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  1. Shawn B. Allin (2003). Cathy Cobb: Magick, Mayhem, and Mavericks: The Spirited History of Physical Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 5 (3):249-252.
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  2. Santiago Alvarez, Joaquim Sales & Miquel Seco (2008). On Books and Chemical Elements. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):79-100.
    The history of the classification of chemical elements is reviewed from the point of view of a bibliophile. The influence that relevant books had on the development of the periodic table and, conversely, how it was incorporated into textbooks, treatises and literary works, with an emphasis on the Spanish bibliography are analyzed in this paper. The reader will also find unexpected connections of the periodic table with the Bible or the architect Buckminster Fuller.
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  3. K. C. Bailey (1935). The Early History of Chemistry Professor J. R. Partington, M.B.E., D.Sc.: Origins and Development of Applied Chemistry. Pp. Xii + 597. London, New York, Toronto: Longmans, 1935. Cloth, 45s. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 49 (06):239-.
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  4. Davis Baird (2000). Encapsulating Knowledge: The Direct Reading Spectrometer. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (1):5-46.
    The direct reading emission spectrometer was developed during the1940s. By substituting photo-multiplier tubes and electronics forphotographic film spectrograms, the interpretation of special lineswith a densitometer was avoided. Instead, the instrument providedthe desired information concerning percentage concentration ofelements of interest directly on a dial. Such instruments `de-skill' the job of making such measurements. They do this by encapsulatingin the instrument the skills previously employed by the analyst,by `skilling' the instrument. This paper presents a history of thedevelopment of the Dow Chemical/Baird Associates (...)
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  5. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2013). The Relevance of Boyle's Chemical Philosophy for Contemporary Philosophy of Chemistry. In Jean-Pierre Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies, and Concepts.
  6. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2012). The Ontological Function of First-Order and Second-Order Corpuscles in the Chemical Philosophy of Robert Boyle: The Redintegration of Potassium Nitrate. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):221-234.
    Although Boyle has been regarded as a champion of the seventeenth century Cartesian mechanical philosophy, I defend the position that Boyle’s views conciliate between a strictly mechanistic conception of fundamental matter and a non-reductionist conception of chemical qualities. In particular, I argue that this conciliation is evident in Boyle’s ontological distinction between fundamental corpuscles endowed with mechanistic properties and higher-level corpuscular concretions endowed with chemical properties. Some of these points have already been acknowledged by contemporary scholars, and I actively engage (...)
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  7. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2011). Ontological Tensions in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):173-186.
    The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks a period of transition between the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy and the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper will focus on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of sixteenth and seventeenth century chemistry and chemical philosophy, particularly in the works of Paracelsus, Jan Baptista Van Helmont, Robert Fludd, and Robert Boyle. Rather than argue that these (...)
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  8. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino, Ontological Tensions in 16th and 17th Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism.
    The 16th and 17th centuries marked a period of transition from the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy to the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper focuses on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of 16th and 17th century chemistry and chemical philosophy. The paper argues that, within the fields of chemistry and chemical philosophy, the significant transition that culminated in the 18th century (...)
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  9. John E. Bloor (2002). Ronald J. Gillespie and Paul L. A. Popelier: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):241-247.
  10. Alan Chalmers (2012). Klein on the Origin of the Concept of Chemical Compound. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):37-53.
    Ursula Klein has argued that Geoffroy’s table of chemical affinities, published in 1718, marked the emergence of the concepts of chemical compound and chemical combination central to chemistry. In this paper her position is summarised and then modified to render it immune to criticism that has been levelled against it. The essentials of Geoffroy’s chemistry are clarified and adapted to Klein’s picture by way of a detailed comparison of it with Boyle’s corpuscular chemistry that proceeded Geoffroy’s by over half a (...)
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  11. Hasok Chang, Jeremiah James, Paul Needham, Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões (2013). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry. Metascience 22 (3):523-544.
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  12. Pedro Cintas (2002). On the Origin of Tetrahedral Carbon: A Case for Philosophy of Chemistry? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (2):149-161.
    This essay analyzes the historical and philosophical context that led to the basic concepts of stereochemistry proposed by Van’t Hoff and Le Bel. Although it is now well established that the key idea of tetrahedral carbon, and in general a geometric view of matter, was pioneered by other chemists, Van’t Hoff and Le Bel used this idea to solve the puzzle of optical activity, thereby establishing a direct linkage between structure and physical properties. It is also interesting to note that (...)
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  13. Roberto de Andrade Martins (2012). The Rise of Magnetochemistry From Ritter to Hurmuzescu. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (2):157-182.
    Abstract This paper describes the early history of magnetochemistry: the search for chemical effects of magnetism in the nineteenth century. Some early researchers, such as Johann Wilhelm Ritter, attempted to reproduce with magnets the effects that had been produced by electricity and Volta’s battery. For several decades, researchers successively reported positive results and denied claims concerning the effect of magnetism in oxidation, electrolysis, reduction of metals from saline solutions, crystallisation, change of colour of vegetable tinctures and other chemical reactions. In (...)
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  14. Allen G. Debus (2006). The Chemical Promise: Experiment and Mysticism in the Chemical Philosophy, 1550-1800: Selected Essays of Allen G. Debus. Science History Publications.
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  15. Robert K. DeKosky (2009). William H. Brock: William Crookes (1832–1919) and the Commercialization of Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 11 (3):175-180.
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  16. Robert J. Deltete & Anastasios Brenner (2004). Pierre Duhem: Mixture and Chemical Combination and Related Essays. Edited and Translated, with an Introduction, by Paul Needham. Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):203-232.
    The following is an essay review of Paul Needham's translation of Pierre Duhem's Lemixte et la combinaison chimique and a numberof other essays. In this review we describe theintent and general features of Le mixte and try to place it in the larger context of Duhem'sprogram for energetics. The long essay (Essay3) opposing Marcellin Berthelot'sthermochemistry is singled out for detailedcommentary, since it gives Duhem's reasons forendorsing Josiah Willard Gibbs's chemicalstatics. We argue that a chemical mechanics ofa Gibbsian sort, defended in (...)
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  17. Heather Douglas (2004). Prediction, Explanation, and Dioxin Biochemistry: Science in Public Policy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 6 (1):49-63.
  18. M. D. Eddy (2004). Elements, Principles and the Narrative of Affinity. Foundations of Chemistry 6 (2):161-175.
    In the 18th century, the concept of ‘affinity’, ‘principle’ and ‘element’ dominated chemical discourse, both inside and outside the laboratory. Although much work has been done on these terms and the methodological commitments which guided their usage, most studies over the past two centuries have concentrated on their application as relevant to Lavoisier's oxygen theory and the new nomenclature. Kim's affinity challenges this historiographical trajectory by looking at several French chemists in the light of their private thoughts, public disputations and (...)
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  19. William R. Everdell (1999). 25 Centuries of Atoms and Void. Pullman, Bernard, the Atom in the History of Human Thought, Translated by Axel R. Reisinger. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (3):305-309.
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  20. Leslie S. Forster (2006). Chromium Photophysics – a Prototypical Case History. Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):243-254.
    Science, in general, and chemistry in particular advances by methods that are difficult to codify. The availability of theories (models) and instrumentation play an important role but indefinable motivations to study individual phenomena are also involved. The area of chromium photophysics has a rich history that spans 150 years. A case history of the progression from the natural history stage to its present state reveals the way in which several factors that are common to much physical science research interact.
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  21. Carmen J. Giunta (2001). Argon and the Periodic System: The Piece That Would Not Fit. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 3 (2):105-128.
    The discovery of the noble gases and their incorporation into the periodic system are examined in this paper. A chronology of experimental reports on argon and helium and the properties relevant to their nature and position in the periodic system is presented. Proposals on the nature of argon and helium that appeared in the aftermath of their discovery are examined in light of the various empirical and theoretical considerations that supported and contradicted them. ``The piece that would not fit'' refers (...)
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  22. William Goodwin (2012). Sustaining a Controversy: The Non-Classical Ion Debate. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axs025.
    This article examines a scientific controversy that raged for twenty years in physical organic chemistry during the second half of the twentieth century. After explaining what was at stake in the non-classical ion debate, I attempt—by examining the methodological reflections of some of the participants—a partial explanation of what sustained this controversy, particularly during its early stages. Instead of suggesting a breakdown of scientific method or the unavoidable historical contingency of scientific development, the endurance of this controversy instead reveals the (...)
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  23. Peter Joseph Hall (1986). The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Foundations of Chemistry. Synthese 69 (3):267 - 272.
    Despite its importance to Chemistry, the Pauli Exclusion Principle appears as a rather ad hoc addition to quantum mechanics. In this paper a description of its origin is given together with a critical discussion of its use and significance in Chemistry and Quantum Physics.
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  24. Rom Harré (2008). Some Presuppositions in the Metaphysics of Chemical Reactions. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (1):19-38.
    The project of chemistry to classify substances and develop techniques for their transformation into other substances rests on assumptions about the means by which compounds are constituted and reconstituted. Robert Boyle not only proposed empirical tests for a metaphysics of material corpuscules, but also a principle for designing experimental procedures in line with that metaphysics. Later chemists added activity concepts to the repertoire. The logic of activity explanations in modern times involves hierarchies of activity concepts, transitions between levels through non-dispositional (...)
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  25. Robin Findlay Hendry (2005). Lavoisier and Mendeleev on the Elements. Foundations of Chemistry 7 (1):31-48.
    Lavoisier defined an element as a chemicalsubstance that cannot be decomposed usingcurrent analytical methods. Mendeleev saw anelement as a substance composed of atoms of thesame atomic weight. These `definitions' doquite different things: Lavoisier'sdistinguishes the elements from the compounds,so that the elements may form the basis of acompositional nomenclature; Mendeleev's offersa criterion of sameness and difference forelemental substances, while Lavoisier's doesnot. In this paper I explore the historical andtheoretical background to each proposal.Lavoisier's and Mendeleev's explicitconceptions of elementhood differed from eachother, and (...)
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  26. Roald Hoffmann (2012). Roald Hoffmann on the Philosophy, Art, and Science of Chemistry. Oxford University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction, by Michael Weisberg and Jeffrey Kovac. -- 1 Trying to Understand, Making Bonds, by Roald Hoffmann -- Part 1: Chemical Reasoning and Explanation -- 2. Why Buy That Theory?, by Roald Hoffmann. -- 3. What Might Philosophy of Science Look Like If Chemists Built It?, by Roald Hoffmann -- 4. Unstable, by Roald Hoffmann -- 5. Nearly Circular Reasoning, by Roald Hoffmann -- 6. Ockham's Razor and Chemistry, by Roald Hoffmann, (...)
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  27. Sandra D. Hojniak (2011). David E. Fisher: Much Ado About (Practically) Nothing. A History of the Noble Gases. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):167-169.
    David E. Fisher: Much Ado about (Practically) Nothing. A History of the Noble Gases Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s10698-011-9114-0 Authors Sandra D. Hojniak, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, 3001 Leuven, Belgium Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238.
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  28. George B. Kauffman (2012). István Hargittai: Judging Edward Teller: A Closer Look at One of the Most Influential Scientists of the Twentieth Century. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):99-101.
    István Hargittai: Judging Edward Teller: A closer look at one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s10698-011-9133-x Authors George B. Kauffman, Department of Chemistry, California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8034, USA Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238.
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  29. George B. Kauffman (2005). Book Review: Fathi Habashi: From Alchemy to Atomic Bombs: History of Chemistry, Metallurgy, and Civilization. Métallurgie Extractive Québec: 800 Rue Alain #504, Sainte Foy, Québec, Canada G1x 4e7, 2002; Distributed by Laval University Bookstore “Zone”: Cité Universitaire, Sainte Foy, Québec, Canada G1k 7p4, VIII + 357 Pp, Can.70.00; U.S.70.00; U.S.50.00; Plus Postage (Hardbound); ISBN 2-922-686-00-. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 7 (2):183-186.
  30. George B. Kauffman & Laurie M. Kauffman (2004). Fred Basolo: From Coello to Inorganic Chemistry: A Lifetime of Reactions. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):247-250.
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  31. Robert C. Kerber (2002). Markovnikov's Rule in History and Pedagogy. Foundations of Chemistry 4 (1):61-72.
    In 1870–75 Markovnikov enunciatedan empirical Rule which generalized theregiochemical outcome of addition reactions tounsymmetrical alkenes. This Rule remaineduseful for about 75 years, until suchreactions came to be better understood inmechanistic terms. Thereafter the Rule couldbe deduced from principles of relativecarbocation stabilization and ceased to servean independent purpose. Nevertheless, mostorganic textbooks continue to cite it (oftenin a historically inaccurate, anachronisticway), thereby distracting student attentionfrom the underlying principles. This paperadvocates doing away with the Rule in organicchemistry textbooks and classrooms.
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  32. Ursula Klein (2001). Berzelian Formulas as Paper Tools in Early Nineteenth-Century Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):7-32.
    This paper studies the semiotic,epistemological and historical aspects of Berzelianformulas in early nineteenth-century organicchemistry. I argue that Berzelian formulas wereenormously productive `paper tools' for representingchemical reactions of organic substances, and forcreating different pathways of reactions. Moreover, myanalysis of Jean Dumas's application of Berzelianformulas to model the creation of chloral from alcoholand chlorine exemplifies the role played by chemicalformulas in conceptual development (the concept ofsubstitution). Studying the dialectic of chemists'collectively shared goals and tools, I argue thatpaper tools, like laboratory instruments, areresources (...)
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  33. H. Kragh (2000). Conceptual Changes in Chemistry: The Notion of a Chemical Element, Ca. 1900-1925. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 31 (4):435-450.
  34. Helge Kragh (2001). The First Subatomic Explanations of the Periodic System. Foundations of Chemistry 3 (2):129-143.
    Attempts to explain the periodic system as a manifestation of regularities in the structure of the atoms of the elements are as old as the system itself. The paper analyses some of the most important of these attempts, in particular such works that are historically connected with the recognition of the electron as a fundamental building block of all matter. The history of the periodic system, the discovery of the electron, and ideas of early atomic structure are closely interwoven and (...)
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  35. J. A. Linthorst (2010). An Overview: Origins and Development of Green Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):55-68.
    This article provides an overview of the origins and development of green chemistry. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of green chemistry, basically from a historical point of view, this overview argues that contextual influences and the user friendliness of the term are drivers for the explosive growth of green chemistry. It is observed that political support for its development has been significant, in which the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 was a formal political starting-point, but informally the origins of (...)
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  36. Jonathan Livengood (2009). Why Was M. S. Tswett's Chromatographic Adsorption Analysis Rejected? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (1):57-69.
    The present paper claims that M. S. Tswett’s chromatographic adsorption analysis, which today is a ubiquitous and instrumentally sophisticated chemical technique, was either ignored or outright rejected by chemists and botanists in the first three decades of the twentieth century because it did not make sense in terms of accepted chemical theory or practice. Evidence for this claim is culled from consideration of the botanical and chemical context of Tswett’s technique as well as an analysis of the protracted debate over (...)
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  37. Olimpia Lombardi (2012). Prigogine and the Many Voices of Nature. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):205-219.
    Ilya Prigogine was not a systematic author: his ideas, covering a wide arch of areas, are dispersed in his many writings. In particular, his philosophical thought has to be reconstructed mainly on the basis of his works in collaboration with Isabelle Stengers: La Nouvelle Alliance ( 1979 ), Order out of Chaos ( 1984 ), and Entre le Temps et l’Éternité ( 1988 ). In this paper I undertake that reconstruction in order to argue that Prigogine’s position, when read in (...)
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  38. Bo G. Malmström (1999). Athel Cornish-Bowden, Ed., Eduard Buchner and the Growth of Biochemical Knowledge. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (2):217-219.
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  39. E. G. Marks & J. A. Marks (2010). Newlands Revisited: A Display of the Periodicity of the Chemical Elements for Chemists. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):85-93.
    This is a periodic table explicitly for chemists rather than physicists. It is derived from Newlands’ columns. It solves many problems such as the positions of hydrogen, helium, beryllium, zinc and the lanthanoids but all within a succinct format.
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  40. John G. McEvoy (2000). In Search of the Chemical Revolution: Interpretive Strategies in the History of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (1):47-73.
    In recent years the Chemical Revolution has become a renewed focus of interest among historians of science. This interest isshaped by interpretive strategies associated with the emergence anddevelopment of the discipline of the history of science. The disciplineoccupies a contested intellectual terrain formed in part by thedevelopment and cultural entanglements of science itself. Threestages in this development are analyzed in this paper. Theinterpretive strategies that characterized each stage are elucidatedand traced to the disciplinary interests that gave rise to them. Whilepositivists (...)
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  41. Jack Morrel (2000). D.M. Knight and H. Kragh (Eds.): The Making of the Chemist: The Social History of Chemistry in Europe, 1789–1914. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):181-185.
  42. Leo Näpinen (2007). The Need for the Historical Understanding of Nature in Physics and Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 9 (1):65-84.
    During the last decades the physico-chemical conception of self-organization of chemical systems has been created. The chemical systems in natural-historical processes do not have any creator: they rise up from irreversible processes by self-organization. The issue of self-organization in physics has led to a new interpretation of the laws of nature. As Ilya Prigogine has shown, they do not express certainties but possibilities and describe a world that must be understood in a historical way. In the new philosophical understanding of (...)
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  43. Paul Needham (2003). Maureen Christie: The Ozone Layer. A Philosophy of Science Perspective. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 5 (3):253-261.
  44. Paul Needham (2000). Atomic Notation and Atomistic Hypotheses Translated by Paul Needham. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):127-180.
  45. Richard Martin Pagni (2009). The Origin and Development of the Acidity Function. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (1):43-50.
    The acidity function is a thermodynamic quantitative measure of acid strength for non-aqueous and concentrated aqueous Brønsted acids, with acid strength being defined as the extent to which the acid protonates a base of known basicity. The acidity function, which was developed, both theoretically and experimentally, by Louis P. Hammett of Columbia University during the 1930s, has proven useful in the area of physical organic chemistry where it has been used to correlate rates of acid-catalyzed reactions and to quantitate the (...)
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  46. F. A. Paneth (2003). The Epistemological Status of the Chemical Concept of Element. Foundations of Chemistry 5 (2):113-145.
    This article is a translation into english of a lecture given by paneth in 1931. The content of the work is described by the section titles: (1) the need for epistemological clarification of the fundamental concepts of chemistry, (2) the concept of substance in chemistry, (3) the epistemological standpoint of the ancient atomists, (4) the epistemological position of the concept of element introduced by lavoisier, (5) the double meaning of the chemical concept of element: 'basic substance' and 'simple substance', And (...)
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  47. F. A. Paneth (1962). The Epistemological Status of the Chemical Concept of Element (I). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (49):1-14.
    This article is a translation into english of a lecture given by paneth in 1931. The content of the work is described by the section titles: (1) the need for epistemological clarification of the fundamental concepts of chemistry, (2) the concept of substance in chemistry, (3) the epistemological standpoint of the ancient atomists, (4) the epistemological position of the concept of element introduced by lavoisier, (5) the double meaning of the chemical concept of element: 'basic substance' and 'simple substance', And (...)
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  48. F. A. Paneth (1962). The Epistemological Status of the Chemical Concept of Element (II). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (50):144-160.
    This article is a translation into english of a lecture given by paneth in 1931. The content of the work is described by the section titles: (1) the need for epistemological clarification of the fundamental concepts of chemistry, (2) the concept of substance in chemistry, (3) the epistemological standpoint of the ancient atomists, (4) the epistemological position of the concept of element introduced by lavoisier, (5) the double meaning of the chemical concept of element: 'basic substance' and 'simple substance', And (...)
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  49. L. Paoloni (2002). Frederic L. Holmes and Trevor H. Levere (Eds), Instruments and Experimentation in the History of Chemistry. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (3/4):525-526.
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  50. Gary Patterson (2010). Les Atomes: A Landmark Book in Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (3):223-233.
    There have been occasions when the publication of a particular book has had a singular impact on the conceptual world of the chemist. Sometimes the publication occurs near the beginning of a major change in discourse, and sometimes more near the end. Jean Perrin published Les Atomes in 1913 as the culmination of a century-long controversy over the size and physical reality of atoms and molecules. After its publication almost all chemists and physicists agreed that atoms and molecules of the (...)
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