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Summary Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) is widely regarded as the most enduringly significant figure in late 19th century Anglo-American moral philosophy. He is both the last of the three classical utilitarians (Bentham, Mill, and Sidgwick) and the first in a tradition of British intuitionists stretching into the mid 20th century and including Moore and Ross. His works include books on political philosophy, political history, and economics, and articles on issues in epistemology and general philosophy. But by far his most discussed work in his masterpiece, The Methods of Ethics (first edition 1874, 7th (posthumous) edition 1907).
Key works For the student of ethics, Sidgwick's own most important works are The Methods of Ethics (Sidgwick 1907); Lectures on the Ethics of T.H. Green, Mr. Herbert Spencer, and J. Martineau (Sidgwick 1902) and Essays on Ethics and Method (Sidgwick 2000). Important secondary sources include C.D. Broad, Five Types of Ethical Theory (Broad 1959); Jerome Schneewind, Sidgwick's Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy (Schneewind 1977); Robert Shaver, Rational Egoism (Shaver 1998);  Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe (Schultz 2004); Terence Irwin, The Development of Ethics, Vol. III (Irwin 2009); and David Phillips, Sidgwickian Ethics (Phillips 2011).
Introductions The best introductions to Sidgwick's work are probably his own in the "short intellectual autobiography" included by his literary executor, E.E. Constance Jones, in the Preface to the 6th edition of the Methods (Sidgwick 1907, xvii-xxiii) and Bart Schultz's Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article "Henry Sidgwick".
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  1. R. Adamson (1883). Mr. H. Sidgwick on the Critical Philosophy. Mind 8 (30):251-255.
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  2. J. B. (1960). Henry Sidgwick and Later Utilitarian Political Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 13 (4):701-701.
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  3. G. F. Barbour (1908). Green and Sidgwick on the Community of the Good. Philosophical Review 17 (2):149-166.
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  4. Alfred Barratt (1877). The `Suppression' of Egoism. Mind 2 (6):167-186.
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  5. M. A. Bayfield (1904). Sidgwick's Septem C. Thebas and Persae of Aischylos Aeschylus, Septem Contra Thebas and Persae (Separate Vols.). With Introduction and Notes by A. Sidgwick. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 18 (03):159-163.
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  6. Brand Blanshard (1974). Sidgwick the Man. The Monist 58 (3):349-370.
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  7. Sissela Bok (2000). Henry Sidgwick's Practical Ethics. Utilitas 12 (03):361-.
    How practical can ethics be? To what extent is it possible to put ethics , in the words of Samuel Johnson? In Practical Ethics, Henry Sidgwick offers the distillation of a lifetime of reflection on how to relate moral theory and practice. This book provides both a model and a cautionary example. Its lucid, urbane, and broad-gauged approach to practical moral issues is exemplary; but its very lucidity also exposes the moral risks in Sidgwick's attempt to isolate deliberation about these (...)
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  8. B. Bosanquet (1898). Book Review:Practical Ethics. A Collection of Addresses and Essays. Henry Sidgwick. [REVIEW] Ethics 8 (3):390-.
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  9. David Brink (1992). Sidgwick and the Rationale for Rational Egoism. In Bart Schultz (ed.), Essays on Henry Sidgwick. Cambridge University Press.
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  10. David O. Brink (1999). Objectivity and Dialectical Methods in Ethics. Inquiry 42 (2):195 – 212.
    A cognitivist interpretation of moral inquiry treats it, like other kinds of inquiry, as aiming at true belief. A dialectical conception of moral inquiry represents the justification for a given moral belief as consisting in its intellectual fit with other beliefs, both moral and nonmoral. The essay appeals to semantic considerations to defend cognitivism as a default metaethical view; it defends a dialectical conception of moral inquiry by examining Sidgwick's ambivalence about the probative value of appeal to common moral beliefs (...)
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  11. David O. Brink (1988). Sidgwick's Dualism of Practical Reason. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (3):291 – 307.
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  12. Karl Britton (1978). Sidgwick's Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy By J. B. Schneewind Clarendon Press: Oxford University Press, 1977, Xvi + 405 Pp., £17.50. [REVIEW] Philosophy 53 (203):132-.
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  13. Karl Britton (1974). Henry Sidgwick: Science and Faith in Victorian England By D. G. James. With a Memoir of the Author by Gwyn Jones. Oxford University Press, 1970, Xvi + 64 Pp., 80p. [REVIEW] Philosophy 49 (188):217-.
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  14. C. D. Broad (1959). Five Types of Ethical Theory. Paterson, N.J.,Littlefield, Adams.
    Secondly, all five authors are thinkers of the highest rank, so it is reasonable to suppose that the types of ethical theory which they favoured will be ...
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  15. Placido Bucolo, Roger Crisp & Bart Schultz (eds.) (forthcoming). Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Henry Sidgwick: Ethics, Psychics, Politics. Universita degli Studi di Catania.
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  16. H. Calderwood (1876). Mr. Sidgwick on Intuitionalism. Mind 1 (2):197-206.
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  17. George R. Carlson (1988). Parfit, Sidgwick, and Divided Reason. Philosophia 18 (2-3):247-252.
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  18. Roger Crisp (2013). Metaphysics, Epistemology, Utilitarianism, Intuitionism, and Egoism: A Response to Phillips on Sidgwick. Revue D’Études Benthamiennes 12.
    The shape of contemporary ethics owes a great deal to Henry Sidgwick, through his influence on Rawls, Parfit, and others. No one who reads David Phillips’s outstanding book can be left in the slightest doubt about Sidgwick’s continuing significance for both metaethics and normative ethics. Phillips’s scholarship and his substantive arguments are powerful and insightful, and I find them largely persuasive. So in these remarks I intend merely to raise a few questions about each of his four main..
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  19. Roger Crisp (2006). Reasons and the Good. Clarendon Press.
    In Reasons and the Good Roger Crisp answers some of the oldest questions in moral philosophy. Claiming that a fundamental issue in normative ethics is what ultimate reasons for action we might have, he argues that the best statements of such reasons will not employ moral concepts. He investigates and explains the nature of reasons themselves; his account of how we come to know them combines an intuitionist epistemology with elements of Pyrrhonist scepticism. He defends a hedonistic theory of well-being (...)
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  20. Roger Crisp (2002). Sidgwick and the Boundaries of Intuitionism. In Philip Stratton-Lake (ed.), Ethical Intuitionism. Oxford Clarendon Press. 56--75.
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  21. Roger Crisp (1996). The Dualism of Practical Reason. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 96:53 - 73.
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  22. Roger Crisp (1990). Sidgwick and Self-Interest. Utilitas 2 (02):267-.
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  23. David Crossley (2006). Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe—An Intellectual Biography Bart Schultz New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004, Xx + 858 Pp., $45.00. [REVIEW] Dialogue 45 (02):393-.
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  24. David Crossley (2006). Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe-an Intellectual Biography. Dialogue 45 (2):393-395.
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  25. David A. Curtis (1986). A Class and State Analysis of Henry Sidgwick's Utilitarianism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 11 (3):259-296.
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  26. Stephen Darwall (2000). Sidgwick, Concern, and the Good. Utilitas 12 (03):291-.
    Sidgwick maintains, plausibly, that the concept of a person's good is a normative one and takes for granted that it is normative for the agent's own choice and action. I argue that the normativity of a person's good must be understood in relation to concern for someone for that person's own sake. A person's good, I suggest, is what one should (rationally) want for that person in so far as one cares about him, or what one should want for him (...)
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  27. Stephen L. Darwall (1974). Pleasure as Ultimate Good in Sidgwick's Ethics. The Monist 58 (3):475-489.
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  28. Michael Davis (1998). Sidgwick's Impractical Ethics. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (2):153-159.
    Oxford inaugurated its new series in practical ethics by reprinting Sidgwick’s century-old Practical Ethics, edited and introduced by Sissela Bok. While this reissue is, in many respects, both appropriate and welcome, it is, in one respect, quite inappropriate. Even a short examination of Sidgwick’s little book shows that Sidgwick did not understand practical ethics as we do: a) because he radically overestimated the importance of a common theoretical starting point; and b) because he radically underestimated the importance of detailed study (...)
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  29. Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek & Peter Singer (2012). The Objectivity of Ethics and the Unity of Practical Reason. Ethics 123 (1):9-31.
    Evolutionary accounts of the origins of human morality may lead us to doubt the truth of our moral judgments. Sidgwick tried to vindicate ethics from this kind of external attack. However, he ended The Methods in despair over another problem—an apparent conflict between rational egoism and universal benevolence, which he called the “dualism of practical reason.” Drawing on Sidgwick, we show that one way of defending objectivity in ethics against Sharon Street’s recent evolutionary critique also puts us in a position (...)
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  30. John Deigh (2010). Some Further Thoughts on Sidgwick's Epistemology. Utilitas 22 (1):78-89.
    This article is a reply to Anthony Skelton's . Professor Skelton, in his article, makes several objections to the account of Sidgwick's epistemology I presented in my earlier article . I answer these objections by further explaining my account.
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  31. John Deigh (2007). Sidgwick's Epistemology. Utilitas 19 (4):435-446.
    This article concerns two themes in Bart Schultz's recent biography of Henry Sidgwick, Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe. The first is the importance of Sidgwick's conflict over his religious beliefs to the development of his thinking in The Methods of Ethics. I suggest that, in addition to the characteristics of Methods that Schulz highlights, the work's epistemology, specifically, Sidgwick's program of presenting ethics as an axiomatic system on the traditional understanding of such systems, is due to the conflict. The (...)
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  32. John Deigh (2004). Sidgwick's Conception of Ethics. Utilitas 16 (2):168-183.
    J. B. Schneewind's Sidgwick's Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy surpassed all previous treatments of Sidgwick's The Methods of Ethics by showing how Sidgwick's work follows a coherent plan of argument for a conception of ethics as grounded in practical reason. Schneewind offered his interpretation as the product of a historical rather than a critical study. This article undertakes a critical study of Sidgwick's work based on Schneewind's interpretation. Its thesis is that the conception of ethics for which Sidgwick argued is (...)
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  33. John Deigh (1992). Sidgwick on Ethical Judgment. In Bart Schultz (ed.), Essays on Henry Sidgwick. Cambridge University Press.
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  34. Daniel Dombrowski (2003). Sidgwick's Utility and Whitehead's Virtue. Process Studies 32 (1):155-155.
  35. Alan Donagan (1980). A New Sidgwick:Sidgwick's Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy. J. B. Schneewind. Ethics 90 (2):282-.
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  36. Alan Donagan (1977). Sidgwick and Whewellian Intuitionism: Some Enigmas. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):447 - 465.
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  37. Kevin K. J. Durand (2002). Sidgwick's Utility and Whitehead's Virtue: Metaphysics and Morality. University Press of America.
    Chapter Introduction Henry Sidgwick is one of the most influential and least remembered philosophers of the and 20th centuries. ....
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  38. T. Fowler (1885). Professor Sidgwick on "Progressive Morality". Mind 10 (39):481-488.
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  39. William K. Frankena (2000). The Methods of Ethics, Edition 7, Page 92, Note. Utilitas 12 (03):278-.
    This essay, one of the last that Frankena wrote, provides a scrupulously detailed exploration of the various possible meanings of one of Sidgwick's most famous footnotes in the Methods Long intrigued by what Sidgwick had in mind when he said that he would explain how it came about that for moderns it is not tautologous to claim that one's own good is one's only reasonable ultimate end, Frankena uses this note as a point of departure for a penetrating review of (...)
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  40. William K. Frankena (1974). Sidgwick and the Dualism of Practical Reason. The Monist 58 (3):449-467.
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  41. R. G. Frey (1977). Act-Utilitarianism: Sidgwick or Bentham and Smart? Mind 86 (341):95-100.
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  42. Ross Harrison (1996). Cambridge Philosophers VI: Henry Sidgwick. Philosophy 71 (277):423 - 438.
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  43. William C. Havard (1959). Henry Sidgwick & Later Utilitarian Political Philosophy. Gainesville, University of Florida Press.
  44. David M. Holley (2002). Sidgwick's Problem. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (1):45-65.
    <span class='Hi'>Henry</span> Sidgwick regarded his failure to reconcile the claims of rational egoism with those of utilitarianism to reveal a fundamental contradiction within practical reason. However, the conflict that concerns him arises only in relation to a particular kind of agent. While Sidgwick construes his version of the problem to be a systematic formulation of a conflict that arises within the practical reasoning of ordinary people, it is actually an example of a worst-case scenario that reflects the common philosophical tendency (...)
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  45. Brad Hooker (2000). Sidgwick and Common–Sense Morality. Utilitas 12 (03):347-.
    This paper begins by celebrating Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics. It then discusses Sidgwick's moral epistemology and in particular the coherentist element introduced by his argument from common-sense morality to utilitarianism. The paper moves on to a discussion of how common-sense morality seems more appealing if its principles are formulated as picking out pro tanto considerations rather than all-things-considered demands. Thefinal section of the paper considers the question of which version of utilitarianism follows from Sidgwick's arguments.
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  46. Thomas Hurka (ed.) (2011). Underivative Duty: British Moral Philosophers From Sidgwick to Ewing. Oxford University Press.
    These ten new essays by leading contemporary philosophers constitute the first collective study of a group of British moral philosophers active between the ...
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  47. Thomas Hurka (2003). Moore in the Middle. Ethics 113 (3):599-628.
    The rhetoric of Principia Ethica, as of not a few philosophy books, is that of the clean break. Moore claims that the vast majority of previous writing on ethics has been misguided and that an entirely new start is needed. In its time, however, the book’s claims to novelty were widely disputed. Reviews in Mind, Ethics, and The Journal of Philosophy applauded the clarity of Moore’s criticisms of Mill, Spencer, and others, but said they were “not altogether original,” had for (...)
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  48. Mary Gilliland Husband (1903). Book Review:The Ethical Philosophy of Sidgwick. F. H. Hayward. [REVIEW] Ethics 13 (2):262-.
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  49. Mary Gilliland Husband (1903). Book Review:The Methods of Ethics. Henry Sidgwick. [REVIEW] Ethics 13 (2):251-.
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  50. T. H. Irwin (2010). Green, Bradley and Sidgwick. In John Skorupski (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Ethics. Routledge.
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