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  1. Giampaolo Abbate (2012). The Role of Necessity in Aristotles Teleology as Explained by Logical Implication. Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 15 (1):1-25.
  2. Fred Ablondi (1998). Automata, Living and Non-Living: Descartes' Mechanical Biology and His Criteria for Life. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):179-186.
    Despite holding to the essential distinction between mind and body, Descartes did not adopt a life-body dualism. Though humans are the only creatures which can reason, as they are the only creatures whose body is in an intimate union with a soul, they are not the only finite beings who are alive. In the present note, I attempt to determine Descartes'' criteria for something to be ''living.'' Though certain passages associate such a principle with the presence of a properly functioning (...)
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  3. Tara H. Abraham (2004). Nicolas Rashevsky's Mathematical Biophysics. Journal of the History of Biology 37 (2):333 - 385.
    This paper explores the work of Nicolas Rashevsky, a Russian émigré theoretical physicist who developed a program in "mathematical biophysics" at the University of Chicago during the 1930s. Stressing the complexity of many biological phenomena, Rashevsky argued that the methods of theoretical physics -- namely mathematics -- were needed to "simplify" complex biological processes such as cell division and nerve conduction. A maverick of sorts, Rashevsky was a conspicuous figure in the biological community during the 1930s and early 1940s: he (...)
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  4. Lloyd T. Ackert Jr (2007). The “Cycle of Life” in Ecology: Sergei Vinogradskii's Soil Microbiology, 1885–1940. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (1):109-145.
    Historians of science have attributed the emergence of ecology as a discipline in the late nineteenth century to the synthesis of Humboldtian botanical geography and Darwinian evolution. In this essay, I begin to explore another, largely neglected but very important dimension of this history. Using Sergei Vinogradskii’s career and scientific research trajectory as a point of entry, I illustrate the manner in which microbiologists, chemists, botanists, and plant physiologists inscribed the concept of a “cycle of life” into their investigations. Their (...)
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  5. Lloyd T. Ackert Jr (2006). The Role of Microbes in Agriculture: Sergei Vinogradskii's Discovery and Investigation of Chemosynthesis, 1880–1910. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (2):373-406.
    In 1890, Sergei Nikolaevich Vinogradskii (Winogradsky) proposed a novel life process called chemosynthesis. His discovery that some microbes could live solely on inorganic matter emerged during his physiological research in 1880s in Strassburg and Zurich on sulfur, iron, and nitrogen bacteria. In his nitrification research, Vinogradskii first embraced the idea that microbiology could have great bearing on agricultural problems. His critique of agricultural chemists and Kochian-style bacteriologists brought this message to the broader agricultural community, resulting in an heightened interest in (...)
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  6. Lloyd Ackert (2004). Book Review: Claude E. Dolman and Richard J. Wolfe, Suppressing the Diseases of Animals and Man: Theobald Smith, Microbiologist. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):597-598.
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  7. P. Acot (2002). Pierre-Henri Gouyon, Les Harmonies de la Nature a l'Epreuve de la Biologie, Evolution Et Biodiversite. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (3/4):542-542.
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  8. P. Acot & J. M. Drouin (1997). The Introduction in France, Between the Two World Wars, of the Ideas of American Scientific Ecology]. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 50 (4).
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  9. Mark B. Adams (2000). Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):457 - 491.
    This paper seeks to reinterpret the life and work of J. B. S. Haldane by focusing on an illuminating but largely ignored essay he published in 1927, "The Last Judgment" -- the sequel to his better known work, "Daedalus" (1924). This astonishing essay expresses a vision of the human future over the next 40,000,000 years, one that revises and updates Wellsian futurism with the long range implications of the "new biology" for human destiny. That vision served as a kind of (...)
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  10. Mark B. Adams (1970). Towards a Synthesis: Population Concepts in Russian Evolutionary Thought, 1925-1935. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 3 (1):107 - 129.
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  11. Mark B. Adams (1968). The Founding of Population Genetics: Contributions of the Chetverikov School 1924-1934. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):23 - 39.
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  12. Antony Adler (2013). The Ship as Laboratory: Making Space for Field Science at Sea. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology:1-30.
    Expanding upon the model of vessels of exploration as scientific instruments first proposed by Richard Sorrenson, this essay examines the changing nature of the ship as scientific space on expedition vessels during the late nineteenth century. Particular attention is paid to the expedition of H.M.S. Challenger (1872–1876) as a turning point in the design of shipboard spaces that established a place for scientists at sea and gave scientific legitimacy to the new science of oceanography. There was a progressive development in (...)
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  13. Johannes Aegidii Zamorensis & Merce Viladrich (1995). Historia Naturalis. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (2):337.
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  14. Peter S. Alagona (2004). Biography of a "Feathered Pig": The California Condor Conservation Controversy. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):557 - 583.
    In the early 20th century, after hundreds of years of gradual decline, the California condor emerged as an object of intensive scientific study, an important conservation target, and a cultural icon of the American wilderness preservation movement. Early condor researchers generally believed that the species' survival depended upon the preservation of its wilderness habitat. However, beginning in the 1970s, a new generation of scientists argued that no amount of wilderness could prevent the condor's decline and that only intensive scientific management (...)
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  15. Samuel J. M. M. Alberti (2001). Amateurs and Professionals in One County: Biology and Natural History in Late Victorian Yorkshire. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):115 - 147.
    My goals in this paper are twofold: to outline the refashioning of amateur and professional roles in life science in late Victorian Yorkshire, and to provide a revised historiography of the relationship between amateurs and professionals in this era. Some historical treatments of this relationship assume that amateurs were demoralized by the advances of laboratory science, and so ceased to contribute and were left behind by the autonomous "new biology." Despite this view, I show that many amateurs played a vital (...)
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  16. Timothy L. Alborn, Elizabeth B. Keeney & Keith R. Benson (1989). The J.H.B. Bookshelf. Journal of the History of Biology 22 (2):361-371.
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  17. Dean C. Allard (1990). The Fish Commission Laboratory and Its Influence on the Founding of the Marine Biological Laboratory. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):251 - 270.
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  18. Barry Allen (2003). The Abyss of Contingency: Purposiveness and Contingency in Darwin and Kant. History of Philosophy Quarterly 20 (4):373 - 391.
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  19. Garland E. Allen (2013). “Culling the Herd”: Eugenics and the Conservation Movement in the United States, 1900–1940. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):31-72.
    While from a late twentieth- and early twenty-first century perspective, the ideologies of eugenics (controlled reproduction to eliminate the genetically unfit and promote the reproduction of the genetically fit) and environmental conservation and preservation, may seem incompatible, they were promoted simultaneously by a number of figures in the progressive era in the decades between 1900 and 1950. Common to the two movements were the desire to preserve the “best” in both the germ plasm of the human population and natural environments (...)
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  20. Garland E. Allen (2004). A Pact with the Embryo: Viktor Hamburger, Holistic and Mechanistic Philosophy in the Development of Neuroembryology, 1927-1955. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):421 - 475.
    Viktor Hamburger was a developmental biologist interested in the ontogenesis of the vertebrate nervous system. A student of Hans Spemann at Freiburg in the 1920s, Hamburger picked up a holistic view of the embryo that precluded him from treating it in a reductionist way; at the same time, he was committed to a materialist and analytical approach that eschewed any form of vitalism or metaphysics. This paper explores how Hamburger walked this thin line between mechanistic reductionism and metaphysical vitalism in (...)
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  21. Garland E. Allen (1984). Review: The Roots of Biological Determinism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (1):141 - 145.
  22. Garland E. Allen (1983). The Misuse of Biological Hierarchies: The American Eugenics Movement, 1900-1940. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 5 (2):105 - 128.
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  23. Garland E. Allen (1981). Morphology and Twentieth-Century Biology: A Response. Journal of the History of Biology 14 (1):159 - 176.
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  24. Garland E. Allen (1974). Opposition to the Mendelian-Chromosome Theory: The Physiological and Developmental Genetics of Richard Goldschmidt. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):49 - 92.
    We may now ask the question: In what historical perspective should we place the work of Richard Goldschmidt? There is no doubt that in the period 1910–1950 Goldschmidt was an important and prolific figure in the history of biology in general, and of genetics in particular. His textbook on physiological genetics, published in 1938, was an amazing compendium of ideas put forward in the previous half-century about how genes influence physiology and development. His earlier studies on the genetic and geographic (...)
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  25. Garland E. Allen (1974). Introduction. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):1-3.
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  26. Garland E. Allen (1969). Hugo De Vries and the Reception of the "Mutation Theory". Journal of the History of Biology 2 (1):55 - 87.
    De Vries' mutation theory has not stood the test of time. The supposed mutations of Oenothera were in reality complex recombination phenomena, ultimately explicable in Mendelian terms, while instances of large-scale mutations were found wanting in other species. By 1915 the mutation theory had begun to lose its grip on the biological community; by de Vries' death in 1935 it was almost completely abandoned. Yet, as we have seen, during the first decade of the present century it achieved an enormous (...)
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  27. Garland E. Allen (1968). Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Problem of Natural Selection. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):113 - 139.
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  28. Garland E. Allen & Dennis M. McCullough (1968). Notes on Source Materials: The Edwin Grant Conklin Papers at Princeton University. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):325 - 331.
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  29. Garland E. Allen, V. B. Smocovitis, Ronald Rainger, Lynn K. Nyhart, Keith R. Benson, Peter G. Sobol & Angela Creager (1993). The J.H.B. Bookshelf. Journal of the History of Biology 26 (1):147-163.
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  30. Garland Allen, Mark Barrow, Jane Maienschein & Everett Mendelsohn (2002). In Passing. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (2):iv.
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  31. Garland Allen & Jane Maienschein (2001). Editors' Introduction. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):1-2.
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  32. Stephen G. Alter (2008). “Curiously Parallel”: Analogies of Language and Race in Darwin's Descent of Man. A Reply to Gregory Radick. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (3):355-358.
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  33. Stephen G. Alter (2007). Separated at Birth: The Interlinked Origins of Darwin's Unconscious Selection Concept and the Application of Sexual Selection to Race. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):231 - 258.
    This essay traces the interlinked origins of two concepts found in Charles Darwin's writings: "unconscious selection," and sexual selection as applied to humanity's anatomical race distinctions. Unconscious selection constituted a significant elaboration of Darwin's artificial selection analogy. As originally conceived in his theoretical notebooks, that analogy had focused exclusively on what Darwin later would call "methodical selection," the calculated production of desired changes in domestic breeds. By contrast, unconscious selection produced its results unintentionally and at a much slower pace. Inspiration (...)
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  34. Stephen G. Alter (2007). The Advantages of Obscurity: Charles Darwin's Negative Inference From the Histories of Domestic Breeds. Annals of Science 64 (2):235-250.
    Summary In The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin famously accounted for the lack of fossil evidence in support of species evolution on the grounds that the fossil record is naturally incomplete. This essay examines a similar argument that Darwin applied to his analogy between natural and artificial selection: the scarcity of data about the historical backgrounds of domestic breeds was the natural by-product of an extremely gradual change process. The point was to enhance the ability of the artificial selection analogy (...)
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  35. Stephen J. Alter & Uwe Hossfeld (1999). Book Reviews-Darwinism and the Linguistic Image: Language, Race and Natural Theology in the Nineteenth Century. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):236-236.
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  36. C. T. Ambrose (2010). Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné), 1707-1778: The Swede Who Named Almost Everything. The Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha-Honor Medical Society. Alpha Omega Alpha 73 (2):4.
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  37. Martin Amrein & Kärin Nickelsen (2008). The Gentleman and the Rogue: The Collaboration Between Charles Darwin and Carl Vogt. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (2):237 - 266.
    This paper investigates the relationship between the eminent 19th-century naturalists Charles Darwin and Carl Vogt. On two separate occasions, Vogt asked Darwin for permission to translate some of the latter’s books into German, and in both cases Darwin refused. It has generally been assumed that Darwin turned down Vogt as a translator because of the latter’s reputation as a radical libertine who was extremely outspoken in his defence of scientific materialism and atheism. However, this explanation does not fit the facts, (...)
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  38. Olga Amsterdamska (1991). Stabilizing Instability: The Controversy Over Cyclogenic Theories of Bacterial Variation During the Interwar Period. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 24 (2):191 - 222.
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  39. Ron Amundson (2000). Embryology and Evolution 1920-1960: Worlds Apart? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (3):335 - 352.
    During the early part of the 20th century most embryologists were skeptical about the significance of Mendelian genetics to embryological development. A few embryologists began to study the developmental effects of Mendelian genes around 1940. Such work was a necessary step on the path to modern developmental biology. It occurred during the time when the Evolutionary Synthesis was integrating Mendelian and population genetics into a unified evolutionary theory. Why did the first embryological geneticists begin their study at that particular time? (...)
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  40. Warwick Anderson, Myles Jackson & Barbara Gutmann Rosenkrantz (1994). Toward an Unnatural History of Immunology. Journal of the History of Biology 27 (3):575 - 594.
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  41. Warwick Anderson & Ian R. Mackay (2013). Fashioning the Immunological Self: The Biological Individuality of F. Macfarlane Burnet. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 47 (1):1-29.
    During the 1940s and 1950s, the Australian microbiologist F. Macfarlane Burnet sought a biologically plausible explanation of antibody production. In this essay, we seek to recover the conceptual pathways that Burnet followed in his immunological theorizing. In so doing, we emphasize the influence of speculations on individuality, especially those of philosopher Alfred North Whitehead; the impact of cybernetics and information theory; and the contributions of clinical research into autoimmune disease that took place in Melbourne. We point to the influence of (...)
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  42. Rachel A. Ankeny (2000). Marvelling at the Marvel: The Supposed Conversion of A. D. Darbishire to Mendelism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (2):315 - 347.
    The so-called "biometric-Mendelian controversy" has received much attention from science studies scholars. This paper focuses on one scientist involved in this debate, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire, who performed a series of hybridization experiments with mice beginning in 1901. Previous historical work on Darbishire's experiments and his later attempt to reconcile Mendelian and biometric views describe Darbishire as eventually being "converted" to Mendelism. I provide a new analysis of this episode in the context of Darbishire's experimental results, his underlying epistemology, and his (...)
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  43. Peder Anker (2003). The Philosopher's Cabin and the Household of Nature. Ethics, Place and Environment 6 (2):131 – 141.
    The etymological origin of ecology in the human house is the point of departure of this article. It argues that oikos is not merely a vague metaphor for ecology, but that built households provide a key to understanding the household of nature. Three households support this claim: the cabins of Henry Thoreau, Aldo Leopold and Arne Noess. The article suggests that their views on the household of nature stand in direct relationship with their respective homes. They also have a distant (...)
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  44. Peter R. Anstey (2011). John Locke and Natural Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    1. Natural philosophy -- 2. Corpuscular pessimism -- 3. Natural history -- 4. Hypothese and analogy -- 5. Vortices, the deluge, and cohesion -- 6. Mathematics -- 7. Demonstration -- 8. Explanation -- 9. Iatrochemistyr -- 10. Generation -- 11. Species.
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  45. Toby A. Appel (1988). Jeffries Wyman, Philosophical Anatomy, and the Scientific Reception of Darwin in America. Journal of the History of Biology 21 (1):69 - 94.
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  46. Toby A. Appel (1980). Henri De Blainville and the Animal Series: A Nineteenth-Century Chain of Being. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 13 (2):291 - 319.
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  47. Agnes Robertson Arber (1954/1985). The Mind and the Eye: A Study of the Biologist's Standpoint. Cambridge University Press.
    Agnes Arber's international reputation is due in part to her exceptional ability to interpret the German tradition of scholarship for the English-speaking world. The Mind and the Eye is an erudite book, revealing its author's familiarity with philosophy from Plato and Aristotle through Aquinas to Kant and Hegel; but it is not dull, because the quiet enthusiasm of the author shines through. In this book she turns from the work of a specialist in one science to those wider questions which (...)
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  48. J. David Archibald (2009). Edward Hitchcock's Pre-Darwinian (1840) "Tree of Life". Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):561 - 592.
    The "tree of life" iconography, representing the history of life, dates from at least the latter half of the 18th century, but evolution as the mechanism providing this bifurcating history of life did not appear until the early 19th century. There was also a shift from the straight line, scala naturae view of change in nature to a more bifurcating or tree-like view. Throughout the 19th century authors presented tree-like diagrams, some regarding the Deity as the mechanism of change while (...)
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  49. A. M. Arias (2005). Mendel's Legacy: The Origins of Classical Genetics By Elof Axel Carlson. Bioessays 27 (7):761.
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  50. Andre Ariew (2007). Under the Influence of Malthus's Law of Population Growth: Darwin Eschews the Statistical Techniques of Aldolphe Quetelet. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):1-19.
    In the epigraph, Fisher is blaming two generations of theoretical biologists, from Darwin on, for ignoring Quetelet's statistical techniques and hence harboring confusions about evolution and natural selection. He is right to imply that Darwin and his contemporaries were aware of the core of Quetelet's work. Quetelet's seminal monograph, Sur L'homme, was widely discussed in Darwin's academic circles. We know that Darwin owned a copy (Schweber 1977). More importantly, we have in Darwin's notebooks two entries referring to Quetelet's work on (...)
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