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Summary Latin American philosophy, as standardly construed, began during the colonial period. But philosophy then was not autonomous from education. During the nineteenth century, as evident in the work of Latin American positivists, philosophical concerns had close connections to political and social interests. This lack of autonomy lasted to about the 1910s. Between the 1910s and the 1940s, a generation of philosophers known as the fundadores (‘Founders) strove to develop philosophy in Latin America as an autonomous discipline within academia, with the usual professional organizations and institutions. It was clearly owing to their efforts that philosophy became a practice analogous to what their peers were doing at the time in major Western centers of scholarship. For the first time since the Wars of Independence and the national organization that followed (roughly, 1810-1898), philosophy began to be studied for its own sake. Moreover, it became a professional activity with recognition in the wider community. Today almost all major philosophical  movements have representatives in Latin America.
Key works Works such as Jaksic 1998Beuchot 2011, and Stehn 2014, as well as many other publications on the history of Latin American philosophy, tend to provide mostly historical information about philosophers and their works. An adequate explanation of this tendency would probably have to attend at the fact that, for better or worse, the study of the history of philosophy has enjoyed a privileged status among Latin American philosophers. But there are grounds for optimism here, since more topic-centered historical studies are emerging, as can be seen in Hurtado 2011.

Introductions For a general introduction to the history of Latin American philosophy, see Nuccetelli et al 2010Gracia 2011 is a collection of new essays on some historical figures, mostly of the nineteenth century.  More specific topics in the history of Latin American philosophy can be found in Canteñs 2010; Hurtado 2006; Nuccetelli 2008; Pappas 2007; Pereda 2011.
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Pre-Columbian Latin American Philosophy
  1. Juan Bautista Balli (1950). Oración En Elogio De La Jurisprudencia, Pronunciada En La Real Universidad De México En El Año Del Señor De 1596. México, Editorial Jus.
  2. James E. Brady (2003). Southern Mexico and Guatemala: In My Hill, in My Valley : The Importance of Place in Ancient Maya Ritual. In Douglas Sharon & James Edward Brady (eds.), Mesas & Cosmologies in Mesoamerica. San Diego Museum of Man.
  3. Gloria Cáceres Centeno (2011). Ometiliztli : Aproximación a la Concepción Náhuatl de Dualidad. In Ramírez Barreto & Ana Cristina (eds.), Filosofía Desde América: Temas, Balances y Perspectivas: (Simposio Del Ica 53). Abya Yala, Universidad Politécnica Salesiana.
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  4. Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona (2011). The Indian of Freedom: from the Allegories of America to the Allegories of the Mother Land. Estudios de Filosofía Práctica E Historia de Las Ideas 13 (1):17-28.
    El artículo a partir de fuentes iconográficas, estudia la sustitución de los símbolos imperiales españoles por nuevos símbolos republicanos a principios del siglo XIX, destacando obras como las alegorías de la libertad y la patria para el caso colombiano. Estos emblemas tuvieron su origen en las representaciones de América del siglo XVI, pero con las autonomías y las posteriores independencias se convierten en los primeros símbolos de identidad de las nacientes repúblicas. The article, based on iconographic sources, studies the substitution (...)
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  5. D. Couveinhes & A. Grieco (1974). Maya Burial Customs. Diogenes 22 (88):100-113.
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  6. François Delaporte (2007). Conferência: Matlazahuatl E Guadalupe: Mexico 1737. In Elio Cantalício Serpa & Marcos Antonio de Menezes (eds.), Escritas da História: Narrativa, Arte E Nação. Edufu.
  7. Gustavo Flores Quelopana (2007). Búsquedas Actuales de la Filosofía Andina. Iipcial, Fondo Editorial.
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  8. Judith Green (2003). Altars for Ancestors : Maya Altars for the Days of the Dead in Yucatán. In Douglas Sharon & James Edward Brady (eds.), Mesas & Cosmologies in Mesoamerica. San Diego Museum of Man.
  9. Kevin P. Groark (2010). Willful Souls : Dreaming and the Dialectics of Self-Experience Among the Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico. In Keith M. Murphy & C. Jason Throop (eds.), Toward an Anthropology of the Will. Stanford University Press.
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  10. Alberto Hernández-Lemus (2005). Philosophical Reflections on the Conquest of Mexico. Teaching Philosophy 28 (2):135-153.
  11. Kathleen Marie Higgins (2001). World Philosophy. Teaching Co..
    Lecture 1. Beginnings -- Lecture 2. Western metaphysics -- Lecture 3. Soul & body -- Lecture 4. The good life & the role of reason -- Lecture 5. Western & African thought compared -- Lecture 6. Traditional beliefs & philosophy -- Lecture 7. American Indian thinking -- Lecture 8. Mesoamerican thought -- Lecture 9. Ethics & social thought in Latin America -- Lecture 10. Indian thought on supreme reality -- Lecture 11. The dualism of the Samkhya school -- Lecture 12. (...)
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  12. A. Pablo Iannone (2001). Dictionary of World Philosophy. Routledge.
    This is the first comprehensive reference to the vast field of world philosophy. The Dictionary covers all the major subfields of the discipline, with entries drawn from West African, Arabic, Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Jewish, Korean, Latin American, Maori, and Native American philosophy--including Nahua philosophy, a previously unexplored, but key instance of Pre-Hispanic thought. Entries include: * abazimu * abortion * Advaita * afrocentricity * age of the world * artificial life * baskets of knowledge * bhakti body *brotherhood * chain (...)
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  13. John Major Jenkins (1994). Jaloj Kexoj and Phi-64: The Dual Principle Core Paradigm of Mayan Time Philosophy and its Conceptual Parallel in Old World Thought. Four Ahau Press.
  14. James Maffie (2010). Pre-Columbian Philosophies. In Susana Nuccetelli, Ofelia Schutte & Otávio Bueno (eds.), A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  15. James Maffie, Aztec Philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  16. James Maffie (2002). Why Care About Nezahualcoyotl? Veritism and Nahua Philosophy. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (1):71-91.
    Sixteenth-century Nahua philosophy understands neltiliztli (truth) and tlamitilizli (wisdom, knowledge) nonsemantically in terms of a complex notion consisting of well-rootedness, alethia ,authenticity, adeptness, moral righteousness, beauty, and balancedness. In so doing, it offers compelling a posteriori grounds for denying what Alvin Goldman calls veritism .Veritism defends the universality of correspondence (semantic) truth as well as the universal centrality of correspondence (semantic) truth to epistemology. Key Words: truth • veritism • Nahua philosophy • Aztec philopsophy • mesoamerican philosophy • teotl • (...)
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  17. James Maffie (2000). Alternative Epistemologies and the Value of Truth. Social Epistemology 14 (4):247 – 257.
  18. Thomas M. McCoog (2011). Why Have You Come Here? The Jesuits and the First Evangelization of Native America. By Nicholas P. Cushner. Heythrop Journal 52 (5):903-904.
  19. Vicente Medina (1992). The Possibility of an Indigenous Philosophy: A Latin American Perspective. American Philosophical Quarterly 29 (4):373 - 380.
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  20. E. M. Mendelson (1958). The King, the Traitor, and the Cross: An Interpretation of a Highland Maya Religious Conflict. Diogenes 6 (21):1-10.
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  21. A. Metraux & S. Alexander (1961). The Inca Empire: Despotism or Socialism. Diogenes 9 (35):78-98.
  22. S. Nuccetelli (ed.) (2009). Blackwell Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Blackwell.
  23. Susana Nuccetelli & Gary Seay (eds.) (2003). Latin American Philosophy: An Introduction with Readings. Prentice Hall.
  24. Anthony Pagden (1994). The Uncertainties of Empire: Essays in Iberian and Ibero-American Intellectual History. Ashgate Pub. Co..
  25. Christian Prager (2010). Cultural Stability and the Ideal Landscape : The Symbolism of Trees and Plants in Maya Culture. In Luther H. Martin & Jesper Sørensen (eds.), Past Minds: Studies in Cognitive Historiography. Equinox Pub. Ltd..
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  26. Douglas Sharon & James Edward Brady (eds.) (2003). Mesas & Cosmologies in Mesoamerica. San Diego Museum of Man.
  27. J. Soustelle & M. Faigel (1966). Terrestrial and Celestial Gods in Mexican Antiquity. Diogenes 14 (56):20-50.
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  28. Charles R. Twardy, Maya Cosmology and Philosophy of Science.
    Part of our fascination with the Maya can be attributed to the fact that they were literate . . . that is, the Classic Maya possessed a visible language that consisted of letters and a grammar, and one of the products of their literacy was the book. (Aveni 1992b, p.3).
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  29. Herbert Wilhelmy (1968). Archaeological Research on the Central Amazonas. A Contribution to the Early History of the South-American Lowlands. Philosophy and History 1 (2):243-243.
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  30. Herbert Wilhelmy (1968). The Ancient, Advanced Cultures of South America. Philosophy and History 1 (1):117-118.
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16th Century Latin American Philosophy
  1. Misael Acosta-Solis (1985). La ciencia iberoamericana durante la conquista y colonia. Cultura 8 (23).
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  2. F. Ainsa (1989). The Invention of America Imaginary Signs of the Discovery and Construction of Utopia. Diogenes 37 (145):98-111.
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  3. Juan Bautista Balli (1950). Oración En Elogio De La Jurisprudencia, Pronunciada En La Real Universidad De México En El Año Del Señor De 1596. México, Editorial Jus.
  4. Barbara G. Beddall (1983). Review: Spanish Science and the New World. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 16 (3):433 - 440.
  5. Mauricio Beuchot (2011). Filosofía y Lenguaje En la Nueva España. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Introducción -- Pedro Hispano y la lógica mexicana de la Colonia -- Nebrija como antecesor de la lingüística en la Nueva España: las Institutiones de Nebrija como libro de texto y otros influjos -- La teoría del significado semántico en Alonso de la Vera Cruz -- La teoría del significado semántico en Tomás de Mercado -- Lenguaje y lógica en Antonio Rubio -- Lenguaje y lógica en el siglo XVIII -- Los tropos en la retórica de Vallarta y Palma (s. (...)
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  6. Mauricio Beuchot (2008). Cartografía Del Pensamiento Novohispano. Los Libros de Homero.
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  7. Mauricio Beuchot (1996). El fundamento de los derechos humanos en Bartolomé de las Casas. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 52 (1/4):87 - 95.
    El autor intenta mostrar que en la filosofía cristiana de Bartolomé de las Casas sobresalen la afirmación de la dignidad del hombre y la fundamentación que en ella reciben los derechosnaturales o humanos. Las Casas reconoce esa dignidad en los indios tanto por motivos escolásticos como renacentistas y toda su labor en la defensa de los derechos de los indios y de los españoles era en realidad una labor dedicada a la teorización y defensa práctica de los derechos del hombre. (...)
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  8. Daniel R. Brunstetter (2012). Tensions of Modernity: Las Casas and His Legacy in the French Enlightenment. Routledge.
    Modernity and the other: a story of inequality -- Locating the other in the political debates of early modernity -- Thinking and rethinking the equality of the other: Vitoria, Sepúlveda and the true barbarians -- Las Casas and the other: the tension between equality and cultural othercide -- From the civilizing mission to irreconcilable alterity: the changing perception of the Indians in the French Enlightenment -- The other side of modernity: legitimizing the transition from cultural othercide to physical othercide -- (...)
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  9. Janet Burke & Ted Humphrey (2011). The New Black Legend of Bartolomé de Las Casas : Race and Personhood. In Jorge J. E. Gracia (ed.), Forging People: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality in Hispanic American and Latino/a Thought. University of Notre Dame Press.
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  10. J. M. Campos (1996). Sobre la lógica modal en Tomás de Mercado (México, s. XVI). Diálogo Filosófico 36:356-366.
    Objetivo de este artículo es dar una idea de la complejidad de los temas tratados por tomas de mercado, dominico del siglo XVI nacido en Sevilla. Se alude a la naturaleza de las proposiciones modales, la relación entre modalidad y temporalidad, las reglas para la equivalencia y oposición entre las proposiciones modales.
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  11. Bernardo J. Canteñs (2010). The Rights of the American Indians. In Susana Nuccetelli, Ofelia Schutte & Otávio Bueno (eds.), A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  12. Águeda Rodríguez Cruz (2003). La Escuela de Salamanca y el sistema de educación universitaria en Iberoamérica. Cuadernos Salmantinos de Filosofía 30:407-416.
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  13. Daniel Dei (2003). La cuestión de las ciencias humanas en Iberoamérica y la preocupación por el hombre de los pensadores de la Salamanca de los siglos XVI y XVII. Cuadernos Salmantinos de Filosofía 30:337-348.
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  14. Rey Fajardo & José del (2010). La Enseñanza de la Filosofía En la Universidad Javeriana Colonial (1623-1767). Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
  15. Antonio Garcia Y. Garcia (1997). The Spanish School of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Precursor of the Theory of Human Rights. Ratio Juris 10 (1):25-35.
  16. Alejandro Garcia-Rivera (1993). Artificial Intelligence and de Las Casas: A 1492 Resonance. Zygon 28 (4):543-550.
  17. Jorge J. E. Gracia (1993). Hispanic Philosophy: Its Beginning and Golden Age. Review of Metaphysics 46 (3):475 - 502.
  18. Alain Guy (1943). Esquisse des Progrès De La Spéculation Philosophique Et Théologique à Salamanque au Cours Du Xvie Siècle. Limoges, Imprimerie A. Bontemps.
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  19. Alberto Hernández-Lemus (2005). Philosophical Reflections on the Conquest of Mexico. Teaching Philosophy 28 (2):135-153.
  20. González Ibarra & Juan de Dios (2009). La Conquista Humanística de la Nueva España. Fontamara.
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1 — 50 / 408