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From Saint Augustine to the early classical liberals, toleration is as discussed by theorists as it was for the changing world.  In this subcategory, we have discussions of both.

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  1. Yoshiya Abe (forthcoming). From Prohibition to Toleration: Japanese Government Views Regarding Christianity, 1854-73. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.
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  2. Arash Abizadeh (2013). Publicity, Privacy, and Religious Toleration in Hobbes's Leviathan. Modern Intellectual History 10 (2):261-291.
    What motivated an absolutist Erastian who rejected religious freedom, defended uniform public worship, and deemed the public expression of disagreement a catalyst for war to endorse a movement known to history as the champion of toleration, no coercion in religion, and separation of church and state? At least three factors motivated Hobbes’s 1651 endorsement of Independency: the Erastianism of Cromwellian Independency, the influence of the politique tradition, and, paradoxically, the contribution of early-modern practices of toleration to maintaining the public sphere’s (...)
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  3. Evandro Agazzi (2000). La Tolérance En Tant qu'Enjeu Éthique Fondamental de Notre Époque. Philosophica 65.
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  4. Scott F. Aikin & Jason Aleksander (2013). Nicholas of Cusa's De Pace Fidei and the Meta-Exclusivism of Religious Pluralism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (2):219-235.
    In response to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Nicholas of Cusa wrote De pace fidei defending a commitment to religious tolerance on the basis of the notion that all diverse rites are but manifestations of one true religion. Drawing on a discussion of why Nicholas of Cusa is unable to square the two objectives of arguing for pluralistic tolerance and explaining the contents of the one true faith, we outline why theological pluralism is compromised by its own meta-exclusivism.
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  5. A. Alshoala (1994). Islam and the Concept of Tolerance and Coexistence. Journal of Dharma 19 (4):350-357.
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  6. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonian Jusphilosophy. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:13-28.
    The term etonism is from «Etona» that means flag, marks, evidence, and reason in Kikôngo. The variants in Umbûndu: etonolo or etonuilo means, allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). The Nyaneka form is etŏnya: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence and 5) the justice and the tolerance. Etona is Angolan artist (sculptor/painter). In his sculpture they are morphologically evidenced three treatments in the surface of the matter, namely 1) flat treatment; 2) rude treatment and finally 3) accidental treatment. Each one is a (...)
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  7. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonism, Philosophy of Tolerant Reason. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:29-44.
    The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...)
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  8. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonism, Philosophy of Tolerant Reason. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:29-44.
    The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...)
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  9. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonism, Philosophy of Tolerant Reason. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:29-44.
    The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...)
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  10. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonism, Philosophy of Tolerant Reason. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:29-44.
    The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...)
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  11. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonian Jusphilosophy. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:13-28.
    The term etonism is from «Etona» that means flag, marks, evidence, and reason in Kikôngo. The variants in Umbûndu: etonolo or etonuilo means, allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). The Nyaneka form is etŏnya: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence and 5) the justice and the tolerance. Etona is Angolan artist (sculptor/painter). In his sculpture they are morphologically evidenced three treatments in the surface of the matter, namely 1) flat treatment; 2) rude treatment and finally 3) accidental treatment. Each one is a (...)
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  12. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonian Jusphilosophy. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:13-28.
    The term etonism is from «Etona» that means flag, marks, evidence, and reason in Kikôngo. The variants in Umbûndu: etonolo or etonuilo means, allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). The Nyaneka form is etŏnya: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence and 5) the justice and the tolerance. Etona is Angolan artist (sculptor/painter). In his sculpture they are morphologically evidenced three treatments in the surface of the matter, namely 1) flat treatment; 2) rude treatment and finally 3) accidental treatment. Each one is a (...)
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  13. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonian Jusphilosophy. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:13-28.
    The term etonism is from «Etona» that means flag, marks, evidence, and reason in Kikôngo. The variants in Umbûndu: etonolo or etonuilo means, allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). The Nyaneka form is etŏnya: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence and 5) the justice and the tolerance. Etona is Angolan artist (sculptor/painter). In his sculpture they are morphologically evidenced three treatments in the surface of the matter, namely 1) flat treatment; 2) rude treatment and finally 3) accidental treatment. Each one is a (...)
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  14. Sybol Cook Anderson (2009). Hegel's Theory of Recognition: From Oppression to Ethical Liberal Modernity. Continuum.
    Introduction: Redeeming recognition -- Oppression reconsidered -- Foundations of a liberal conception -- Toward a liberal conception of oppression -- Conclusion : A liberal conception of oppression -- Misrecognition as oppression -- Exploitation and disempowerment -- Cultural imperialism -- Marginalization -- Violence -- Conclusion: Misrecognition as oppression -- Overcoming oppression : the limits of toleration -- Contemporary differences : matters of toleration -- John Rawls : political liberalism -- Will Kymlicka : multicultural citizenship -- Conclusion: Accommodating differences : the limits (...)
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  15. Fătu-Tutoveanu Andrada & Pintilescu Corneliu (2011). Jehova's Witnesses in Post-Communist Romania: The Relationship Between the Religious Minority and the State (1989-2010). Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 30:102-126.
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  16. Gabriel Andreescu (2012). The Romanian Church United With Rome (Greek-Catholic) Under Pressure: The ROC's Bad Behavior as Good Politics. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 11 (32):227-255.
    The study discusses the paradox of the failure of the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (RCUR) to assert itself after 1990, in the context of a revival of the life of all other religious communities. The significant decrease in the number of Greek-Catholic believers and the difficulties in exercising their rights are germane to the limits of democracy in Romania. No other vulnerable communities, neither immigrants, gays, Roma,nor Jehovah's Witnesses, have been denied, all this time, the protection of the (...)
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  17. Gabriel Andreescu & Liviu Andreescu (2010). Church and State in Post-Communist Romania: Priorities on the Research Agenda. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (24):19-45.
    This paper looks at the state of research on churchstate relations in post-communist Romania in order to provide an outline of the most important questions which need to be addressed in the coming years. The article consists of two parts. First, a survey of academic studies published over the past two decades on the relationship between the country’s churches and state after 1990. Secondly, a breakdown of pressing churchstate issues today, accompanied by short discussions of existing studies and suggestions as (...)
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  18. José Román Flecha Andrés (2001). Confesión Públicade Dios Ante Los Nuevos Ídolos. Salmanticensis 48 (2):239-270.
    It is said that Europe finds itself today in a post-christian situa-tion. Further, there are many who advocate abandoning monotheism in order to get back to prechristian polytheism in the hope that the plurality of gods would favour a democratic tolerance in a pluralistic world. In this article the author firstly asks if European Christians have not gone back to adoring idols and to attempting to distinguish between them in the new forms of devotion to possessiveness, to power and to (...)
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  19. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2013). Leibniz’s Doctrine of Toleration: Philosophical, Theological and Pragmatic Reasons. In J. Parkin & T. Stanton (eds.), Natural Law and Toleration in the Early Enlightenment. Oxford University Press. 139-164.
    Leibniz is not commonly numbered amongst canonical writers on toleration. One obvious reason is that, unlike Locke, he wrote no treatise specifically devoted to that doctrine. Another is the enormous amount of energy which he famously devoted to ecclesiastical reunification. Promoting the reunification of Christian churches is an objective quite different from promoting the toleration of different religious faiths – so different, in fact, that they are sometimes even construed as mutually exclusive. Ecclesiastical reunification aims to find agreement at least (...)
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  20. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2002). Leibniz and Religious Toleration. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76 (4):601-622.
    As one might expect, throughout his life Leibniz assumed an attitude of religious toleration both ad intra (that is, toward Christians of other confessions) and ad extra (that is, toward non-Christians, notably Muslims). Focusing in particular on his epistolary exchange with the French Catholic convert Paul Pellisson-Fontanier, I argue that neither toleration ad intra nor toleration ad extra is grounded for Leibniz in indifference toward the content of revealed religion. On the contrary, Leibniz remained convinced of the objective truth of (...)
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  21. D. Archard (forthcoming). Michael Walzer, On Toleration. Radical Philosophy.
  22. Richard Ashcraft (ed.) (1991). John Locke: Critical Assessments. Routledge.
    This work is the second in the Routledge Series of Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers . Each volume of the series presents a comprehensive selection of the critical literature commenting on the life and works of a major political philosopher. John Locke (1632-1704) is a key figure because his political philosophy was one of the foundations for both the American Constitution and the French Revolution. He defined government as based on a free contract between people which can be subsequently (...)
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  23. A. E. Asira (2007). Nigerian Traditional Religion: A Religion of Tolerance. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy 7 (1).
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  24. Giuseppe Ballacci (2004). Cary J. Nederman: Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, C. 1100-C. 1550. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania. [REVIEW] Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política 4:192-194.
  25. Karen Barkey (2014). Political Legitimacy and Islam in the Ottoman Empire Lessons Learned. Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (4-5):469-477.
    This article explores the role of religion in Ottoman political legitimation. It shows that the Ottoman rulers were interested in a much more expansive, diverse form of political legitimation that included Islamic religious legitimation, but also used toleration and sultanic law to construct a more capacious form of political legitimation that included Muslim and non-Muslim populations of the empire.
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  26. Philip Barnes (2006). The Misrepresentation of Religion in Modern British (Religious) Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 54 (4):395 - 411.
    The purpose of this paper is to articulate a new perspective on British multi-faith religious education that both complements and, in part, subsumes existing critiques. My argument, while controversial, is straightforward: it is that British religious education has misrepresented the nature of religion in efforts to commend itself as contributing to the social aims of education, as these are typically framed in liberal democratic societies. Contemporary multi-faith religious education is placed in context and its underlying theological and philosophical commitments identified (...)
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  27. Giorgio Baruchello (2002). Worlds of Difference. Dialogue 41 (4):802-804.
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  28. Teresa M. Bejan (2011). The Bond of Civility': Roger Williams on Toleration and its Limits. History of European Ideas 37 (4):409-420.
    In this article, I examine the meaning of the concept of ?civility? for Roger Williams and the role it played in his arguments for religious toleration. I place his concern with civility in the broader context of his life and works and show how it differed from the missionary and civilizing efforts of his fellow New English among the American Indians. For Williams, civility represented a standard of inclusion in the civil community that was ?essentially distinct? from Christianity, which properly (...)
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  29. M. Beltran (1994). Tolerance and Freedom of Conscience in the Works of Spinoza-Remarks on Mignini, Filippo Hypothesis. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (4):738-746.
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  30. P. Bendlova (1995). Reflections on Marcel Phenomenology and Dialectics of Tolerance and on His General Notion of Tolerance. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (5):759-764.
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  31. Silke-Petra Bergjan (2007). The Patristic Context in Early Grotius. Grotiana 26 (1):127-146.
    The use of patristic texts was tightly bound up with the needs of the contemporary discussion which provided Grotius with sources for his patristic citations. His use of ancient texts especially in Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas proved to be highly controversial.Grotius's advocacy of tolerance with respect to various forms of Christianity determines his use of patristic texts as well. He looks for examples of moderation in the Early Church and by this accomplishes a significant shift of perspective. He points (...)
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  32. Joseph Louis Bernardin (1995). Tolerance in Society and Church.[A Talk Given in St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, on 21 Feb 1995]. Australasian Catholic Record 72 (3):365.
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  33. Lorenzo Bianchi (2013). Voltaire, Genebra e as Ideias republicanas. Doispontos 9 (3).
    O presente artigo visa explorar as ricas relações entre Voltaire e Genebra, destacando as questões e o contexto que formam a obra Ideias republicanas e seu combate pela tolerância.
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  34. Ermenegildo Bidese, Alexander Fidora & Paul Renner (eds.) (2005). Ramon Llull Und Nikolaus von Kues: Eine Begegnung Im Zeichen der Toleranz: Akten des Internationalen Kongresses Zu Ramon Llull Und Nikolaus von Kues (Brixen Und Bozen, 25. Brepols.
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  35. Peter G. Bietenholz (1972). Mino Celsi and the Toleration Controversy of the Sixteenth Century. Bibliothèque d'Humanisme Et Renaissance 34 (1):31-47.
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  36. Purushottama Bilimoria (1996). Ninian Smart Religion and Nationalism the Urgency of Transnational Spirituality and Toleration. Sophia 35 (1):131-137.
    Studies in Indian Traditions , Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, A Division of Indian Books Centre, 1994.
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  37. Alain Billecoq (1998). Spinoza et l’idée de tolérance. Philosophique 1:122-142.
    Alors que le plupart des commentateurs s'accorde pour affirmer que le Traité Théologico-Politique est un plaidoyer pour la tolérance, curieusement on ne trouvera pratiquement jamais le mot sous la plume de son auteur. Comme si Spinoza, qui le connaissait, l'écartait volontairement de son lexique philosophique. La présente étude s'efforce de mettre à jour les raisons de cette absence.
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  38. Sam Black (2007). Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  39. Sam Black (1998). Toleration and the Skeptical Inquirer in Locke. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):473 - 504.
  40. Mirko Blagojevic (2006). Current Religious Changes in Serbia and Desecularization. Filozofija I Društvo 31:239-253.
    For the contemporary Serbian sociology of religion it is evident that the process of desecularization has been present on the social scene of Serbia in the last fifteen years. Sociologists have provided arguments for this claim based on data gathered in Serbia during this period. The religious changes in question have been empirically recorded in all aspects of attachment to religion and the church , that is, in aspects of religious identification, doctrinal beliefs and religious behavior. Certain political subjects and (...)
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  41. Daniel J. Boorstin (1981). The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson: With a New Preface. University of Chicago Press.
    In this classic work by one of America's most distinguished historians, Daniel Boorstin enters into Thomas Jefferson's world of ideas. By analysing writings of 'the Jeffersonian Circle,' Boorstin explores concepts of God, nature, equality, toleration, education and government in order to illuminate their underlying world view. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson demonstrates why on the 250th anniversary of his birth, this American leader's message has remained relevant to our national crises and grand concerns. "The volume is too subtle, too (...)
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  42. Paul Bou-Habib (2015). Locke’s Tracts and the Anarchy of the Religious Conscience. European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):3-18.
    This article reconstructs the main arguments in John Locke’s first political writings, the highly rhetorical, and often obscure, Two Tracts on Government . The Tracts support the government’s right to impose religious ceremonies on its people, an astonishing fact given Locke’s famous defense of toleration in his later works. The reconstruction of the Tracts developed here allows us to see that rather than a pessimistic view of the prospects for peace under religious diversity, what mainly animates the young Locke is (...)
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  43. Paul Bou-Habib, Locke, Sincerity and the Rationality of Persecution.
    According to the most influential contemporary reading of John Locke's Letter Concerning Toleration , his main argument against religious persecution is unsuccessful. That argument holds that coercion is ineffective as a means of instilling religious beliefs in its victims. I propose a different reading of the Letter. Locke's main consideration against persecution is not the unsuccessful belief-based argument just outlined, but what I call the sincerity argument. He believes that religious coercion is irrational because it is ineffective as a means (...)
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  44. Bernard Bourdin (forthcoming). Religious Freedom and the Separation of Church and State: A Lesson From Post-Revolutionary France. Philosophical Psychology: Psychology, Emotions and Freedom.
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  45. Vernon J. Bourke (1978). Lamirande on Augustine and Tolerance. Augustinian Studies 9:103-108.
  46. Stefan Bratosin & Mihaela Alexandra Ionescu (2010). Church, Religion and Belief: Paradigms for Understanding the Political Phenomenon in Post-Communist Romania. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (24):3-18.
    Starting from the hypothesis that the predominant church, religion and belief in Romania (i.e. the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox religion and the Orthodox belief) are paradigms that help understand politics, we will highlight in the present article three major aspects of the political phenomenon in post-communist Romania: de-symbolizing the democratic function, institutionalizing “democratism” and manifesting integralism in the public space. Our analysis is based on a communicational approach which postulates the conceptual oppositions as a fundament of understanding. The interpretation (...)
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  47. Nathan Brown (2008). Muslim Societies, Muslim Minorities: A Commentary. In Russel Hardin, Ingrid Crepell & Stephen Macedo (eds.), Toleration on Trial. Lexington Books. 215.
  48. Wendy Brown (2008). Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire. Princeton University Press.
  49. Timothy Brownlee (2013). Hegel's Defense of Toleration. In Angelica Nuzzo (ed.), Hegel on Religion and Politics. State University of New York Press. 79.
  50. Tg Bucher (1985). Between Atheism and Tolerance-on the Historical Effects of Bayle, Pierre (1647-1706). Philosophisches Jahrbuch 92 (2):353-379.
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