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  1. Max Albert & Hannes Rusch, Indirect Reciprocity, Golden Opportunities for Defection, and Inclusive Reputation. MAGKS Discussion Paper Series in Economics.
    In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, reputation mechanisms can stabilize cooperation even in severe cooperation problems like the prisoner’s dilemma. Under certain circumstances, conditionally cooperative strategies, which cooperate iff their partner has a good reputation, cannot be invaded by any other strategy that conditions behavior only on own and partner reputation. The first point of this paper is to show that an evolutionary version of backward induction can lead to a breakdown of this kind of indirectly reciprocal cooperation. Backward induction, (...)
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  2. Gillian Barker (1993). Models of Biological Change: Implications of Three Cases of "Lamrckian" Change. In Perspectives in Ethology 10: Behavior and Evolution. 229-248.
  3. N. J. Block & Gerald Dworkin (1974). IQ: Heritability and Inequality, Part. Philosophy and Public Affairs 3 (4):331-409.
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  4. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. Boston Review 20 (6):30-35.
    According to The Bell Curve , Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, (...)
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  5. Ned Block (1996). How Heritability Misleads About Race. In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Oxford UP. 99-128.
    According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have (...)
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  6. Richard J. Davidson, Amygdalar and Hippocampal Substrates of Anxious Temperament Differ in Their Heritability.
    Anxious temperament (AT) in human and non-human primates is a trait-like phenotype evident early in life that is characterized by increased behavioural and physiological reactivity to mildly threatening stimuli1–4. Studies in children demonstrate that AT is an important risk factor for the later development of anxiety disorders, depression and comorbid substance abuse5. Despite its importance as an early predictor of psychopathology, little is known about the factors that predispose vulnerable children to develop AT and the brain systems that underlie its (...)
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  7. Ute Deichmann (2010). Gemmules and Elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's Concepts and Methods in Heredity. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 41 (1):85-112.
    Inheritance and variation were a major focus of Charles Darwin’s studies. Small inherited variations were at the core of his theory of organic evolution by means of natural selection. He put forward a developmental theory of heredity (pangenesis) based on the assumption of the existence of material hereditary particles. However, unlike his proposition of natural selection as a new mechanism for evolutionary change, Darwin’s highly speculative and contradictory hypotheses on heredity were unfruitful for further research. They attempted to explain many (...)
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  8. Daniel Dennett & Christopher Viger, Is Hirsch or Wilson Confused? A Commentary on "The Pitfalls of Heritability ".
    In "The pitfalls of heritability," a review of Edward O. Wilson’s Consilience Times Literary Supplement, Feb 12, 1999, p33], Jerry Hirsch claims to have convicted Wilson of a "confusion about genetic similarity and difference." In his book, Wilson claims that if we assume that "a mere one thousand genes out of the fifty to a hundred thousand genes in the human genome were to exist in two forms in the population," the probability of any two humans--excluding identical siblings--having the same (...)
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  9. Stephen M. Downes, Heredity and Heritability. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  10. R. P. Duncan-Jones (1984). The Heritability of the Consulship Keith Hopkins: Death and Renewal. (Sociological Studies in Roman History, 2.) Pp. Xx + 276; 1 Map. Cambridge University Press, 1983. £19.50. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 34 (02):270-274.
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  11. Lia Ettinger, Eva Jablonka & Raphael Falk (1991). On Causality, Heritability and Fitness. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):27-29.
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  12. Fred Gifford (1989). Complex Genetic Causation of Human Disease: Critiques of and Rationales for Heritability and Path Analysis. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 10 (2).
    This paper examines some criticisms that have been made of two standard genetic methodologies: heritability and path analysis. I conclude that the criticisms should be taken seriously, concerning both the accuracy of heritability measures and their significance. In light of the fact that such studies remain prominent in the literature, I consider what possible rationale they can retain consistent with these criticisms. In particular, I consider (1) a role in the identification of high-risk individuals and (2) a heuristic role in (...)
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  13. James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade (2000). Populational Heritability: Extending Punnett Square Concepts to Evolution at the Metapopulation Level. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):1-17.
    In a previous study, using experimental metapopulations of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we investigated phase III of Wright's shifting balance process (Wade and Griesemer 1998). We experimentally modeled migration of varying amounts from demes of high mean fitness into demes of lower mean fitness (as in Wright's characterization of phase III) as well as the reciprocal (the opposite of phase III). We estimated the meta-populational heritability for this level of selection by regression of offspring deme means on the weighted (...)
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  14. Brad D. Hume (2008). Quantifying Characters: Polygenist Anthropologists and the Hardening of Heredity. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):119 - 158.
    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity - seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true in succeeding generations, (...)
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  15. E. Jablonka (2004). From Replicators to Heritably Varying Phenotypic Traits: The Extended Phenotype Revisited. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):353-375.
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  16. Ehud Lamm (2009). Conceptual and Methodological Biases in Network Models. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1178:291-304.
    Many natural and biological phenomena can be depicted as networks. Theoretical and empirical analyses of networks have become prevalent. I discuss theoretical biases involved in the delineation of biological networks. The network perspective is shown to dissolve the distinction between regulatory architecture and regulatory state, consistent with the theoretical impossibility of distinguishing a priori between “program” and “data”. The evolutionary significance of the dynamics of trans-generational and inter-organism regulatory networks is explored and implications are presented for understanding the evolution of (...)
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  17. Ehud Lamm & Eva Jablonka (2008). The Nurture of Nature: Hereditary Plasticity in Evolution. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):305 – 319.
    The dichotomy between Nature and Nurture, which has been dismantled within the framework of development, remains embodied in the notions of plasticity and evolvability. We argue that plasticity and evolvability, like development and heredity, are neither dichotomous nor distinct: the very same mechanisms may be involved in both, and the research perspective chosen depends to a large extent on the type of problem being explored and the kinds of questions being asked. Epigenetic inheritance leads to transgenerationally extended plasticity, and developmentally-induced (...)
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  18. M. Susan Lindee (1992). What Is a Mutation? Identifying Heritable Change in the Offspring of Survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Journal of the History of Biology 25 (2):231 - 255.
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  19. Carlos López-Beltrán (2012). Exploring Heredity: Diachronic and Synchronic Connections. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):45-50.
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  20. Daniel Trembly MacDougal (1906). Heredity and the Origin of Species. The Monist 16 (1):32-64.
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  21. James Maclaurin (2012). Universal Darwinism: Its Scope and Limits. In , Defensor Rationes: Essays in Honour of Colin Cheyne. Springer.
    Many things evolve: species, languages, sports, tools, biological niches, and theories. But are these real instances of natural selection? Current assessments of the proper scope of Darwinian theory focus on the broad similarity of cultural or non-organic processes to familiar central instances of natural selection. That similarity is analysed in terms of abstract functional descriptions of evolving entities (e.g. replicators, interactors, developmental systems etc). These strategies have produced a proliferation of competing evolutionary analyses. I argue that such reasoning ought not (...)
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  22. Linda Mealey (1997). Heritability, Theory of Mind, and the Nature of Normality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):527-531.
    It is impossible to discuss the constructs and in a single coherent essay. The following three rejoinders address each of these exceedingly complex constructs individually, as each relates to the two-path model of sociopathy and psychopathy.
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  23. Valeria Mosini (2013). Proteins, the Chaperone Function and Heredity. Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):53-74.
    In this paper I use a case study—the discovery of the chaperon function exerted by proteins in the various steps of the hereditary process—to re-discuss the question whether the nucleic acids are the sole repositories of relevant information as assumed in the information theory of heredity. The evidence I here present of a crucial role for molecular chaperones in the folding of nascent proteins, as well as in DNA duplication, RNA folding and gene control, suggests that the family of proteins (...)
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  24. Christian P. Müller, Bernd Lenz & Johannes Kornhuber (2012). Gene-Independent Heritability of Behavioural Traits: Don't We Also Need to Rethink the “Environment”? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):374-375.
    Behavioural phenotypes have been explained by genetic and environmental factors (E) and their interaction. Here we suggest a rethinking of the E factor. Passively incurred environmental influences (E pass) and actively copied information and behaviour (E act) may be distinguished at shared and non-shared level. We argue that E act underlies mutation and selection and is the base of gene-independent heritability.
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  25. Bence Nanay (2011). Replication Without Replicators. Synthese 179 (455):477.
    According to a once influential view of selection, it consists of repeated cycles of replication and interaction. It has been argued that this view is wrong: replication is not necessary for evolution by natural selection. I analyze the nine most influential arguments for this claim and defend the replication–interaction conception of selection against these objections. In order to do so, however, the replication–interaction conception of selection needs to be modified significantly. My proposal is that replication is not the copying of (...)
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  26. Bence Nanay (2002). The Return of the Replicator: What is Philosophically Significant in a General Account of Replication and Selection? [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):109-121.
    The aim of this paper is to outline a typologyof selection processes, and show that differentsub-categories have different explanatorypower. The basis of this typology of selectionprocesses is argued to be the difference ofreplication processes involved in them. Inorder to show this, I argue that: 1.Replication is necessary for selection and 2.Different types of replication lead todifferent types of selection. Finally, it isargued that this typology is philosophicallysignificant, since it contrasts cases ofselection (on the basis of the replicationprocesses involved in them) (...)
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  27. Ricardo Noguera-Solano & Rosaura Ruiz-gutiérrez (2009). Darwin and Inheritance: The Influence of Prosper Lucas. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):685 - 714.
    An important historical relation that has hardly been addressed is the influence of Prosper Lucas's Treatise on Natural Inheritance on the development of Charles Darwin's concepts related to inheritance. In this article we trace this historical connection. Darwin read Lucas's Treatise in 1856. His reading coincided with many changes concerning his prior ideas on the transmission and expression of characters. We consider that this reading led him to propose a group of principles regarding prepotency, hereditary diseases, morbid tendencies and atavism; (...)
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  28. Gry Oftedal (2007). Neven Sesardic • Making Sense of Heritability. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (3):619-623.
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  29. Gry Oftedal (2005). Heritability and Genetic Causation. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):699-709.
    The method in human genetics of ascribing causal responsibility to genotype by the use of heritability estimates has been heavily criticized over the years. It has been argued that these estimates are rarely valid and do not serve the purpose of tracing genetic causes. Recent contributions strike back at this criticism. I present and discuss two opposing views on these matters represented by Richard Lewontin and Neven Sesardic, and I suggest that some of the disagreement is based on differing concepts (...)
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  30. Samir Okasha (2003). The Concept of Group Heritability. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):445-461.
    This paper investigates the role of the concept of group heritability in group selection theory, in relation to the well-known distinction between type 1 and type 2 group selection (GS1 and GS2). I argue that group heritability is required for the operation of GS1 but not GS2, despite what a number of authors have claimed. I offer a numerical example of the evolution of altruism in a multi-group population which demonstrates that a group heritability coefficient of zero is perfectly compatible (...)
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  31. Lisa Onaga (2010). Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: Silkworm Inheritance Experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):215 - 264.
    Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia (...)
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  32. Dario Pavić (2006). Neven Sesardić, Making Sense of Heritability. Prolegomena: Časopis Za Filozofiju 5 (2):268-275.
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  33. Christopher H. Pearson (2007). Is Heritability Explanatorily Useful? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):270-288.
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  34. André Pichot (1993). Héréditaire, Inné, Génétique, Etc. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (1-2).
    Heriditary, innate, genetical are three different concepts of which the meanings are different but, since obviously related, are often used one for the other, for they are all three used in opposition to acquired or what is called environmental factors. What is acquired is linked to the environment: what is not innate (hereditary, genetical, ...) is acquired and what is acquired cannot be so but through the environment. Thus,innate (hereditary, genetical, ...) andacquired correspond to the usual opposition betweeninside andoutside.This is (...)
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  35. Massimo Pigliucci (2008). Is Evolvability Evolvable? Nature Reviews Genetics 9:75-82.
    In recent years, biologists have increasingly been asking whether the ability to evolve — the evolvability — of biological systems, itself evolves, and whether this phenomenon is the result of natural selection or a by-product of other evolutionary processes. The concept of evolvability, and the increasing theoretical and empirical literature that refers to it, may constitute one of several pillars on which an extended evolutionary synthesis will take shape during the next few years, although much work remains to be done (...)
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  36. Sidney J. Segalowitz (1999). Why Twin Studies Really Don't Tell Us Much About Human Heritability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):904-905.
    The derivation of heritability from human twin studies involves serious methodological flaws. Heritability is consistently overestimated because of biological confounds of twinning, consistent and often gross underestimation of the environmental variance, and nonadditive genetic influences that can hugely exaggerate heritability values. Despite this bad research design, behaviour geneticists continue to publish results implying that their heritability results are valid.
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  37. Neven Sesardic (2010). Nature, Nurture, and Politics. Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):433-436.
    Political imputations in science are notoriously a tricky business. I addressed this issue in the context of the nature–nurture debate in the penultimate chapter of my book Making Sense of Heritability (Cambridge U. P. 2005). Although the book mainly dealt with the logic of how one should think about heritability of psychological differences, it also discussed the role of politics in our efforts to understand the dynamics of that controversy. I first argued that if a scholar publicly defends a certain (...)
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  38. Neven Sesardic (2003). Heritability and Indirect Causation. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1002-1014.
    Genetic differences can lead to phenotypic differences either directly or indirectly (via causing differences in external environments, which then affect phenotype). This possibility of genetic effects being mediated by environmental influences is often used by scientists and philosophers to argue that heritability is not a very helpful causal or explanatory notion. In this paper it is shown that these criticisms are based on serious misconceptions about methods of behavior genetics.
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  39. Neven Sesardic (2000). Philosophy of Science That Ignores Science: Race, IQ and Heritability. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):580-602.
    Philosophers of science widely believe that the hereditarian theory about racial differences in IQ is based on methodological mistakes and confusions involving the concept of heritability. I argue that this "received view" is wrong: methodological criticisms popular among philosophers are seriously misconceived, and the discussion in philosophy of science about these matters is largely disconnected from the real, empirically complex issues debated in science.
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  40. Neven Sesardic (1993). Heritability and Causality. Philosophy of Science 60 (3):396-418.
    The critics of "hereditarianism" often claim that any attempt to explain human behavior by invoking genes is confronted with insurmountable methodological difficulties. They reject the idea that heritability estimates could lead to genetic explanations by pointing out that these estimates are strictly valid only for a given population and that they are exposed to the irremovable confounding effects of genotype-environment interaction and genotype-environment correlation. I argue that these difficulties are greatly exaggerated, and that we would be wrong to regard them (...)
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  41. Nicholas Shea (2011). What's Transmitted? Inherited Information. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):183-189.
    Commentary on Bergstrom and Rosvall, ‘The transmission sense of information’, Biology and Philosophy. In response to worries that uses of the concept of information in biology are metaphorical or insubstantial, Bergstrom and Rosvall have identified a sense in which DNA transmits information down the generations. Their ‘transmission view of information’ is founded on a claim about DNA’s teleofunction. Bergstrom and Rosvall see their transmission view of information as a rival to semantic accounts. This commentary argues that it is complementary. The (...)
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  42. Justin E. H. Smith (2006). Imagination and the Problem of Heredity in Mechanist Embryology. In , The Problem of Animal Generation in Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  43. Marco Solinas (2012). L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin. ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
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  44. Scott F. Stoltenberg (1997). Heritability Estimates Provide a Crumbling Foundation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):525-525.
    When Genotype × Environment (G × E) interactions are present, heritability estimates are not interpretable. Mealey cites abundant evidence for G × E interactions in the etiology of sociopathy, thereby completely undermining estimates of the heritability of sociopathy which form the foundation of her model. Without proper evidence for a genetic basis of sociopathy, Mealey's sociobiological model collapses under its own great weight.
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  45. Omri Tal (forthcoming). The Impact of Gene–Environment Interaction and Correlation on the Interpretation of Heritability. Acta Biotheoretica.
    Abstract The presence of gene–environment statistical interaction ( G x E ) and correlation ( rGE ) in biological development has led both practitioners and philosophers of science to question the legitimacy of heritability estimates. The paper offers a novel approach to assess the impact of G x E and rGE on the way genetic and environmental causation can be partitioned. A probabilistic framework is developed, based on a quantitative genetic model that incorporates G x E and rGE , offering (...)
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  46. Omri Tal (2009). From Heritability to Probability. Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):81-105.
    Can a heritability value tell us something about the weight of genetic versus environmental causes that have acted in the development of a particular individual? Two possible questions arise. Q1: what portion of the phenotype of X is due to its genes and what portion to its environment? Q2: what portion of X’s phenotypic deviation from the mean is a result of its genetic deviation and what portion a result of its environmental deviation? An answer to Q1 provides the full (...)
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  47. Peter Taylor (2010). Three Puzzles and Eight Gaps: What Heritability Studies and Critical Commentaries Have Not Paid Enough Attention To. Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):1-31.
    This article examines eight “gaps” in order to clarify why the quantitative genetics methods of partitioning variation of a trait into heritability and other components has very limited power to show anything clear and useful about genetic and environmental influences, especially for human behaviors and other traits. The first two gaps should be kept open; the others should be bridged or the difficulty of doing so should be acknowledged: 1. Key terms have multiple meanings that are distinct; 2. Statistical patterns (...)
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  48. Peter Taylor (2008). Underlying Heterogeneity: A Problem for Biological, Philosophical, and Other Analyses of Heritability? Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):587-589.
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  49. Peter Taylor (2006). Heritability and Heterogeneity: The Limited Relevance of Heritability in Investigating Genetic and Environmental Factors. Biological Theory 1 (2):150-164.
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  50. Peter Taylor (2006). Heritability and Heterogeneity: The Irrelevance of Heritability in Explaining Differences Between Means for Different Human Groups or Generations. Biological Theory 1 (4):392-401.
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