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  1. Shawn B. Allin (2003). Cathy Cobb: Magick, Mayhem, and Mavericks: The Spirited History of Physical Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 5 (3):249-252.
  2. Santiago Alvarez, Joaquim Sales & Miquel Seco (2008). On Books and Chemical Elements. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):79-100.
    The history of the classification of chemical elements is reviewed from the point of view of a bibliophile. The influence that relevant books had on the development of the periodic table and, conversely, how it was incorporated into textbooks, treatises and literary works, with an emphasis on the Spanish bibliography are analyzed in this paper. The reader will also find unexpected connections of the periodic table with the Bible or the architect Buckminster Fuller.
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  3. K. C. Bailey (1935). The Early History of Chemistry Professor J. R. Partington, M.B.E., D.Sc.: Origins and Development of Applied Chemistry. Pp. Xii + 597. London, New York, Toronto: Longmans, 1935. Cloth, 45s. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 49 (06):239-.
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  4. Davis Baird (2000). Encapsulating Knowledge: The Direct Reading Spectrometer. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (1):5-46.
    The direct reading emission spectrometer was developed during the1940s. By substituting photo-multiplier tubes and electronics forphotographic film spectrograms, the interpretation of special lineswith a densitometer was avoided. Instead, the instrument providedthe desired information concerning percentage concentration ofelements of interest directly on a dial. Such instruments `de-skill' the job of making such measurements. They do this by encapsulatingin the instrument the skills previously employed by the analyst,by `skilling' the instrument. This paper presents a history of thedevelopment of the Dow Chemical/Baird Associates (...)
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  5. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2014). From Corpuscles to Elements: Chemical Ontologies From Van Helmont to Lavoisier. In Lee McIntyre & Eric Scerri (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Springer 141-154.
  6. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2013). The Relevance of Boyle's Chemical Philosophy for Contemporary Philosophy of Chemistry. In Jean-Pierre Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies, and Concepts.
  7. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2012). The Ontological Function of First-Order and Second-Order Corpuscles in the Chemical Philosophy of Robert Boyle: The Redintegration of Potassium Nitrate. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):221-234.
    Although Boyle has been regarded as a champion of the seventeenth century Cartesian mechanical philosophy, I defend the position that Boyle’s views conciliate between a strictly mechanistic conception of fundamental matter and a non-reductionist conception of chemical qualities. In particular, I argue that this conciliation is evident in Boyle’s ontological distinction between fundamental corpuscles endowed with mechanistic properties and higher-level corpuscular concretions endowed with chemical properties. Some of these points have already been acknowledged by contemporary scholars, and I actively engage (...)
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  8. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2011). Ontological Tensions in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):173-186.
    The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks a period of transition between the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy and the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper will focus on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of sixteenth and seventeenth century chemistry and chemical philosophy, particularly in the works of Paracelsus, Jan Baptista Van Helmont, Robert Fludd, and Robert Boyle. Rather than argue that these (...)
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  9. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino, Ontological Tensions in 16th and 17th Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism.
    The 16th and 17th centuries marked a period of transition from the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy to the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper focuses on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of 16th and 17th century chemistry and chemical philosophy. The paper argues that, within the fields of chemistry and chemical philosophy, the significant transition that culminated in the 18th century (...)
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  10. Prajit Kumar Basu (1992). Scientific Explanation in the History of Chemistry: The Priestley-Lavoisier Debate. Dissertation, The University of Iowa
    In this dissertation, I attempt to understand Joseph Priestley's scientific beliefs. I describe his scientific practices, for the purpose of showing how they shed light on two key issues in philosophy of science: scientific explanation and hypothesis confirmation. I discuss these matters in the historical context of the eighteenth-century Chemical Revolution. ;In the first chapter, I discuss Priestley's view of causation and reconstruct his account of explanation as a species of what is now called 'contrastive' explanation. A contrastive explanation attempts (...)
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  11. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Chemistry, an Ontology-Free Science?
    It is often assumed that chemistry was a typical positivistic science as long as chemists used atomic and molecular models as mere fictions and denied any concern with their real existence. Even when they use notions such as molecular orbitals chemists do not reify them and often claim that they are mere models or instrumental artefacts. However a glimpse on the history of chemistry in the longue durée suggests that such denials of the ontological status of chemical entities do not (...)
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  12. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent (2005). Book Review: Marco Beretta (Ed.): "Lavoisier in Perspective", München 2005. [REVIEW] Hyle 11 (2):167 - 168.
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  13. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent (1990). A View Of The Chemical Revolution Through Contemporary Textbooks: Lavoisier, Fourcroy and Chaptal. British Journal for the History of Science 23 (4):435-460.
    Scientific textbooks are often said to deliver a stereotyped kind of knowledge, which conceals rather than reveals the real making of science. They may, however, alternatively be regarded as of peculiar interest for historians of science. An over-mechanical application of the Kuhnian concepts of ‘scientific revolution’ and ‘normal science’ can lead to the neglect of the internal dynamics of ‘normal science’. Scientific textbooks may provide a better understanding of the process of normalization in science.
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  14. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent & Valeria Mosini, Between Economics and Chemistry: Lavoisier's and Le Chatelier's Notions of Equilibrium.
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  15. Nicholas W. Best (2016). What Was Revolutionary About the Chemical Revolution? In Eric Scerri & Grant Fisher (eds.), Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry. Oxford University Press 37-59.
    Lavoisier and his allies should be regarded as philosophers of chemistry, for they took it upon themselves to carry out a scientific revolution. Inspired by enlightenment philosophy, they introduced new assumptions, apparatus and methods of experimentation. They provided a linguistic framework that would ensure These reforms, as much as any theoretical changes, are what make this period revolutionary. Moreover, by reading these scientists as philosophers of chemistry, we see that the Chemical Revolution was in many ways more revolutionary than Thomas (...)
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  16. Nicholas W. Best (2016). Lavoisier’s “Reflections on Phlogiston” II: On the Nature of Heat. Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):3-13.
    Having refuted the phlogiston theory, Lavoisier uses this second portion of his essay to expound his new theory of combustion, based on the oxygen principle. He gives a mechanistic account of thermodynamic phenomena in terms of a subtle fluid and its ability to penetrate porous bodies. He uses this hypothetical fluid to explain volume changes, heat capacity and latent heat. Beyond the three types of combustion that he distinguishes and defines, Lavoisier also explains other chemical sources of heat, such as (...)
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  17. Nicholas W. Best (2015). Lavoisier’s "Reflections on Phlogiston" I: Against Phlogiston Theory. Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):137-151.
    This seminal paper, which marks a turning point of the chemical revolution, is presented for the first time in a complete English translation. In this first half Lavoisier undermines phlogiston chemistry by arguing that his French contemporaries had replaced Stahl’s original theory with radically different systems that conceptualised the phlogiston principle in completely incompatible ways. He refutes their claims by showing that these later models were riddled with inconsistencies as to phlogiston’s weight, its ability to penetrate glass and its role (...)
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  18. John E. Bloor (2002). Ronald J. Gillespie and Paul L. A. Popelier: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):241-247.
  19. W. H. Brock (1985). Chemical Atomism in the Nineteenth Century: From Dalton to Cannizzaro. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 18 (3):345-347.
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  20. Alan Chalmers (2012). Klein on the Origin of the Concept of Chemical Compound. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):37-53.
    Ursula Klein has argued that Geoffroy’s table of chemical affinities, published in 1718, marked the emergence of the concepts of chemical compound and chemical combination central to chemistry. In this paper her position is summarised and then modified to render it immune to criticism that has been levelled against it. The essentials of Geoffroy’s chemistry are clarified and adapted to Klein’s picture by way of a detailed comparison of it with Boyle’s corpuscular chemistry that proceeded Geoffroy’s by over half a (...)
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  21. José Antonio Chamizo & Andoni Garritz (2014). Historical Teaching of Atomic and Molecular Structure. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 343-374.
    Besides the presentation and conclusions, the chapter is divided into two equally important sections. The first one describes the modern development of atomic and molecular structure, emphasising some of the philosophical problems that have been taken, and those that have to be faced in its understanding. The second discusses the alternative conceptions and difficulties of students of different educational levels and also the different approaches to its historical or philosophical teaching. Finally, we recognise the necessity for science teachers to assume (...)
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  22. Hasok Chang (2010). The Hidden History of Phlogiston: How Philosophical Failure Can Generate Historiographical Refinement. Hyle 16 (2):47 - 79.
    Historians often feel that standard philosophical doctrines about the nature and development of science are not adequate for representing the real history of science. However, when philosophers of science fail to make sense of certain historical events, it is also possible that there is something wrong with the standard historical descriptions of those events, precluding any sensible explanation. If so, philosophical failure can be useful as a guide for improving historiography, and this constitutes a significant mode of productive interaction between (...)
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  23. Hasok Chang, Jeremiah James, Paul Needham, Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões (2013). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry. Metascience 22 (3):523-544.
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  24. Pedro Cintas (2002). On the Origin of Tetrahedral Carbon: A Case for Philosophy of Chemistry? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (2):149-161.
    This essay analyzes the historical and philosophical context that led to the basic concepts of stereochemistry proposed by Van’t Hoff and Le Bel. Although it is now well established that the key idea of tetrahedral carbon, and in general a geometric view of matter, was pioneered by other chemists, Van’t Hoff and Le Bel used this idea to solve the puzzle of optical activity, thereby establishing a direct linkage between structure and physical properties. It is also interesting to note that (...)
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  25. Klodian Coko (2015). Epistemology of a Believing Historian: Making Sense of Duhem's Anti-Atomism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 50:71-82.
    Pierre Duhem’s (1861-1916) lifelong opposition to 19th century atomic theories of matter traditionally has been attributed to his conventionalist and/or positivist philosophy of science. Relatively recently, this traditional view has been challenged by the claim that Duhem’s opposition to atomism was due to the precarious state of atomic theories during the beginning of the 20th century. In this paper I present some of the difficulties with both the traditional and the new interpretation of Duhem’s opposition to atomism and provide a (...)
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  26. N. Coley (1987). Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life. An Exploration of Scientific Creativity. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 20 (1):85-86.
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  27. M. P. Crosland (1995). The Enlightement of Matter-the Definition of Chemistry From Agricola to Lavoisier-Beretta, M. Annals of Science 52 (1):94-95.
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  28. Maurice Crosland (2003). Research Schools of Chemistry From Lavoisier to Wurtz. British Journal for the History of Science 36 (3):333-361.
    The group which worked with Lavoisier in his laboratory also collaborated with him in publication and jointly edited the journal Annales de chimie. It has a good claim to be considered as a research school. Most historians of chemistry, who have studied the ‘chemical revolution’ in France, have focused uniquely on Lavoisier, giving scant attention to his co-workers and ignoring his assistants, thus overlooking their collective research, which created something of a precedent for nineteenth-century science. It has also been too (...)
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  29. Maurice Crosland (1996). Lavoisier in European Context: Negotiating a New Language for Chemistry. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 29 (2):238-238.
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  30. Roberto de Andrade Martins (2012). The Rise of Magnetochemistry From Ritter to Hurmuzescu. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (2):157-182.
    Abstract This paper describes the early history of magnetochemistry: the search for chemical effects of magnetism in the nineteenth century. Some early researchers, such as Johann Wilhelm Ritter, attempted to reproduce with magnets the effects that had been produced by electricity and Volta’s battery. For several decades, researchers successively reported positive results and denied claims concerning the effect of magnetism in oxidation, electrolysis, reduction of metals from saline solutions, crystallisation, change of colour of vegetable tinctures and other chemical reactions. In (...)
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  31. Kevin C. de Berg (2014). The Place of the History of Chemistry in the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 317-341.
    To those of us who are sold on history, it may seem non-controversial to suggest that the learning and teaching of chemistry should give cognisance to the historical development of the subject. However, this suggestion is proving controversial amongst some in the chemistry profession. For example, in the October 2010 edition of Chemistry in Australia, Rami Ibo takes issue with the emphasis on the history of science in the HSC chemistry curriculum (Year 12) in New South Wales. He studied chemistry, (...)
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  32. Allen G. Debus (2006). The Chemical Promise: Experiment and Mysticism in the Chemical Philosophy, 1550-1800: Selected Essays of Allen G. Debus. Science History Publications.
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  33. Allen G. Debus (1963). A History of Chemistry, II. History of Science 2:165.
  34. Robert K. DeKosky (2009). William H. Brock: William Crookes (1832–1919) and the Commercialization of Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 11 (3):175-180.
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  35. Robert J. Deltete & Anastasios Brenner (2004). Pierre Duhem: Mixture and Chemical Combination and Related Essays. Edited and Translated, with an Introduction, by Paul Needham. Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):203-232.
    The following is an essay review of Paul Needham's translation of Pierre Duhem's Lemixte et la combinaison chimique and a numberof other essays. In this review we describe theintent and general features of Le mixte and try to place it in the larger context of Duhem'sprogram for energetics. The long essay (Essay3) opposing Marcellin Berthelot'sthermochemistry is singled out for detailedcommentary, since it gives Duhem's reasons forendorsing Josiah Willard Gibbs's chemicalstatics. We argue that a chemical mechanics ofa Gibbsian sort, defended in (...)
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  36. Heather Douglas (2004). Prediction, Explanation, and Dioxin Biochemistry: Science in Public Policy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 6 (1):49-63.
  37. Antonino Drago & Romina Oliva (1999). Atomism and the Reasoning by a Non-Classical Logic. Hyle 5 (1):43 - 55.
    Often, in the original scientific writings, a double negated statement (DNS) is not equivalent to his corresponding positive one; that means the inferring law 'non non A -> A' does not apply. Recent studies recognized in the failure of this logical law the borderline between classical and non-classical logics. Original writings by classical chemists dealing with the problem of atomism are particularly characterized by the occurrences of DNSs. An historical case, Avogadro's contribution to atomism (i.e. the well-known hypothesis about the (...)
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  38. M. D. Eddy (2004). Elements, Principles and the Narrative of Affinity. Foundations of Chemistry 6 (2):161-175.
    In the 18th century, the concept of ‘affinity’, ‘principle’ and ‘element’ dominated chemical discourse, both inside and outside the laboratory. Although much work has been done on these terms and the methodological commitments which guided their usage, most studies over the past two centuries have concentrated on their application as relevant to Lavoisier's oxygen theory and the new nomenclature. Kim's affinity challenges this historiographical trajectory by looking at several French chemists in the light of their private thoughts, public disputations and (...)
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  39. Sibel Erduran & Ebru Z. Mugaloglu (2014). Philosophy of Chemistry in Chemical Education: Recent Trends and Future Directions. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 287-315.
    In this chapter, we review recent trends in the philosophy of chemistry and its applications in chemical education. Chemistry has maintained quite a peripheral existence in the philosophy of science for a long time, thus evading focused attention and critical analysis. However, since the 1990s an increasing number of books, journals, conferences and associations focused on philosophy of chemistry highlighting the contributions of chemistry to philosophy of science (Bhushan and Rosenfeld, Of minds and molecules: new philosophical perspectives on chemistry. Oxford (...)
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  40. William R. Everdell (1999). 25 Centuries of Atoms and Void. Pullman, Bernard, the Atom in the History of Human Thought, Translated by Axel R. Reisinger. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (3):305-309.
  41. Danielle Fauque (2004). Historical Studies-From Nicolas Lemery to Adolphe Wurtz: On Some Works in the History of Chemistry. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 57 (2):493-508.
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  42. Robin S. Fleming (2006). Newton, Gases, and Daltonian Chemistry: The Foundations of Combination in Definite Proportion. Annals of Science 31 (6):561-574.
    (1974). Newton, Gases, and Daltonian chemistry: The foundations of combination in definite proportion. Annals of Science: Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 561-574.
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  43. Leslie S. Forster (2006). Chromium Photophysics – a Prototypical Case History. Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):243-254.
    Science, in general, and chemistry in particular advances by methods that are difficult to codify. The availability of theories (models) and instrumentation play an important role but indefinable motivations to study individual phenomena are also involved. The area of chromium photophysics has a rich history that spans 150 years. A case history of the progression from the natural history stage to its present state reveals the way in which several factors that are common to much physical science research interact.
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  44. Ludovico Geymonat (ed.) (1970). EST - Enciclopedia della Scienza e della Tecnica. Mondadori.
  45. Ludovico Geymonat, Carlo Becchi, Enrico Bellone, Francesco Bertola, Giovanni Boniolo, Umberto Bottazzini, Salvatore Califano, Mauro Ceruti, Gilberto Corbellini, Roberto Cordeschi, Alessandra Gliozzi, Felice Ippolito, Gabriele Lolli, Alberto Oliverio, Bianca Oscurati & Corrado Mangione (1996). Storia del Pensiero Filosofico e Scientifico - 8° vol. Garzanti.
  46. Carmen J. Giunta (2001). Argon and the Periodic System: The Piece That Would Not Fit. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 3 (2):105-128.
    The discovery of the noble gases and their incorporation into the periodic system are examined in this paper. A chronology of experimental reports on argon and helium and the properties relevant to their nature and position in the periodic system is presented. Proposals on the nature of argon and helium that appeared in the aftermath of their discovery are examined in light of the various empirical and theoretical considerations that supported and contradicted them. ``The piece that would not fit'' refers (...)
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  47. W. Goodwin (2012). Sustaining a Controversy: The Non-Classical Ion Debate. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):787-816.
    This article examines a scientific controversy that raged for twenty years in physical organic chemistry during the second half of the twentieth century. After explaining what was at stake in the non-classical ion debate, I attempt—by examining the methodological reflections of some of the participants—a partial explanation of what sustained this controversy, particularly during its early stages. Instead of suggesting a breakdown of scientific method or the unavoidable historical contingency of scientific development, the endurance of this controversy instead reveals the (...)
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  48. J. B. Gough (1968). Lavoisier's Early Career in Science: An Examination of Some New Evidence. British Journal for the History of Science 4 (1):52-57.
    Shortly before his death in 1934, the British historian of chemistry, A. N. Meldrum, published two lengthy articles on Lavoisier's early career in science. After a careful investigation of the collection of manuscripts at the Académie des Sciences in Paris and in light of a detailed and penetrating analysis of Lavoisier's published work, Meldrum concluded that as a youth, Lavoisier was concerned with chemistry only to the extent that he found it useful for his mineralogical and geological researches. Lavoisier began (...)
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  49. Peter Joseph Hall (1986). The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Foundations of Chemistry. Synthese 69 (3):267 - 272.
    Despite its importance to Chemistry, the Pauli Exclusion Principle appears as a rather ad hoc addition to quantum mechanics. In this paper a description of its origin is given together with a critical discussion of its use and significance in Chemistry and Quantum Physics.
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  50. Rom Harré (2008). Some Presuppositions in the Metaphysics of Chemical Reactions. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (1):19-38.
    The project of chemistry to classify substances and develop techniques for their transformation into other substances rests on assumptions about the means by which compounds are constituted and reconstituted. Robert Boyle not only proposed empirical tests for a metaphysics of material corpuscules, but also a principle for designing experimental procedures in line with that metaphysics. Later chemists added activity concepts to the repertoire. The logic of activity explanations in modern times involves hierarchies of activity concepts, transitions between levels through non-dispositional (...)
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