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  1. Nimrod Bar-Am (2010). Individual Ahoy! Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (2):319-324.
    Classical thinking on rationality regards it as an all-or-nothing affair. It thus fails to account for the fact that institutions are powerful social factors that frame the contexts within which rational agents supposedly exercise their ability to choose. This poses the classic dilemma: should social explanation refer to individual decisions or to institutions? Wettersten skillfully criticizes some of the most advanced solutions to it, and attempts to formulate a better explanatory unit for the social sciences: the partially rational individual. Since (...)
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  2. T. J. Berard (2005). Rethinking Practices and Structures. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (2):196-230.
    Social theory remains puzzled by the relation between practices and structures, or the link between ‘micro’ and ‘macro’. Grand theorists including Giddens and Bourdieu have gained distinction for their writings on these questions, trying to marry insights and concerns of a ‘micro’ sociological nature with traditional ‘macro’ structural questions including inequality, power relations, and social reproduction. These theorists arguably fail, however, in their attempts to move social theory beyond traditional dualisms. Relevant but neglected contributions from ethnomethodology are introduced and compared (...)
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  3. Kieran Bonner (2010). Peter McHugh and Analysis: The One and the Many, the Universal and the Particular, the Whole and the Part. [REVIEW] Human Studies 33 (2):253-269.
    This paper takes the passing of Peter McHugh as an occasion to examine the intellectual development of his work. The paper is mainly focused on the product of his collaboration with his colleague and friend, Alan Blum. As such, it addresses the tradition of social inquiry, Analysis, which they cofounded. It traces the influence of Harold Garfinkel’s Ethnomethodology on McHugh and on the beginning of Analysis. The collaboration with Blum is examined through a variety of coauthored works but most especially (...)
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  4. Martin Bridgstock & Michael Hyland (1978). The Nature of Individualist Explanation: A Further Analysis of Reduction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 8 (3):265-269.
  5. J. R. Brown (1987). Unravelling Holism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 17 (3):427-433.
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  6. Krzysztof Brzechczyn (ed.) (2009). Idealization Xiii: Modeling in History. Rodopi.
    The book reveals different dimensions of modeling in the historical sciences. Papers collected in the first part (Ontology of the Historical Process) consider different models of historical reality and discuss their status. The second part (Modeling in the Methodology of History) presents various forms of idealization in historiographic research. The papers in the third part (Modeling in the Research Practice) present various models of past reality (e.g. of Poland, Central Europe and the general history of the feudal system) put forward (...)
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  7. M. Bunge (2000). Book Review: Reenchanted Science: Holism in German Culture From Wilhelm II to Hitler. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (1):124-126.
  8. Mario Bunge (2000). Ten Modes of Individualism--None of Which Works--And Their Alternatives. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (3):384-406.
    Individualism comes in at least ten modes: ontological, logical, semantic, epistemological, methodological, axiological, praxiological, ethical, historical, and political. These modes are bound together. For example, ontological individualism motivates the thesis that relations are n-tuples of individuals, as well as radical reductionism and libertarianism. The flaws and merits of all ten sides of the individualist decagon are noted. So are those of its holist counterpart. It is argued that systemism has all the virtues and none of the defects of individualism and (...)
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  9. Marc Champagne (2012). One's a Crowd? On Greenwood's Delimitation of the Social. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (4):0048393112454335.
    In an effort to carve a distinct place for social facts without lapsing into a holistic ontology, John Greenwood has sought to define social phenomena solely in terms of the attitudes held by the actor(s) in question. I argue that his proposal allows for the possibility of a “lone collectivity” that is (1) unpalatable in its own right and (2) incompatible with the claim that sociology is autonomous from psychology. As such, I conclude that the relevant beliefs need to be (...)
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  10. D. P. Chattopadhyaya (1975). Individuals and Societies: A Methodological Inquiry. Scientific Book Agency.
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  11. André Clark (2003). Methodological Individualism, Cognitive Homogeneity and Environmental Determinism. Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (1):79-85.
    A study encompassing a number of UK Universities identified a widespread implicit environmental determinism employed in the teaching of Economics to business studies undergraduates. In this paper the author argues that this bias is an inevitable by-product of the methodological individualism adopted within mainstream economics. The author concludes that methodological individualism is, therefore, flawed both as a mechanism for accessing the reality of the business world and the power of firms within it, and for teaching others about that reality, particularly (...)
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  12. F. B. D'Agostino (1979). Individualism and Collectivism: The Case of Language. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 9 (1):27-47.
  13. F. R. Dallmayr (1982). Agency and Structure. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12 (4):427-438.
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  14. Pierre Demeulenaere (2000). Individualism and Holism: New Controversies in the Philosophy of Social Science. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 1 (2):3-16.
    The concept of holism is of great use in philosophy of science. But its meaning does not correspond to the traditional use of holism in social sciences. The aim of the paper is to criticize an attempt to link the two meanings. Such a confusion derives from a misunderstanding of methodological individualism which is erroneously considered to be an atomism. Since the concepts of holism can be related to many different meanings, and since there are many different models of action (...)
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  15. Brian Epstein (2009). Ontological Individualism Reconsidered. Synthese 166 (1):187-213.
    The thesis of methodological individualism in social science is commonly divided into two different claims—explanatory individualism and ontological individualism. Ontological individualism is the thesis that facts about individuals exhaustively determine social facts. Initially taken to be a claim about the identity of groups with sets of individuals or their properties, ontological individualism has more recently been understood as a global supervenience claim. While explanatory individualism has remained controversial, ontological individualism thus understood is almost universally accepted. In this paper I argue (...)
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  16. Brian Epstein (2008). When Local Models Fail. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (1):3-24.
    Models treating the simple properties of social groups have a common shortcoming. Typically, they focus on the local properties of group members and the features of the world with which group members interact. I consider economic models of bureaucratic corruption, to show that (a) simple properties of groups are often constituted by the properties of the wider population, and (b) even sophisticated models are commonly inadequate to account for many simple social properties. Adequate models and social policies must treat certain (...)
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  17. J. Greve (2012). Emergence in Sociology: A Critique of Nonreductive Individualism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (2):188-223.
    The emergentist position that R. Keith Sawyer has formulated, nonreductive individualism, contains three propositions. First, that social characteristics must always be realized in individuals; second, that it is nevertheless possible to understand social properties as irreducible; and third, that therefore it is possible to demonstrate how social properties are able to exercise independent causal influences on individuals and their properties. It is demonstrated that Sawyer is not able to meet an objection that Kim has formulated against the analogous position in (...)
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  18. Cynthia Lins Hamlin (forthcoming). Boudon: Agência, Estrutura E Individualismo Metodológico. Kriterion (48).
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  19. Peter Hedström & Petri Ylikoski (2011). Analytical Sociology. In Ian C. Jarvie & Jesus Zamoro Bonilla (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences. SAGE.
  20. Peter Hedström & Petri Ylikoski (2010). Causal Mechanisms in the Social Sciences. Annual Review of Sociology 36:49–67.
    During the past decade, social mechanisms and mechanism-based ex- planations have received considerable attention in the social sciences as well as in the philosophy of science. This article critically reviews the most important philosophical and social science contributions to the mechanism approach. The first part discusses the idea of mechanism- based explanation from the point of view of philosophy of science and relates it to causation and to the covering-law account of explanation. The second part focuses on how the idea (...)
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  21. Boris Hennig (2002). Holistic Arguments for Individualism. In Georg Meggle (ed.), Social Facts & Collective Intentionality. Dr. Hänsel-Hohenhausen Ag.
    In this essay, I will sketch my view of the connections between some methodological assumptions in social philosophy, namely those of individualism, holism, and collectivism. My interest in doing so is to outline a rough conceptual landscape, into which an approach of collective actions and intentions can be placed.
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  22. Cindy Holder (2000). Groups, Rights, and Methodological Individualism. Social Philosophy Today 15:305-320.
  23. Michael Hyland & Martin Bridgstock (1974). Reductionism: Comments on Some Recent Work. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 4 (2):197-200.
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  24. P. G. Ingram (1976). Social Holism: A Linguistic Approach. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (2):127-141.
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  25. T. Kaidesoja (2013). Overcoming the Biases of Microfoundationalism Social Mechanisms and Collective Agents. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):301-322.
    The article makes four interrelated claims: (1) The mechanism approach to social explanation does not presuppose a commitment to the individual-level microfoundationalism. (2) The microfoundationalist requirement that explanatory social mechanisms should always consists of interacting individuals has given rise to problematic methodological biases in social research. (3) It is possible to specify a number of plausible candidates for social macro-mechanisms where interacting collective agents (e.g. formal organizations) form the core actors. (4) The distributed cognition perspective combined with organization studies could (...)
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  26. Anthony King (2004). Structure and Agency. In Austin Harrington (ed.), Modern Social Theory: An Introduction. Oup Oxford.
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  27. Anthony King (2000). The Accidental Derogation of the Lay Actor: A Critique of Giddens's Concept of Structure. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (3):362-383.
  28. Jeff Kochan (2009). Popper's Communitarianism. In Zuzana Parusniková & Robert S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 272). Springer. 287--303.
    In this chapter, I argue that Karl Popper was a communitarian philosopher. This will surprise some readers. Liberals often tout Popper as one of their champions. Indeed, there is no doubt that Popper shared much in common with liberals. However, I will argue that Popper rejected a central, though perhaps not essential, pillar of liberal theory, namely, individualism. This claim may seem to contradict Popper's professed methodological individualism. Yet I argue that Popper was a methodological individualist in name only. In (...)
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  29. William Leiss (1975). The Problem of Man and Nature in the Work of the Frankfurt School. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 5 (2):163-172.
  30. Christian List (2011). Group Agency: The Possibility, Design, and Status of Corporate Agents. Oxford University Press.
    Are companies, churches, and states genuine agents? Or are they just collections of individuals that give a misleading impression of unity? This question is important, since the answer dictates how we should explain the behaviour of these entities and whether we should treat them as responsible and accountable on the model of individual agents. Group Agency offers a new approach to that question and is relevant, therefore, to a range of fields from philosophy to law, politics, and the social sciences. (...)
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  31. T. W. Luke (1987). Methodological Individualism: The Essential Ellipsis of Rational Choice Theory. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 17 (3):341-355.
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  32. Steven Lukes (2003). Methodological Individualism. In Derek Matravers & Jonathan E. Pike (eds.), Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology. Routledge, in Association with the Open University.
  33. Leslie Marsh & Christian Onof (2008). Stigmergic Epistemology, Stigmergic Cognition. Cognitive Systems Research 9 (1-2).
    To know is to cognize, to cognize is to be a culturally bounded, rationality-bounded and environmentally located agent. Knowledge and cognition are thus dual aspects of human sociality. If social epistemology has the formation, acquisition, mediation, transmission and dissemination of knowledge in complex communities of knowers as its subject matter, then its third party character is essentially stigmergic. In its most generic formulation, stigmergy is the phenomenon of indirect communication mediated by modifications of the environment. Extending this notion one might (...)
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  34. Georg Meggle (ed.) (2002). Social Facts & Collective Intentionality. Dr. Hänsel-Hohenhausen Ag.
  35. Mike O'Donnell (ed.) (2010). Structure and Agency. Sage.
    pt. 1. Modernity, sociology and the structure/agency debate -- pt. 2. Critical theory; structuration theory; critical realism; and identity theory -- pt. 3. Structure/agency theories applied -- pt. 4. Network theory, globalisation theory, hegemony -- pt. 5. Conclusion/continuation.
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  36. Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.) (2009). Rethinking Popper. Springer.
    In September 2007, more than 100 philosophers came to Prague with the determination to approach Karl Popper's philosophy as a source of inspiration in many areas of our intellectual endeavor. This volume is a result of that effort.
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  37. David T. Risser, Collective Moral Responsibility. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. David-Hillel Ruben (2001). Social Properties (Facts and Entities): Philosophical Aspects. In International Encyclopaedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
  39. R. Keith Sawyer (2004). The Mechanisms of Emergence. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2):260-282.
    This article focuses on emergence in social systems. The author begins by proposing a new tool to explore the mechanisms of social emergence: multi agent–based computer simulation. He then draws on philosophy of mind to develop an account of social emergence that raises potential problems for the methodological individualism of both social mechanism and of multi agent simulation. He then draws on various complexity concepts to propose a set of criteria whereby one can determine whether a given social mechanism generates (...)
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  40. Paul Sheehy (2006). The Reality of Social Groups. Ashgate.
    Paul Sheehy will endorse a holist or realist thesis about groups: interrelational holism.
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  41. Paul Sheehy (2002). On Plural Subject Theory. Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (3):377–394.
  42. Mariam Thalos (2010). Two Conceptions of Fundamentality. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):151-177.
    This article aims to show that fundamentality is construed differently in the two most prominent strategies of analysis we find in physical science and engineering today: (1) atomistic, reductive analysis and (2) Systems analysis. Correspondingly, atomism is the conception according to which the simplest (smallest) indivisible entity of a certain kind is most fundamental; while systemism , as will be articulated here, is the conception according to which the bonds that structure wholes are most fundamental, and scale and/or constituting entities (...)
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  43. Neil W. Williams (2012). Against Atomic Individualism in Plural Subject Theory. Phenomenology and Mind 3:65-81.
    Within much contemporary social ontology there is a particular methodology at work. This methodology takes as a starting point two or more asocial or atomic individuals. These individuals are taken to be perfectly functional agents, though outside of all social relations. Following this, combinations of these individuals are considered, to deduce what constitutes a social group. Here I will argue that theories which rely on this methodology are always circular, so long as they purport to describe the formation of all (...)
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  44. J. Jeremy Wisnewski (2008). The Politics of Agency: Toward a Pragmatic Philosophical Anthropology. Ashgate.
    This book argues that the traditional emphasis on the accuracy of a given theory of human agency has systematically obscured the normative dimension in these theories and that recognizing this normative dimension allows us to see that a ...
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  45. Petri Ylikoski (2011). Social Mechanisms and Explanatory Relevance. In Pierre Demeulenaere (ed.), Analytical Sociology and Social Mechanisms. Cambridge University Press. 154.