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  1. Erik Aarts (1994). Proving Theorems of the Second Order Lambek Calculus in Polynomial Time. Studia Logica 53 (3):373 - 387.
    In the Lambek calculus of order 2 we allow only sequents in which the depth of nesting of implications is limited to 2. We prove that the decision problem of provability in the calculus can be solved in time polynomial in the length of the sequent. A normal form for proofs of second order sequents is defined. It is shown that for every proof there is a normal form proof with the same axioms. With this normal form we can give (...)
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  2. Klaus Aehlig (2005). Induction and Inductive Definitions in Fragments of Second Order Arithmetic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (4):1087 - 1107.
    A fragment with the same provably recursive functions as n iterated inductive definitions is obtained by restricting second order arithmetic in the following way. The underlying language allows only up to n + 1 nested second order quantifications and those are in such a way, that no second order variable occurs free in the scope of another second order quantifier. The amount of induction on arithmetical formulae only affects the arithmetical consequences of these theories, whereas adding induction for arbitrary formulae (...)
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  3. Thomas Ågotnes, Wiebe van der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge (2008). Quantified Coalition Logic. Synthese 165 (2):269 - 294.
    We add a limited but useful form of quantification to Coalition Logic, a popular formalism for reasoning about cooperation in game-like multi-agent systems. The basic constructs of Quantified Coalition Logic (QCL) allow us to express such properties as “every coalition satisfying property P can achieve φ” and “there exists a coalition C satisfying property P such that C can achieve φ”. We give an axiomatisation of QCL, and show that while it is no more expressive than Coalition Logic, it is (...)
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  4. John Bacon (1989). A Single Primitive Trope Relation. Journal of Philosophical Logic 18 (2):141 - 154.
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  5. David Ballard (1985). Independence in Higher-Order Subclassical Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (4):444-454.
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  6. A. C. Paseau (2012). James Robert Brown. Platonism, Naturalism, and Mathematical Knowledge. New York and London: Routledge, 2012. Isbn 978-0-415-87266-9. Pp. X + 182. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 20 (3):359-364.
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  7. Gábor Sági (2000). A Completeness Theorem for Higher Order Logics. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (2):857-884.
    Here we investigate the classes RCA $^\uparrow_\alpha$ of representable directed cylindric algebras of dimension α introduced by Nemeti[12]. RCA $^\uparrow_\alpha$ can be seen in two different ways: first, as an algebraic counterpart of higher order logics and second, as a cylindric algebraic analogue of Quasi-Projective Relation Algebras. We will give a new, "purely cylindric algebraic" proof for the following theorems of Nemeti: (i) RCA $^\uparrow_\alpha$ is a finitely axiomatizable variety whenever α ≥ 3 is finite and (ii) one can obtain (...)
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Second-Order Logic
  1. S. Awodey & C. Butz (2000). Topological Completeness for Higher-Order Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1168-1182.
    Using recent results in topos theory, two systems of higher-order logic are shown to be complete with respect to sheaf models over topological spaces- so -called "topological semantics." The first is classical higher-order logic, with relational quantification of finitely high type; the second system is a predicative fragment thereof with quantification over functions between types, but not over arbitrary relations. The second theorem applies to intuitionistic as well as classical logic.
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  2. Ruth C. Barcan (1947). The Identity of Individuals in a Strict Functional Calculus of Second Order. Journal of Symbolic Logic 12 (1):12-15.
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  3. K. Jon Barwise (1972). The Hanf Number of Second Order Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):588-594.
    We prove, among other things, that the number mentioned above cannot be shown to exist without using some $\Pi_1(\mathscr{P})$ instance of the axiom of replacement.
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  4. Anne Bauval (1985). Polynomial Rings and Weak Second-Order Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (4):953-972.
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  5. L. Berk (2013). Second-Order Arithmetic Sans Sets. Philosophia Mathematica 21 (3):339-350.
    This paper examines the ontological commitments of the second-order language of arithmetic and argues that they do not extend beyond the first-order language. Then, building on an argument by George Boolos, we develop a Tarski-style definition of a truth predicate for the second-order language of arithmetic that does not involve the assignment of sets to second-order variables but rather uses the same class of assignments standardly used in a definition for the first-order language.
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  6. George Boolos (1985). Nominalist Platonism. Philosophical Review 94 (3):327-344.
  7. George S. Boolos (1975). On Second-Order Logic. Journal of Philosophy 72 (16):509-527.
  8. James Robert Brown (1996). Foundations Without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic Stewart Shapiro Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, Xx + 277 Pp. [REVIEW] Dialogue 35 (03):624-.
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  9. Otávio Bueno (2010). A Defense of Second-Order Logic. Axiomathes 20 (2-3):365-383.
    Second-order logic has a number of attractive features, in particular the strong expressive resources it offers, and the possibility of articulating categorical mathematical theories (such as arithmetic and analysis). But it also has its costs. Five major charges have been launched against second-order logic: (1) It is not axiomatizable; as opposed to first-order logic, it is inherently incomplete. (2) It also has several semantics, and there is no criterion to choose between them (Putnam, J Symbol Logic 45:464–482, 1980 ). Therefore, (...)
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  10. Otavio Bueno, Second-Order Logic Revisited.
    In this paper, I shall provide a defence of second-order logic in the context of its use in the philosophy of mathematics. This shall be done by considering three problems that have been recently posed against this logic: (1) According to Resnik [1988], by adopting second-order quantifiers, we become ontologically committed to classes. (2) As opposed to what is claimed by defenders of second-order logic (such as Shapiro [1985]), the existence of non-standard models of first-order theories does not establish the (...)
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  11. Nino Cocchiarella (1985). Two Lambda-Extensions of the Theory of Homogeneous Simple Types as a Second-Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (4):377-407.
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  12. Nino Cocchiarella (1979). The Theory of Homogeneous Simple Types as a Second-Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (3):505-524.
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  13. Nino Cocchiarella (1969). A Second Order Logic of Existence. Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):57-69.
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  14. Nino Cocchiarella (1969). Existence Entailing Attributes, Modes of Copulation and Modes of Being in Second Order Logic. Noûs 3 (1):33-48.
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  15. Nino Cocchiarella (1969). A Substitution Free Axiom Set for Second Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 10 (1):18-30.
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  16. Nino Cocchiarella (1968). Some Remarks on Second Order Logic with Existence Attributes. Noûs 2 (2):165-175.
    Some internal and philosophical remarks are made regarding a system of a second order logic of existence axiomatized by the author. Attributes are distinguished in the system according as their possession entails existence or not, The former being called e-Attributes. Some discussion of the special principles assumed for e-Attributes is given as well as of the two notions of identity resulting from such a distinction among attributes. Non-Existing objects are of course indiscernible in terms of e-Attributes. In addition, However, Existing (...)
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  17. Nicholas Denyer (1992). Pure Second-Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 33 (2):220-224.
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  18. Thomas Eiter & Georg Gottlob (1998). On the Expressiveness of Frame Satisfiability and Fragments of Second-Order Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (1):73-82.
    It was conjectured by Halpern and Kapron (Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, vol. 69, 1994) that frame satisfiability of propositional modal formulas is incomparable in expressive power to both Σ 1 1 (Ackermann) and Σ 1 1 (Bernays-Schonfinkel). We prove this conjecture. Our results imply that Σ 1 1 (Ackermann) and Σ 1 1 (Bernays-Schonfinkel) are incomparable in expressive power, already on finite graphs. Moreover, we show that on ordered finite graphs, i.e., finite graphs with a successor, Σ 1 (...)
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  19. Herbert B. Enderton, Second-Order and Higher-Order Logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  20. E. Fischer & J. A. Makowsky (2004). On Spectra of Sentences of Monadic Second Order Logic with Counting. Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (3):617-640.
    We show that the spectrum of a sentence ϕ in Counting Monadic Second Order Logic (CMSOL) using one binary relation symbol and finitely many unary relation symbols, is ultimately periodic, provided all the models of ϕ are of clique width at most k, for some fixed k. We prove a similar statement for arbitrary finite relational vocabularies τ and a variant of clique width for τ-structures. This includes the cases where the models of ϕ are of tree width at most (...)
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  21. Dov M. Gabbay & Andrzej Szałas (2007). Second-Order Quantifier Elimination in Higher-Order Contexts with Applications to the Semantical Analysis of Conditionals. Studia Logica 87 (1):37 - 50.
    Second-order quantifier elimination in the context of classical logic emerged as a powerful technique in many applications, including the correspondence theory, relational databases, deductive and knowledge databases, knowledge representation, commonsense reasoning and approximate reasoning. In the current paper we first generalize the result of Nonnengart and Szałas [17] by allowing second-order variables to appear within higher-order contexts. Then we focus on a semantical analysis of conditionals, using the introduced technique and Gabbay’s semantics provided in [10] and substantially using a third-order (...)
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  22. Joanna Golinska-Pilarek & Konrad Zdanowski (2003). Spectra of Formulae with Henkin Quantifiers. In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    It is known that various complexity-theoretical problems can be translated into some special spectra problems. Thus, questions about complexity classes are translated into questions about the expressive power of some languages. In this paper we investigate the spectra of some logics with Henkin quantifiers in the empty vocabulary.
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  23. Yuri Gurevich & Saharon Shelah (1983). Interpreting Second-Order Logic in the Monadic Theory of Order. Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (3):816-828.
    Under a weak set-theoretic assumption we interpret second-order logic in the monadic theory of order.
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  24. William H. Hanson (1990). Second-Order Logic and Logicism. Mind 99 (393):91-99.
    Some widely accepted arguments in the philosophy of mathematics are fallacious because they rest on results that are provable only by using assumptions that the con- clusions of these arguments seek to undercut. These results take the form of bicon- ditionals linking statements of logic with statements of mathematics. George Boolos has given an argument of this kind in support of the claim that certain facts about second-order logic support logicism, the view that mathematics—or at least part of it—reduces to (...)
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  25. Richard Heck (2011). A Logic for Frege's Theorem. In Frege's Theorem. Oxford University Press.
    It has been known for a few years that no more than Pi-1-1 comprehension is needed for the proof of "Frege's Theorem". One can at least imagine a view that would regard Pi-1-1 comprehension axioms as logical truths but deny that status to any that are more complex—a view that would, in particular, deny that full second-order logic deserves the name. Such a view would serve the purposes of neo-logicists. It is, in fact, no part of my view that, say, (...)
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  26. Richard Heck & Jason Stanley (1993). Reply to Hintikka and Sandu: Frege and Second-Order Logic. Journal of Philosophy 90 (8):416 - 424.
    Hintikka and Sandu had argued that 'Frege's failure to grasp the idea of the standard interpretation of higher-order logic turns his entire foundational project into a hopeless daydream' and that he is 'inextricably committed to a non-standard interpretation' of higher-order logic. We disagree.
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  27. Simon Hewitt (2012). Modalising Plurals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (5):853-875.
    There has been very little discussion of the appropriate principles to govern a modal logic of plurals. What debate there has been has accepted a principle I call (Necinc); informally if this is one of those then, necessarily: this is one of those. On this basis Williamson has criticised the Boolosian plural interpretation of monadic second-order logic. I argue against (Necinc), noting that it isn't a theorem of any logic resulting from adding modal axioms to the plural logic PFO+, and (...)
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  28. Ignacio Jané (1993). A Critical Appraisal of Second-Order Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 14 (1):67-86.
    Because of its capacity to characterize mathematical concepts and structures?a capacity which first-order languages clearly lack?second-order languages recommend themselves as a convenient framework for much of mathematics, including set theory. This paper is about the credentials of second-order logic:the reasons for it to be considered logic, its relations with set theory, and especially the efficacy with which it performs its role of the underlying logic of set theory.
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  29. Matt Kaufmann (1985). A Note on the Hanf Number of Second-Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (4):305-308.
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  30. H. Jerome Keisler & Wafik Boulos Lotfallah (2004). First Order Quantifiers in Monadic Second Order Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (1):118-136.
    This paper studies the expressive power that an extra first order quantifier adds to a fragment of monadic second order logic, extending the toolkit of Janin and Marcinkowski [JM01]. We introduce an operation $esists_{n}(S)$ on properties S that says "there are n components having S". We use this operation to show that under natural strictness conditions, adding a first order quantifier word u to the beginning of a prefix class V increases the expressive power monotonically in u. As a corollary, (...)
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  31. Stephan Kepser (2004). Querying Linguistic Treebanks with Monadic Second-Order Logic in Linear Time. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):457-470.
    In recent years large amounts of electronic texts have become available. While the first of these corpora had only a low level of annotation, the more recent ones are annotated with refined syntactic information. To make these rich annotations accessible for linguists, the development of query systems has become an important goal. One of the main difficulties in this task consists in the choice of the right query language, a language which at the same time should be powerful enough to (...)
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  32. Jeffrey Ketland, Second-Order Logic.
    Second-order logic is the extension of first-order logic obtaining by introducing quantification of predicate and function variables.
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  33. Jean-Marie Le Bars (2000). Counterexamples of the 0-1 Law for Fragments of Existential Second-Order Logic: An Overview. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (1):67-82.
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  34. Scott K. Lehmann (1976). An Interpretation of "Finite" Modal First-Order Languages in Classical Second-Order Languages. Journal of Symbolic Logic 41 (2):337-340.
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  35. Øystein Linnebo, Plural Quantification. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Ordinary English contains different forms of quantification over objects. In addition to the usual singular quantification, as in 'There is an apple on the table', there is plural quantification, as in 'There are some apples on the table'. Ever since Frege, formal logic has favored the two singular quantifiers ∀x and ∃x over their plural counterparts ∀xx and ∃xx (to be read as for any things xx and there are some things xx). But in recent decades it has been argued (...)
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  36. Øystein Linnebo (2007). Burgess on Plural Logic and Set Theory. Philosophia Mathematica 15 (1):79-93.
    John Burgess in a 2004 paper combined plural logic and a new version of the idea of limitation of size to give an elegant motivation of the axioms of ZFC set theory. His proposal is meant to improve on earlier work by Paul Bernays in two ways. I argue that both attempted improvements fail. I am grateful to Philip Welch, two anonymous referees, and especially Ignacio Jané for written comments on earlier versions of this paper, which have led to substantial (...)
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  37. Øystein Linnebo (2003). Plural Quantification Exposed. Noûs 37 (1):71–92.
  38. J. R. Lucas, Chapter 9a What is Logic?
    Thus far the logic out of which mathematics has developed has been First-order Predicate Calculus with Identity, that is the logic of the sentential functors, ¬, →, ∧, ∨, etc., together with identity and the existential and universal quotifiers restricted to quotify- ing only over individuals, and not anything else, such as qualities or quotities themselves. Some philosophers—among them Quine— have held that this, First-order Logic, as it is often called, con- stitutes the whole of logic. But that is a (...)
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  39. Fraser MacBride (2003). Speaking with Shadows: A Study of Neo-Logicism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (1):103-163.
    According to the species of neo-logicism advanced by Hale and Wright, mathematical knowledge is essentially logical knowledge. Their view is found to be best understood as a set of related though independent theses: (1) neo-fregeanism-a general conception of the relation between language and reality; (2) the method of abstraction-a particular method for introducing concepts into language; (3) the scope of logic-second-order logic is logic. The criticisms of Boolos, Dummett, Field and Quine (amongst others) of these theses are explicated and assessed. (...)
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  40. David Manley (2009). When Best Theories Go Bad. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (2):392-405.
    It is common for contemporary metaphysical realists to adopt Quine's criterion of ontological commitment while at the same time repudiating his ontological pragmatism. 2 Drawing heavily from the work of others—especially Joseph Melia and Stephen Yablo—I will argue that the resulting approach to meta-ontology is unstable. In particular, if we are metaphysical realists, we need not accept ontological commitment to whatever is quantified over by our best first-order theories.
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  41. María Manzano (1996). Extensions of First Order Logic. Cambridge University Press.
    Classical logic has proved inadequate in various areas of computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, philosopy and linguistics. This is an introduction to extensions of first-order logic, based on the principle that many-sorted logic (MSL) provides a unifying framework in which to place, for example, second-order logic, type theory, modal and dynamic logics and MSL itself. The aim is two fold: only one theorem-prover is needed; proofs of the metaproperties of the different existing calculi can be avoided by borrowing them from (...)
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  42. Jesus Mosterin, How Set Theory Impinges on Logic.
    Standard (classical) logic is not independent of set theory. Which formulas are valid in logic depends on which sets we assume to exist in our set-theoretical universe. Second-order logic is just set theory in disguise. The typically logical notions of validity and consequence are not well defined in second-order logic, at least as long as there are open issues in set theory. Such contentious issues in set theory as the axiom of choice, the continuum hypothesis or the existence of inaccessible (...)
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  43. Alexander Paseau (2010). Pure Second-Order Logic with Second-Order Identity. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (3):351-360.
    Pure second-order logic is second-order logic without functional or first-order variables. In "Pure Second-Order Logic," Denyer shows that pure second-order logic is compact and that its notion of logical truth is decidable. However, his argument does not extend to pure second-order logic with second-order identity. We give a more general argument, based on elimination of quantifiers, which shows that any formula of pure second-order logic with second-order identity is equivalent to a member of a circumscribed class of formulas. As a (...)
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