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From Saint Augustine to the early classical liberals, toleration is as discussed by theorists as it was for the changing world.  In this subcategory, we have discussions of both.

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  1. Arash Abizadeh (2013). Publicity, Privacy, and Religious Toleration in Hobbes's Leviathan. Modern Intellectual History 10 (2):261-291.
    What motivated an absolutist Erastian who rejected religious freedom, defended uniform public worship, and deemed the public expression of disagreement a catalyst for war to endorse a movement known to history as the champion of toleration, no coercion in religion, and separation of church and state? At least three factors motivated Hobbes’s 1651 endorsement of Independency: the Erastianism of Cromwellian Independency, the influence of the politique tradition, and, paradoxically, the contribution of early-modern practices of toleration to maintaining the public sphere’s (...)
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  2. António Tomas Ana & Patrício Batsîkama (2008). Etonism, Philosophy of Tolerant Reason. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 28:29-44.
    The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...)
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  3. Sybol Cook Anderson (2009). Hegel's Theory of Recognition: From Oppression to Ethical Liberal Modernity. Continuum.
    Introduction: Redeeming recognition -- Oppression reconsidered -- Foundations of a liberal conception -- Toward a liberal conception of oppression -- Conclusion : A liberal conception of oppression -- Misrecognition as oppression -- Exploitation and disempowerment -- Cultural imperialism -- Marginalization -- Violence -- Conclusion: Misrecognition as oppression -- Overcoming oppression : the limits of toleration -- Contemporary differences : matters of toleration -- John Rawls : political liberalism -- Will Kymlicka : multicultural citizenship -- Conclusion: Accommodating differences : the limits (...)
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  4. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2002). Leibniz and Religious Toleration. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76 (4):601-622.
    As one might expect, throughout his life Leibniz assumed an attitude of religious toleration both ad intra (that is, toward Christians of other confessions) and ad extra (that is, toward non-Christians, notably Muslims). Focusing in particular on his epistolary exchange with the French Catholic convert Paul Pellisson-Fontanier, I argue that neither toleration ad intra nor toleration ad extra is grounded for Leibniz in indifference toward the content of revealed religion. On the contrary, Leibniz remained convinced of the objective truth of (...)
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  5. Richard Ashcraft (ed.) (1991). John Locke: Critical Assessments. Routledge.
    This work is the second in the Routledge Series of Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers . Each volume of the series presents a comprehensive selection of the critical literature commenting on the life and works of a major political philosopher. John Locke (1632-1704) is a key figure because his political philosophy was one of the foundations for both the American Constitution and the French Revolution. He defined government as based on a free contract between people which can be subsequently (...)
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  6. Giorgio Baruchello (2002). Worlds of Difference. Dialogue 41 (4):802-804.
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  7. Sam Black (2007). Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  8. Sam Black (1998). Toleration and the Skeptical Inquirer in Locke. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):473 - 504.
  9. Daniel J. Boorstin (1981). The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson: With a New Preface. University of Chicago Press.
    In this classic work by one of America's most distinguished historians, Daniel Boorstin enters into Thomas Jefferson's world of ideas. By analysing writings of 'the Jeffersonian Circle,' Boorstin explores concepts of God, nature, equality, toleration, education and government in order to illuminate their underlying world view. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson demonstrates why on the 250th anniversary of his birth, this American leader's message has remained relevant to our national crises and grand concerns. "The volume is too subtle, too (...)
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  10. Vernon J. Bourke (1978). Lamirande on Augustine and Tolerance. Augustinian Studies 9:103-108.
  11. Natalia Bukovskaya (2008). Tolerance in Kant's Philosoph-Political Discourse. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:63-69.
    Is it possible to explicate tolerant principles in the philosophy-political discourse of Kant? It seems the answer to this question is positive. And it is the philosophical project of Kant “Perpetual Peace”, which is the most representative in this respect, for it is based on the principles of tolerance. This project is included in ethic-legal (liberal) system and is connected with such notions as civil society, legal state, duty, moral law. Tolerance exists, on the one hand, as a result of (...)
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  12. H. C. (1964). A Letter Concerning Toleration. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):179-179.
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  13. Samuel Clark (2009). No Abiding City: Hume, Naturalism, and Toleration. Philosophy 84 (1):75-94.
    This paper rereads David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion as dramatising a distinctive, naturalistic account of toleration. I have two purposes in mind: first, to complete and ground Hume's fragmentary explicit discussion of toleration; second, to unearth a potentially attractive alternative to more recent, Rawlsian approaches to toleration. To make my case, I connect Dialogues and the problem of toleration to the wider themes of naturalism, scepticism and their relation in Hume's thought, before developing a new interpretation of Dialogues part (...)
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  14. James Collins (1969). Epistola De Tolerantia: A Letter on Toleration. By John Locke. Ed. Raymond Klibansky and Trans. J.W. Gough / The Sage of Salisbury: Thomas Chubb (1679-1747). By T. L. Bushell. [REVIEW] The Modern Schoolman 46 (4):356-357.
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  15. Anne Finch Conway (1996). The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Anne Conway was an extraordinary figure in a remarkable age. Her mastery of the intricate doctrines of the Lurianic Kabbalah, her authorship of a treatise criticising the philosophy of Descartes, Hobbes, and Spinoza, and her scandalous conversion to the despised sect of Quakers indicate a strength of character and independence of mind wholly unexpected (and unwanted) in a woman at the time. Translated for the first time into modern English, her Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy is the (...)
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  16. Raymond Corrigan (1934). The Development of Religious Toleration in England. Thought 9 (1):150-151.
  17. Herbert H. Coulson (1941). The Development of Religious Toleration in England. Thought 16 (2):364-365.
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  18. Herbert H. Coulson (1939). The Development of Religious Toleration in England 1640-1660. Thought 14 (4):659-661.
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  19. Ingrid Creppell (2001). Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration. Res Publica 7 (3):247-271.
    One of the most important issues today is the conflict between identity groups. Can the concept of toleration provide resources for thinking about this? The standard definition of toleration – rejection or disapproval of a practice or belief followed by a constraint of oneself from repressing it –has limits. If we seek to make political and social conditions of toleration among diverse people a stable reality, we need to flesh out more deeply and widely what that depends upon. The essence (...)
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  20. Ingrid Creppell (1996). Locke on Toleration: The Transformation of Constraint. Political Theory 24 (2):200-240.
  21. Edwin Curley (2000). Castellio Vs. Spinoza on Religious Toleration. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 7:89-110.
    The central thesis of Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise is that the state not only can permit freedom of philosophizing without endangering piety or the public peace, but that it must do so if it is not to destroy piety and the public peace. Spinoza’s argument is not limited to religious toleration, but is an argument for freedom of philosophizing generally. Nevertheless, freedom of philosophizing in religion is the central case. In making such an argument, he contributed greatly toward the transformation of (...)
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  22. Michael Davis (1979). The Budget of Tolerance. Ethics 89 (2):165-178.
  23. Gary De Krey (2010). John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture. Faith and Philosophy 27 (2):231-236.
  24. Richard H. Dees (2004). Trust and Toleration. Routledge.
    This book outlines the social, conceptual, and psychological preconditions for toleration.By looking closely at the religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in France and England and at contemporary controversies about the rights of homosexuals, Richard Dees demonstrates how trust between the opposing parties is needed first, but in just these cases, distrust is all-too-rational. Ultimately, that distrust can only be overcome if the parties undergo a fundamental shift of values - a conversion. Only then can they accept some (...)
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  25. Richard H. Dees (1998). Trust and the Rationality of Toleration. Noûs 32 (1):82-98.
  26. Mario Delmirani (1953). Tolerance Et Communaute Humaine. Thought 28 (4):608-611.
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  27. Oyuna Dorzhiguishaeva (2008). Tolerance as the Basic Category of Buddhist Ethics. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:13-19.
    The concept of tolerance is one of the basic ethical categories of Buddhism. Showing conscious tolerance, you control a situation and do not allow feelings, such as anger or arrogance to take top above reason. Besides, the tolerance to other people and different situation shows your wide scope and common emancipation. The tolerance is one of qualities inherent to bodhisattvas - sacred Buddhists. These qualities are called paramita, and paramita of tolerance - kshanti-paramita. Kshanti-paramita is triple: tolerance to other alive (...)
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  28. John Dunn (2003). Locke: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
    John Locke (1632-1704) one of the greatest English philosophers of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century, argued in his masterpiece, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, that our knowledge is founded in experience and reaches us principally through our senses; but its message has been curiously misunderstood. In this book John Dunn shows how Locke arrived at his theory of knowledge, and how his exposition of the liberal values of toleration and responsible government formed the backbone of enlightened European thought (...)
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  29. Harold A. Durfee (1970). Karl Jaspers as the Metaphysician of Tolerance. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (4):201 - 210.
  30. David C. Durst (2001). The Limits of Toleration in John Locke's Liberal Thought. Res Publica 7 (1):39-55.
    In the following paper I attempt to show how in Locke''s liberalthought the individual is subject to a complex operation involvingliberation and subjugation. In A Letter on Toleration (1685),Locke argues that the individual''s inward beliefs should be freed fromthe coercion of Church and State. To ensure liberty of conscience, theindividual''s soul should be constituted in practice – notstructured by violence but negotiated by rational persuasion. However,as I suggest, the authority of reason is not established without anelement of violence. In his (...)
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  31. David Edwards (1985). Toleration and the English Blasphemy Law. In John Horton & Susan Mendus (eds.), Aspects of Toleration: Philosophical Studies. Methuen.
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  32. Arnold Farr (2008). Diversity, Color-Blindness, and Other Hegemonic Discourses. Social Philosophy Today 24:91-105.
    In this paper I will examine the ways in which concepts and ideas that are used for emancipatory purposes eventually backfire and are used to perpetuate systems of domination. Part of my argument will be based on Herbert Marcuse’s essay “Repressive Tolerance.” In this essay, Marcuse examines the way in which the concept of tolerance, which has its origin in the struggle for liberation, is used by members of dominant social groups to advocate for tolerance of their oppressive views. Following (...)
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  33. Silvio Ferrari (1997). The New Wine and the Old Cask. Tolerance, Religion and the Law in Contemporary Europe. Ratio Juris 10 (1):75-89.
  34. Andrew Fiala (2005). Existentialism and Repressive Toleration. Studies in Practical Philosophy 5 (1):90-111.
  35. Andrew Fiala, Toleration. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  36. Andrew Fiala (2003). Stoic Tolerance. Res Publica 9 (2):149-168.
    This article considers the virtue of tolerance as it is found in Epictetus and MarcusAurelius. It defines the virtue of tolerance and links it to the Stoic idea of proper control of the passions in pursuit of both self-sufficiency and justice. It argues that Stoic tolerance is neither complete in difference nor a species of relativism. Finally, it discusses connections between the moral virtue of Stoic tolerance and the idea of political toleration found in modern liberalism.
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  37. Andrew G. Fiala (2002). Toleration and Pragmatism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):103-116.
  38. Andrew Gordon Fiala (2002). Toleration and Pragmatism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):103 - 116.
  39. Rodney Fopp (2011). “Repressive Tolerance”: Herbert Marcuse's Exercise in Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 24 (2):105-122.
    When Herbert Marcuse's essay entitled “Repressive tolerance” was published in the mid-1960s it was trenchantly criticised because it was anti-democratic and defied the academic canon of value neutrality. Yet his argument is attracting renewed interest in the 21st century, particularly when, post 9/11, the thresholds or limits of tolerance are being contested. This article argues that Marcuse's original essay was concerned to problematise the dominant social understandings of tolerance at the time, which were more about insisting that individual citizens tolerate (...)
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  40. Rainer Forst, Toleration. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  41. R. G. Frey (1977). TOLERATION by Preston King. Philosophical Books 18 (2):87-87.
  42. Paul Gilbert (2000). Toleration or Autonomy? Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (3):299–302.
  43. Thomas F. Gilligan (1962). Toleration and the Reformation. Augustinianum 2 (2):373-375.
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  44. Mark Goldie (ed.) (2007). John Locke: Selected Correspondence. Clarendon Press.
    John Locke (1632-1704) was a prolific correspondent and left behind him over 3,600 letters, a collection almost unmatched in pre-modern times. A man of insatiable curiosity and wide social connections, his letters open up the cultural, social, intellectual, and political worlds of the later Stuart age. Spanning half a century, they mark the transition from the era of revolutionary Puritanism to the dawn of the Enlightenment. Locke is chiefly known as a philosopher, a theorist of empiricism in his Essay Concerning (...)
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  45. Mark Goldie (ed.) (1999). The Reception of Locke's Politics. Pickering & Chatto.
    v. 1. The Glorious Revolution defended, 1690-1704 -- v. 2. Patriarchalism, the social contract and civic virtue, 1705-1760 -- v. 3. The Age of the American Revolution, 1760-1780 -- v. 4. Political reform in the Age of the French Revolution, 1780-1838 -- v. 5. The church, dissent and religious toleration, 1689-1773 -- v. 6. Wealth, property and commerce, 1696-1832.
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  46. H. Gomperz (1936). "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea. International Journal of Ethics 46 (3):292-307.
  47. Ronald K. Goodenow (1977). Racial and Ethnic Tolerance in John Dewey's Educational and Social Thought: The Depression Years. Educational Theory 27 (1):48-64.
  48. Jürgen Habermas (2004). Religious Tolerance—the Pacemaker for Cultural Rights. Philosophy 79 (1):5-18.
    Religious toleration first became legally enshrined in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. Religious toleration led to the practice of more general inter-subjective recognition of members of democratic states which took precedence over differences of conviction and practice. After considering the extent to which a democracy may defend itself against the enemies of democracy and to which it should be prepared to tolerate civil disobedience, the article analyses the contemporary dialectic between the notion of civil inclusion and multiculturalism. Religious (...)
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  49. Alastair Hamilton (2012). Discourses of Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Enlightenment. Edited by Hans Erich Bödeker , Clorinda Donato , and Peter Hanns Reill . Pp.Xii, 257, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2009, £40.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (3):519-520.
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  50. Alastair Hamilton (2009). Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe. By Benjamin J. Kaplan and All Can Be Saved: Religious Tolerance and Salvation in the Iberian World. By Stuart B. Schwartz. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 50 (6):1054-1055.
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