United States Military. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):386-395.
    Women's access to reproductive health care is an ongoing source of conflict in U.S. politics; however, women in the military are often overlooked in these debates. Reproductive health care, including family planning, is a fundamental component of health care for women. Unintended pregnancy carries substantial health risks and financial costs, particularly for servicewomen. Compared with their civilian counterparts, women in the military experience greater challenges in preventing unwanted pregnancy and have less access to contraceptive services and abortion. Current military policies, (...)
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  48. Tanja Ramsauer & Andreas Frewer (2009). Clinical Ethics Committees and Pediatrics. An Evaluation of Case Consultations. Diametros 22:90 – 104.
    Since Clinical Ethics Consultation has become important in the public health sector in the last decade in Germany, there are on-going questions about effectiveness. Targets have been established by the Ethics Committees, in regard to assisting patients, families and health care teams at times of ethical conflicts during the decision-making process in medical care. Of all the ethics consultations over the last eight years at Erlangen University Hospital the consultations carried out in the pediatric department were chosen to be reviewed (...)
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  49. Priya Satalkar & David Shaw (2013). Not Fit for Purpose: The Ethical Guidelines of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Developing World Bioethics 13 (2).
    In 2006, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) published its ‘Ethical guidelines for Biomedical Research on human participants’. The intention was to translate international ethical standards into locally and culturally appropriate norms and values to help biomedical researchers in India to conduct ethical research and thereby safeguard the interest of human subjects. Unfortunately, it is apparent that the guideline is not fit for purpose. In addition to problems with the structure and clarity of the guidelines, there are several serious (...)
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  50. David Shaw (2014). The Right to Participate in High-Risk Research. The Lancet 38:1009 – 1011.
    Institutional review boards (IRBs) have a reputation for impeding research. This reputation is understandable inasmuch as many studies are poorly designed, exploit participants, or do not ask a relevant question , and it is entirely proper that IRBs should reject such proposals. However, IRBs also frequently reject or tamper with perfectly sound and relevant studies in the name of protecting participants from harm, in accordance with the widely accepted message that “clinical research is justified only when participants are protected from (...)
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