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Hearing

Edited by Casey O'Callaghan (Washington University in St. Louis)
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  1. Jussi Backman (2015). Towards a Genealogy of the Metaphysics of Sight: Seeing, Hearing, and Thinking in Heraclitus and Parmenides. In Antonio Cimino & Pavlos Kontos (eds.), Phenomenology and the Metaphysics of Sight. Brill 11-34.
    The paper outlines a tentative genealogy of the Platonic metaphysics of sight by thematizing pre-Platonic thought, particularly Heraclitus and Parmenides. By “metaphysics of sight” it understands the features of Platonic-Aristotelian metaphysics expressed with the help of visual metaphors. It is argued that the Platonic metaphysics of sight can be regarded as the result of a synthesis of the Heraclitean and Parmenidean approaches. In pre-Platonic thought, the visual paradigm is still marginal. For Heraclitus, the basic structure of being is its discursive (...)
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  2. Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). In Defense of Hearing Meanings. Synthese.
    According to the inferential view of language comprehension, we hear a speaker’s utterance and infer what was said, drawing on our competence in the syntax and semantics of the language together with background information. On the alternative perceptual view, fluent speakers have a non-inferential capacity to perceive the content of speech. On this view, when we hear a speaker’s utterance, the experience confers some degree of justification on our beliefs about what was said in the absence of defeaters. So, in (...)
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  3. R. Casati, E. Di Bona & J. Dokic (2013). The Ockhamization of the Event Sources of Sound. Analysis 73 (3):462-466.
    There is one character too many in the triad sound, event source, thing source. As there are neither phenomenological nor metaphysical grounds for distinguishing sounds and sound sources, we propose to identify them.
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  4. Mark DeBellis (1991). The Representational Content of Musical Experience. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (June):303-24.
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  5. Andreas Dorschel (2011). Music and Pain. In Jane Fulcher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the New Cultural History of Music. Oxford University Press 68-79.
    Ancient mythology related music to pain in a twofold way. Pain is the punishment inflicted for producing inferior music: the fate of Marsyas; music is sublimation of pain: the achievement of Orpheus and of Philomela. Both aspects have played defining roles in Western musical culture. Pain’s natural expression is the scream. To be present in music at all, pain needs to be transformed. So even where music expresses pain, at the same time it appeases that very pain. Unlike the scream, (...)
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  6. Andreas Dorschel (2008). Musik und Schmerz. Musiktheorie 23 (3):257-263.
    Ancient mythology related music to pain in a twofold way. Pain is the punishment inflicted for producing inferior music: the fate of Marsyas; music is sublimation of pain: the achievement of Orpheus and of Philomela. Both aspects have played defining roles in Western musical culture. Pain’s natural expression is the scream. To be present in music at all, pain needs to be transformed. So even where music expresses pain, at the same time it appeases that very pain. Unlike the scream, (...)
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  7. Gunnar Fant (1976). Speech Sounds and Features. Foundations of Language 14 (4):597-600.
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  8. A. Gritten (2012). Book Review: Sounds: A Philosophical Theory; Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (4):430-434.
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  9. Don Ihde (2007). Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound. Suny Press.
    Listening and Voice is an updated and expanded edition of Don Ihde's groundbreaking 1976 classic in the study of sound.
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  10. Don Ihde (1982). On Hearing Shapes, Surfaces and Interiors. In Phenomenology Dialogues & Bridges. Suny
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  11. Don Ihde (1976). Listening And Voice: A Phenomenology Of Sound. Ohio University Press.
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  12. Don Ihde (1966). Some Auditory Phenomena. Philosophy Today 10 (4):227-235.
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  13. Mark A. Johnstone (2013). Aristotle on Sounds. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (5):631-48.
    In this paper I consider two related issues raised by Aristotle 's treatment of hearing and sounds. The first concerns the kinds of changes Aristotle takes to occur, in both perceptual medium and sense organs, when a perceiver hears a sounding object. The second issue concerns Aristotle 's views on the nature and location of the proper objects of auditory perception. I argue that Aristotle 's views on these topics are not what they have sometimes been taken to be, and (...)
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  14. J. A. Judge (forthcoming). Does the ‘Missing Fundamental’ Require an Inferentialist Explanation? Topoi:1-11.
    In arbitrating between representational and relational theories of perception, perceptual illusions—cases in which a subject’s perceptual experience diverges from the way the world really is—constitute an important battleground. The debate has, however, been dominated by discussions of visual perception. In attempting to extend the debate to audition, it is appropriate to start by considering what is thought to be a key case of auditory illusion. I consider the phenomenon of the ‘missing fundamental’, as well as examining a notion that is (...)
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  15. Andrew Kania (2010). Review of Matthew Nudds, Casey O'Callaghan (Eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).
    Review of Matthew Nudds and Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), _Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays_.
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  16. J. Kulvicki (2008). Review: Casey O'Callaghan: Sounds: A Philosophical Theory. [REVIEW] Mind 117 (468):1112-1116.
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  17. Jason Leddington (2014). What We Hear. In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Springer Studies in Brain and Mind
    A longstanding philosophical tradition holds that the primary objects of hearing are sounds rather than sound sources. In this case, we hear sound sources by—or in virtue of—hearing their sounds. This paper argues that, on the contrary, we have good reason to believe that the primary objects of hearing are sound sources, and that the relationship between a sound and its source is much like the relationship between a color and its bearer. Just as we see objects in seeing their (...)
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  18. Alvin M. Liberman, Pierre C. Delattre, Louis J. Gerstman & Franklin S. Cooper (1956). Tempo of Frequency Change as a Cue for Distinguishing Classes of Speech Sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (2):127.
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  19. Alvin M. Liberman, Katherine Safford Harris, Howard S. Hoffman & Belver C. Griffith (1957). The Discrimination of Speech Sounds Within and Across Phoneme Boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (5):358.
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  20. Fiona Macpherson (1999). Perfect Pitch and the Content of Experience. Philosophy and Anthropology 3 (2).
  21. M. G. F. Martin (2012). Sounds and Images. British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (4):331-351.
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  22. Mohan Matthen (forthcoming). Effort and Displeasure in People Who Are Hard of Hearing. Ear and Hearing.
    Listening effort helps explain why people who are hard of hearing are prone to fatigue and social withdrawal. However, a one-factor model that cites only effort due to hardness of hearing is insufficient as there are many who lead happy lives despite their disability. This paper explores other contributory factors, in particular motivational arousal and pleasure. The theory of rational motivational arousal predicts that some people forego listening comprehension because they believe it to be impossible and hence worth no effort (...)
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  23. Mohan Matthen (2015). Introduction to Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Perception. In Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press 1-25.
    Perception is the ultimate source of our knowledge about contingent facts. It is an extremely important philosophical development that starting in the last quarter of the twentieth century, philosophers have begun to change how they think of perception. The traditional view of perception focussed on sensory receptors; it has become clear, however, that perceptual systems radically transform the output of these receptors, yielding content concerning objects and events in the external world. Adequate understanding of this process requires (...)
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  24. Mohan Matthen (2010). On the Diversity of Auditory Objects. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):63-89.
    This paper defends two theses about sensory objects. The more general thesis is that directly sensed objects are those delivered by sub-personal processes. It is shown how this thesis runs counter to perceptual atomism, the view that wholes are always sensed indirectly, through their parts. The more specific thesis is that while the direct objects of audition are all composed of sounds, these direct objects are not all sounds—here, a composite auditory object is a temporal sequence of sounds (whereas a (...)
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  25. Hannes Ole Matthiessen (2010). Seeing and Hearing Directly. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):91-103.
    According to Paul Snowdon, one directly perceives an object x iff one is in a position to make a true demonstrative judgement of the form “That is x”. Whenever one perceives an object x indirectly (or dependently , as Snowdon puts it) it is the case that there exists an item y (which is not identical to x) such that one can count as demonstrating x only if one acknowledges that y bears a certain relation to x. In this paper (...)
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  26. D. H. Mershon & J. W. Philbeck (1991). Auditory Perceived Distance of Familiar Speech Sounds. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):530-530.
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  27. Christopher Mole (2009). The Motor Theory of Speech Perception. In Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press
    There is a long‐standing project in psychology the goal of which is to explain our ability to perceive speech. The project is motivated by evidence that seems to indicate that the cognitive processing to which speech sounds are subjected is somehow different from the normal processing employed in hearing. The Motor Theory of speech perception was proposed in the 1960s as an attempt to explain this specialness. The first part of this essay is concerned with the Motor (...)'s explanandum. It shows that it is rather hard to give a precise account of what the Motor Theory is a theory of. The second part of the essay identifies problems with the theory's explanans: There are difficulties in finding a plausible account of what the content of the Motor Theory is supposed to be. (shrink)
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  28. Adam Morton, Space and Sound: A Two Component Theory of Pitch Perception.
    I identify two components in the perception of musical pitches, which make pitch perception more like colour perception than it is usually taken to be. To back up this implausible claim I describe a programme whereby individuals can learn to identify the components in musical tones. I also claim that following this programme can affect one's pitch-recognition capacities.
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  29. Matthew Nudds, Auditory Perception.
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  30. Matthew Nudds (2010). What Are Auditory Objects? Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):105-122.
    Our auditory experience involves the experience of auditory objects—sequences of distinct sounds, or parts of continuous sounds—that are experienced as grouped together into a single sound or “stream” of sounds. In this paper I argue that it is not possible to explain what it is to experience an auditory object as such—i.e. to experience a sequence of sounds as grouped—in purely auditory terms; rather, to experience an auditory object as such is to experience a sequence of sounds as having been (...)
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  31. Matthew Nudds (2009). Sounds and Space. In Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. OUP Oxford
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  32. Matthew Nudds (2001). Experiencing the Production of Sounds. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):210-229.
    Whether or not we would be happy to do without sounds, the idea that our expe- rience of sounds is of things which are distinct from the world of material objects can seem compelling. All you have to do to confirm it is close your eyes and reflect on the character of your auditory experience.
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  33. Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.) (2010). Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
    The views are original, and there is substantive engagement among contributors. This collection will stimulate future research in this area.
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  34. Casey O'Callaghan, Pitch.
    Some sounds have pitch, some do not. A tuba’s notes are lower pitched than a flute’s, but the fuzz from an untuned radio has no discernible pitch. Pitch is an attribute in virtue of which sounds that possess it can be ordered from “low” to “high”. Given how audition works, physics has taught us that frequency determines what pitch a sound auditorily appears to have.
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  35. Casey O'Callaghan (2014). Audible Independence and Binding. In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Springer Studies in Brain and Mind
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  36. Casey O'Callaghan (2014). Auditory Perception. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009.
  37. Casey O'Callaghan (2013). Hearing, Philosophical Perspectives. In H. Pashler (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind. SAGE 388-390.
    Hearing and auditory perception are rapidly developing topics in the philosophy of perception. Recent work has focused on characterizing what we hear and on similarities and differences between audition and other modalities. Future work should address how theorizing about audition impacts theorizing about perception more generally. This entry concerns questions about the objects and contents of hearing. It includes discussion of the spatial content of audition, of the role of time and pitch in the individuation of auditory objects, and of (...)
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  38. Casey O'Callaghan (2011). Hearing Properties, Effects or Parts? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (3pt3):375-405.
    Sounds are audible, and sound sources are audible. What is the audible relation between audible sounds and audible sources? Common talk and philosophy suggest three candidates. The first is that sounds audibly are properties instantiated by their sources. I argue that sounds are audible individuals and thus are not audibly instantiated by audible sources. The second is that sounds audibly are effects of their sources. I argue that auditory experience presents no compelling evidence that sounds audibly are causally related to (...)
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  39. Casey O'Callaghan (2011). Against Hearing Meanings. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (245):783-807.
    Listening to speech in a language you know differs phenomenologically from listening to speech in an unfamiliar language, a fact often exploited in debates about the phenomenology of thought and cognition. It is plausible that the difference is partly perceptual. Some contend that hearing familiar language involves auditory perceptual awareness of meanings or semantic properties of spoken utterances; but if this were so, there must be something distinctive it is like auditorily to perceptually experience specific meanings of spoken utterances. However, (...)
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  40. Casey O'Callaghan (2011). Lessons From Beyond Vision (Sounds and Audition). Philosophical Studies 153 (1):143-160.
    Recent work on non-visual modalities aims to translate, extend, revise, or unify claims about perception beyond vision. This paper presents central lessons drawn from attention to hearing, sounds, and multimodality. It focuses on auditory awareness and its objects, and it advances more general lessons for perceptual theorizing that emerge from thinking about sounds and audition. The paper argues that sounds and audition no better support the privacy of perception’s objects than does vision; that perceptual objects are more diverse than an (...)
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  41. Casey O'Callaghan (2011). On Privations and Their Perception. Acta Analytica 26 (2):175-186.
    Despite its admirable bottom-up methodology, Roy Sorensen's Seeing Dark Things (OUP, 2008) raises difficult theoretical questions concerning the metaphysics and perception of absences. Metaphysical difficulties include how to individuate, count, locate, and classify absences, and what determines their features. Perceptual difficulties include how to distinguish experiences of absences and presences, especially when nonveridical, and what subjects contribute to perceptual experience according to Sorensen's causal theory. In addition to articulating these difficulties, this paper also presents and explores, on Sorensen's terms, an (...)
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  42. Casey O'Callaghan (2010). Perceiving the Locations of Sounds. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):123-140.
    Frequently, we learn of the locations of things and events in our environment by means of hearing. Hearing, I argue, is a locational mode of perceiving with a robustly spatial phenomenology. I defend three proposals. First, audition furnishes one with information about the locations of things and happenings in one’s environment because auditory experience itself has spatial content—auditory experience involves awareness of space. Second, we hear the locations of things and events by or in hearing the locations of their sounds. (...)
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  43. Casey O'Callaghan (2010). Constructing a Theory of Sounds. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 5:247-270.
    Vision has dominated philosophical thinking about perceptual experience and the nature of its objects. Color has long been the focus of debates about the metaphysics of sensible qualities, and philosophers have struggled to articulate the conditions on the visual experience of mind-independent objects. With few notable exceptions, "visuocentrism" has shaped our understanding of the nature and functions of perception, and of our conception of its objects. The predominant line of thought from the early modern era to the present is that, (...)
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  44. Casey O'Callaghan (2010). Experiencing Speech. Philosophical Issues 20 (1):305-332.
  45. Casey O'Callaghan (2010). Perceiving the Locations of Sounds. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):123--140.
    Frequently, we learn of the locations of things and events in our environment by means of hearing. Hearing, I argue, is a locational mode of perceiving with a robustly spatial nature. I defend three proposals. First, audition furnishes information about the locations of things and events in one's environment because auditory experience itself is spatial. Audition represents space. Second, we hear the locations of things and events by or in hearing locational information about their sounds. Third, we auditorily experience sounds (...)
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  46. Casey O'Callaghan (2009). Sounds. In Timothy J. Bayne, Axel Cleeremans & P. Wilken (eds.), Oxford Companion to Consciousness. OUP
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  47. Casey O'Callaghan (2009). Audition. In John Symons & Paco Calvo (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. Routledge
    Provides the theoretical and psychological framework to the philosophy of sounds and audition. I address auditory scene analysis, spatial hearing, the audible qualities, and cross-modal interactions.
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  48. Casey O'Callaghan (2009). Introduction: The Philosophy of Sounds and Auditory Perception. In Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press
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  49. Casey O'Callaghan (2009). Sounds and Events. In Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press 26--49.
    I argue that sounds are best conceived not as pressure waves that travel through a medium, nor as physical properties of the objects ordinarily thought to be the sources of sounds, but rather as events of a certain kind. Sounds are particular events in which a surrounding medium is disturbed or set into wavelike motion by the activities of a body or interacting bodies. This Event View of sounds provides for a uni- ?ed perceptual account of several pervasive sound phenomena, (...)
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  50. Casey O'Callaghan (2009). The World of Sounds. The Philosophers' Magazine (45):63-69.
    Audition, like vision, is a rich source of information about the environment, and we learn a great deal through hearing. Hearing helps us to negotiate oursurroundings, to a degree that is obscured by preoccupation with the visual. Hearing sounds allows us to access music and spoken language, and thus holds strong emotional and communicative interest for humans.
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