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  1. Deevia Bhana (2012). Parental Views of Morality and Sexuality and the Implications for South African Moral Education. Journal of Moral Education 42 (1):114-128.
    Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation is prohibited in South Africa. Against legal gains, however, are marked increases in homophobic violence. Schools are deeply implicated in the development of a moral education premised on democracy and sexual equality. This paper sought to examine the ways in which parents situated within diverse social contexts define, regulate and entrench the right to sexual equality, analyzing their implications for moral education in schools. The data were derived through an interview-based study of 17 (...)
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  2. Stephen R. Brown (2006). Naturalized Virtue Ethics and Same-Sex Love. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (1):41-47.
    There are certain traits that make us good human beings by enabling us to realize our natural ends. From the perspective of such a naturalized virtue ethics, there is nothing obviously unethical or imprudent about the capacity for same-sex love. Moreover, given the resources of this theory, such questions are empirical ones. If the capacity for same-sex love is a trait the possession of which makes one a good human being, then the just state will promote and encourage it, or (...)
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  3. Drucilla Cornell (2007). The Shadow of Heterosexuality. Hypatia 22 (1):229-242.
    : In this essay, Cornell first invokes the concept of 'imaginary domain' to challenge the legal legitimacy of heterosexism in any form. She then claims that the imposition of heterosexism on the imaginary is a trauma whose severity can be grasped only with the help of psychoanalysis. Second, she argues that we cannot understand or undermine the power of heterosexist ideas without an alternative ethic of love. In beginning to think about a love that would necessarily pit itself against heterosexism, (...)
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  4. Peter de Marneffe (2013). Sexual Freedom and Impersonal Value. Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (3):495-512.
    Hart argues persuasively that majority disapproval cannot justify the government in prohibiting a form of sexual conduct, but he does not address the possibility that the intrinsic badness of a sex act might justify the government in prohibiting it. This article explains within a contractualist framework why the intrinsic badness of a sex act cannot justify the restriction of any important sexual freedom.
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  5. Sonja J. Ellis (2002). Moral Reasoning and Homosexuality: The Acceptability of Arguments About Lesbian and Gay Issues. Journal of Moral Education 31 (4):455-467.
    In the political arena, lesbian and gay issues have been contested typically on grounds of human rights, but with variable success. Using a moral developmental framework, the purpose of this study was to explore preferences for different types of moral arguments when thinking about moral dilemmas around lesbian and gay issues. The analysis presented here comprised data collected from 545 students at UK universities who completed a questionnaire, part of which comprised a moral dilemma task. Findings of the study showed (...)
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  6. Erin Gallagher-Cohoon (2013). “Illegal Loves and Sexual Deviancy: Homosexuality as a Threat in Cold War Canada”. Constellations 4 (2).
    This paper analyzes the criminalization and medicalization of homosexuality during the early twentieth century in Canada. Through court records and medical texts the discourse of homosexuality as a threat to the family unit and to the nation is contextualized within Cold War rhetoric. A Foucaultian conceptualization of power and discipline helps frame questions regarding homosexuality as a criminal offense and as a mental illness. It is argued that both state control and societal pressures constructed the homosexual as criminal, the homosexual (...)
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  7. Raja Halwani, Gary Jaeger, James S. Stramel, Richard Nunan, William S. Wilkerson & Timothy F. Murphy (2008). What is Gay and Lesbian Philosophy? Metaphilosophy 39 (4-5):433-471.
    Abstract: This essay explores recent trends and major issues related to gay and lesbian philosophy in ethics (including issues concerning the morality of homosexuality, the natural function of sex, and outing and coming out); religion (covering past and present debates about the status of homosexuality and how biblical and qur'anic passages have been interpreted by both sides of the debate); the law (especially a discussion of the debates surrounding sodomy laws, same-sex marriage and its impact on transsexuals, and whether the (...)
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  8. Larry A. Hickman (1999). Making the Family Functional: The Case for Legalized Same-Sex Domestic Partnerships. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (2):231-247.
    This essay argues that "the family" should be understood in functional terms:whatever functions as a family should have the legal status of a family. Theauthor's argument thus avoids two extreme positions. The first is the position ofthe hard-line "platonic" essentialists who, on grounds of nature, supernature, orcultural history, argue that a family unit must comprise heterosexual partners.The second is the position of the radical relativist, who argues that there are noessences whatsoever or that essences are purely arbitrary. Treating the family (...)
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  9. Richard L. Lippke (2011). Why Sex (Offending) Is Different. Criminal Justice Ethics 30 (2):151-172.
    The central premise is that a significant amount of sex offending stems from unusual or inappropriate sexual preferences that appear in early adolescence, are relatively stable, and immutable. In those ways, they are like more ordinary sexual preferences, generating sexual impulses that are insistent. Individuals are strongly tempted to act on them, alternatives to satisfying them are unfulfilling, and complete long-term control of such impulses is unlikely. Yet, since individuals with sexual preferences for inappropriate objects or activities are neither morally (...)
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  10. Alexander Mckay (1997). Accommodating Ideological Pluralism in Sexuality Education. Journal of Moral Education 26 (3):285-300.
    Abstract Because norms related to sexuality are an important determinant of the nature of society, sexuality education in schools is the subject of passionate debate. This discourse reflects a struggle between Restrictive and Permissive sexual ideologies. These ideologies compete for influence in shaping sexuality education. As a result, some sexuality education programmes constitute ideological indoctrination. Many other programmes, because of the ideological conflict surrounding sexuality, omit important sexual health information. The objective of this paper is to articulate the basic parameters (...)
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  11. Brent Pickett, Homosexuality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  12. Michael J. Reiss (1997). Teaching About Homosexuality and Heterosexuality. Journal of Moral Education 26 (3):343-352.
    Abstract Should schools teach about homosexuality and heterosexuality, and if so how? This paper outlines arguments both in favour of, and against, such teaching and concludes that, on balance, schools of 11?16/18?years?olds should teach about sexual orientation provided certain specified conditions are met. The author then defends the notion that to teach about sexual orientation is to teach about a controversial issue, but notes that few, if any, of the published approaches to teaching in this area treat it as such. (...)
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  13. Lee C. Rice (2000). Homosexualization and Collectivism. Philosophy and Theology 12 (2):275-292.
    I examine the new analysis of gay community and liberation offered by Dennis Altman in The Homosexualization of America. Three distinctive theoretical constructs are analyzed and criticized: (1) a new view of psychosocial development; (2) a new concept of gay identity; and (3) A set of causal hypotheses designed to explain the new direction of the gay subculture.
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  14. William R. Rice, Urban Friberg & Sergey Gavrilets (2013). Homosexuality Via Canalized Sexual Development: A Testing Protocol for a New Epigenetic Model. Bioessays 35 (9):764-770.
  15. Merl Storr (2001). New Labour, New Britain, New Sexual Values? Social Epistemology 15 (2):113 – 126.
    This article investigates changing parameters of 'privacy' in Britain and their relevance for the redrawing of boundaries between 'acceptable' and 'unacceptable' sexualities. Drawing on Berlant's distinction between 'live' sex acts and 'dead identities', the article suggests that some hitherto 'live' sex act may 'die', leaving others to be rejected and policed, perhaps even with renewed vigour. This may not, however, mean that the normative status of conjugal (hetero)sexuality is moribund: it may merely be reinvented. The article focuses primarily on the (...)
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  16. Alessandra Tanesini (2000). Genes and Gays. The Philosophers' Magazine 11 (11):51-52.
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  17. Jennifer Terry & Michael R. Dietrich (2000). Book Reviews-an American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (3):446-448.
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Homosexuality and Natural Law
  1. C. Carlton (2004). Sexual Reorientation Therapy: An Orthodox Perspective. Christian Bioethics 10 (2-3):137-154.
    This article evaluates the phenomenon of sexual reorientation therapy from the standpoint of Orthodox Christian theology. It is argued that homosexual desire is the product of the fall of mankind and cannot be considered “normal.” At the same time, however, reorientation therapies, whether secular or Christian, are inherently reductionistic and fail to address the underlying spiritual pathologies involved in homosexual desire (or any other deep-seated passion). The purpose of therapeia in the Orthodox Church is the psychosomatic transfiguration of the whole (...)
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  2. Matthew J. Lister (2007). A Rawlsian Argument for Extending Family-Based Immigration Benefits to Same-Sex Couples. University of Memphis Law Review 37 (Summer).
    In this paper I argue that anyone who accepts a Rawlsian account of justice should favor granting family-based immigration benefit to same-sex couples. I first provide a brief over-view of the most relevant aspects of Rawls's position, Justice as Fairness. I then explain why family-based immigration benefits are an important topic and one that everyone interested in immigration and justice must consider. I then show how same-sex couples are currently systematically excluded from the benefits that flow from family-based immigration rights. (...)
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Homosexuality and Religion
  1. Per Anderson (2003). Christian Batalden Scharen, Married in the Sight of God: Theology, Ethics and Church Debates Over Homosexuality. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (2):275-279.
  2. Dominique Bauer (2006). Homosexuality Within the Context of Social Institutionalisation and Moral Sense. Ethical Perspectives 13 (1):61-89.
  3. Michael Benoit (2005). Conflict Between Religious Commitment and Same-Sex Attraction: Possibilities for a Virtuous Response. Ethics and Behavior 15 (4):309 – 325.
    This article addresses the treatment of individuals who experience conflict between their religious convictions and their same-sex attraction. Recently, attention has been drawn to the ethical issues involved in the practice of sexual reorientation therapy (SRT) with such conflicted individuals. This article reviews the ethical arguments for and against SRT through the lens of the general ethical principles of the American Psychological Association's (2002) ethics code. Practitioners are then challenged to think about how they might respond virtuously (Meara, Schmidt, & (...)
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  4. Ralph Blair (1982). Ethics & Gay Christians. R. Blair.
  5. J. Michael Clark (1990). A Defiant Celebration: Theological Ethics & Gay Sexuality. Tangelwüld Press.
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  6. S. Crown (1980). Psychosocial Aspects of Homosexuality. Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (3):130-132.
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  7. Dena S. Davis (2008). Religion, Genetics, and Sexual Orientation: The Jewish Tradition. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (2):pp. 125-148.
    This paper probes the implications of a genetic basis for sexual orientation for traditional branches of Judaism, which are struggling with how accepting to be of noncelibate gays and lesbians in their communities. The paper looks at the current attitudes toward homosexuality across the different branches of Judaism; social and cultural factors that work against acceptance; attitudes toward science in Jewish culture; and the likelihood that scientific evidence that sexual orientation is at least partly genetically determined will influence Jewish scholars' (...)
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  8. Wayne R. Dynes & Stephen Donaldson (eds.) (1992). Homosexuality and Religion and Philosophy. Garland.
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  9. Daniel Howard-Snyder, The Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans: Should Conservative Anglicans Sign Up?
    The Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans (FCA), whose leaders govern well over half of the 80 million Anglicans worldwide, have put forward ‘a contemporary rule,’ called The Jerusalem Declaration, to guide the Anglican realignment movement. The FCA and its affiliates, e.g. the newly-formed Anglican Church in North America, require assent to the Declaration. To date, there has been little serious appraisal of the Declaration and the status accorded to it. I aim to correct that omission. Unlike ap-praisals in the social media, (...)
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  10. A. A. Howsepian (2004). Treating Homosexuality: A Response to Yarhouse. Christian Bioethics 10 (2-3):259-267.
    Professor Mark A. Yarhouse proposes an ‘identity synthesis’ model of sexual modification therapy for homosexuals. This model is meant primarily to target the process by which one's sexual identity is synthesized, rather than the changing of sexual orientation itself. I highlight some of the advantages of Yarhouse's model along with some of its potential pitfalls. My primary point of departure with Yarhouse concerns how one ought to direct those selfidentified homosexual clients who fall within our clinical sphere of influence and (...)
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  11. D. W. Lutz (2004). The Catholic Church, the American Military, and Homosexual Reorientation Therapy. Christian Bioethics 10 (2-3):189-226.
    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is (...)
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  12. Thomas G. Plante (2007). Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Screening Applicants for the Priesthood in the Catholic Church: Implications of the Vatican Instruction on Homosexuality. Ethics and Behavior 17 (2):131 – 136.
    The release of the Vatican instruction on homosexuality in the priesthood and Catholic seminaries poses several challenging ethical issues for the psychologists who conduct psychological screening evaluations for those men interested in religious life as Catholic priests. This brief article reviews some of the key ethical issues associated with these evaluations in light of the new Vatican instruction on homosexuality. The RRICC model based on the American Psychological Association's Code of Ethics (i.e., responsibility, respect, integrity, competence, and concern) is used (...)
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  13. Eric H. Reitan (1999). Homosexuality, Misogyny, and God's Plan. Faith and Philosophy 16 (2):213-232.
    In response to powerful criticisms of older arguments, contemporary defenders of the Church’s traditional stance on homosexuality have fashioned a new kind of argument based upon the special relationship God created between the sexes. In this paper we examine two recent incarnations of this kind of argument and show that both fail to demonstrate the inherent immorality of homosexual relationships, and at most demonstrate that homosexual relationships are inferior to heterosexual relationships in certain respects. At the end of the paper (...)
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  14. Cristina Richie (2010). An Argument Against the Use of the Word 'Homosexual' in English Translations of the Bible. Heythrop Journal 51 (5):723-729.
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  15. Trevor Smith (2006). Homosexuality and the Bible. Teaching Philosophy 29 (4):299-306.
    The argument presented here explores homosexuality within the context of applied Christian ethics. The argument works by asking students to grapple with and define the common characteristics of all eros relationships. Once the students analytically break down eros relationships, and wrestle with defining concepts such as “love,” “sex,” and “desires,” basic biblical moral precepts are applied. After this biblical application it can be shown that there is latitude enough in Christian morality to openly permit homosexuality that iscompatible with biblically stated (...)
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Homosexuality and Morality, Misc
  1. Lynne Alice & Lynne Star (eds.) (2004). Queer in Aotearoa New Zealand. Dunmore Press.
  2. Matthew C. Altman (2010). Kant on Sex and Marriage: The Implications for the Same-Sex Marriage Debate. Kant-Studien 101 (3):309-330.
    When examined critically, Kant's views on sex and marriage give us the tools to defend same-sex marriage on moral grounds. The sexual objectification of one's partner can only be overcome when two people take responsibility for one another's overall well-being, and this commitment is enforced through legal coercion. Kant's views on the unnaturalness of homosexuality do not stand up to scrutiny, and he cannot (as he often tries to) restrict the purpose of sex to procreation. Kant himself rules out marriage (...)
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  3. Jacob M. Appel (2006). May Doctors Refuse Infertility Treatments to Gay Patients? Hastings Center Report 36 (4):20-21.
  4. H. E. Baber (2004). Is Homosexuality Sexuality? Theology.
    I argue on utilitarian grounds that while traditional constraints on heterosexual activity, including the prohibition of pre-marital sex and divorce may be justified by appeal to purely secular principles, no comparable prohibitions are justified as regards homosexual activity. Homosexuality is in this respect.
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  5. Jovan Babic (2006). Self-Regarding / Other-Regarding Acts: Some Remarks. Prolegomena 5 (2):193-207.
    In his essay On Liberty, John Stuart Mill presents the famous harm principle in the following manner: “[…] the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. […] The only part of the conduct of anyone, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. […] Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.” Hence, there is a (...)
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  6. J. Bancroft (1975). Homosexuality and the Medical Profession: A Behaviourist's View. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (4):176-180.
    That a homosexual -- man or woman -- is neither a sinner nor a sick person is the thesis of this paper by an authority on sexual deviation. Therefore, such a man or woman neither needs penance and pardon nor cure in the medical sense. Nevertheless such individuals sometimes need the help of doctors and must be treated with understanding. The medical profession also has, in the view of the behaviourist school of psychiatrists, of which Dr Bancroft is a member, (...)
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  7. Piers Benn (1992). AIDS and Sexual Morality. Philosophy Now 4:5-8.
  8. Lawrence Blum (2010). Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's 'Education for Tolerance'. Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):145-160.
    Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and acceptance. In addition, I have criticised Almond?s privileging of parental values over school values, seeing in that privileging a failure to recognise (...)
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  9. Christopher J. Collins (2009). Family Values and Same-Sex Marriage. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 16 (1):55-65.
    Alain Locke, an often neglected classical American Pragmatist, developed a pluralistic value theory as an antidote to the "value absolutism" he considered the root cause of social conflict. Values, for Locke, are not immutable features of a transcendent reality, but rather emerge from human functional attitudes, or what he calls "feeling-modes." However incommensurable the contextualized values of diverse cultures may appear, they can always be traced back to common modes of valuing. Recognizing the common character of our human faculty of (...)
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  10. John Corvino (2005). Homosexuality and the PIB Argument. Ethics 115 (3):501-534.
  11. J. Cotter (1991). Same-Sex Relationships. Studies in Christian Ethics 4 (2):29-37.
  12. Robert J. Cramer, Frank D. Golom, Charles T. LoPresto & Shalene M. Kirkley (2008). Weighing the Evidence: Empirical Assessment and Ethical Implications of Conversion Therapy. Ethics and Behavior 18 (1):93 – 114.
    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) as well as other professional organizations' (e.g., American Psychiatric Association) removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder represented a paradigmatic shift in thinking about exual orientation. Since then, APA (2000) disseminated guidelines for working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients, and a variety of scholars and researchers alike have advocated affirmative therapeutic interventions with LGB individuals. Despite these efforts, the controversy over treating individuals with LGB orientations using nonaffirmative techniques continues. In this discussion, the (...)
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  13. Chris Cuomo (2007). Dignity and the Right to Be Lesbian or Gay. Philosophical Studies 132 (1):75 - 85.
    Richard Mohr emphasizes the importance of dispelling false beliefs about lesbians and gay men, and establishing legislation that protects the rights of sexual minorities. He argues that homophobic policies originate in the belief that gay men and lesbians are categorically less morally valuable than others, rather than deserving of unequal treatment because of their behaviors or actions. In response, I show that homophobic panic over lesbian or gay sex acts is actually quite influential, and argue that Mohr fails to take (...)
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  14. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Wrongness of 'Unnatural' Sex. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (2):225-48.
    I consider Kant’s use of claims about “nature’s ends” in his arguments to establish maxims of homosexual sex, masturbation, and bestiality as constituting “unnatural” sexual vices, which are contrary to one’s duties to oneself as an animal and moral being. I argue, first, that the formula of humanity is the principle best suited for understanding duties to oneself as an animal and moral being; and second, that although natural teleology is relevant to some degree in specifying these duties, it cannot (...)
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  15. A. A. Howsepian (2004). Treating Homosexuality: A Response to Yarhouse. Christian Bioethics 10 (2-3):259-267.
    Professor Mark A. Yarhouse proposes an ‘identity synthesis’ model of sexual modification therapy for homosexuals. This model is meant primarily to target the process by which one's sexual identity is synthesized, rather than the changing of sexual orientation itself. I highlight some of the advantages of Yarhouse's model along with some of its potential pitfalls. My primary point of departure with Yarhouse concerns how one ought to direct those selfidentified homosexual clients who fall within our clinical sphere of influence and (...)
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  16. Patricia Illingworth & Timothy Murphy (2004). In Our Best Interest: Meeting Moral Duties to Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescent Students. Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (2):198–210.
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