About this topic
Summary This section is on the hypothetical genetic modification of human individuals through genetic engineering and the actual modification of the gene pool through (eugenic or disgenic) genetic selection. The ethics of gene-therapy and genetic selection is especially complex. One issue is whether germ-line (inheritable) genetic modification is more problematic than somatic (non inheritable) gene-therapy, even when comparably safe. Another issue is whether society ought to permit eugenic or disgenic goals to be achieved by genetic selection in the context of advanced reproductive technologies; this relates to (A) what defines a genetic modification or selection as "eugenic" or "disgenic", for instance, is selecting for deafness an instance of "disgenic" selection? (B) Whether eugenic goals are impermissible, permissible or even mandatory, and (C) whether genetic tests are a reliable basis of the achievement of eugenic goals. Another topic of discussions relates to whether there are important moral differences between (I) avoiding the most serious diseases and disabilities, (II) boosting protection from normal harmful circumstances, such as pathogens or pollutants (III) promoting conditions within and above normal human health, that are positively desirable or comparatively advantageous. 
Key works Harris 1992 argues that it is mandatory to modify disabilities through gene-therapy, including many traits that are considered normal or non pathological. Savulescu 2001 argues that parents have a moral obligation to select the best children in the context of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on available genetic information. Agar 2008 endorses the liberal version of eugenics, since, unlike early twentieth century eugenics, it is compatible with a pluralism of different conceptions about human flourishing. Against such or similar views,  Habermas 2003 defends a principled distinction between gene-therapy to cure disease and genetic manipulation allowing parents to select the traits of future children. The latter is seen as incompatible with egalitarian relationships between human beings and their freedom of choice. Taking an intermediate position, Buchanan et al 2000 defend a Rawlsian approach to genetic justice, inspired by Buchanan's idea of a genetic decent minimum (Buchanan 1995) and Daniels' normal functioning approach to health care (Daniels 1985). They hold that society has the duty, as a matter of justice, to use gene therapy to correct disease, subject to reasonable resource constrains. In addition to this, in a future society in which genetic enhancements are widespread, normal functioning may require enhanced human capacities. They also attempts to reject the "social model of disability", in an extreme form, while recognising that the classification of X as a disability is, today and in a genetically modified future, society-relative (Silvers 2001).
Introductions Brock 2003 Chadwick 2011 Glover 2008
  Show all references
Related categories
Siblings:See also:
200 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Order:
1 — 50 / 200
  1. Keith Abney (2008). Review of The Case Against Perfection. [REVIEW] Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (3).
    Sandel's book argues against genetic enhancement as an illegitimate expression of a drive to human mastery and a rejection of the proper appreciation of the gift of life. His view combines bad theology with bad virtue ethics, and exemplifies the problem of status quo bias in ethics.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. Eli Y. Adashi & I. Glenn Cohen (2015). Editing the Genome of the Human Germline: May Cool Heads Prevail. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):40-42.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Nicholas Agar (2013). There Is a Legitimate Place for Human Genetic Enhancement. In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. John Wiley & Sons 25--343.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4. Nicholas Agar (2008). Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement. John Wiley & Sons.
    In this provocative book, philosopher Nicholas Agar defends the idea that parents should be allowed to enhance their children’s characteristics.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   28 citations  
  5. Nicholas Agar (2002). The Problem with Nature. Hastings Center Report 32 (6):39-40.
  6. Nicholas Agar (1995). Designing Babies: Morally Permissible Ways to Modify the Human Genome. Bioethics 9 (1):1–15.
    My focus in this paper is the question of the moral acceptability of attempts to modify the human genome. Much of the debate in this area has revolved around the distinction between supposedly therapeutic modification on the one hand, and eugenic modification on the other. In the first part of the paper I reject some recent arguments against genetic engineering. In the second part I seek to distinguish between permissible and impermissible forms of intervention in such a way that does (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. Fritz Allhoff (2005). Germ-Line Genetic Enhancement and Rawlsian Primary Goods. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (1):39-56.
    : Genetic interventions raise a host of moral issues and, of its various species, germ-line genetic enhancement is the most morally contentious. This paper surveys various arguments against germ-line enhancement and attempts to demonstrate their inadequacies. A positive argument is advanced in favor of certain forms of germ-line enhancements, which holds that they are morally permissible if and only if they augment Rawlsian primary goods, either directly or by facilitating their acquisition.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  8. Joseph S. Alper (2002). The Double-Edged Helix Social Implications of Genetics in a Diverse Society. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  9. Jonny Anomaly (forthcoming). Defending Eugenics: From Cryptic Choice to Conscious Selection. In Gregg Caruso (ed.), Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. Palgrave MacMillan
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10. E. M. Armstrong (2002). Book Review: Playing God: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate by John H. Evans. [REVIEW] Princeton Journal of Bioethics 5:105-110.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11. Richard Arneson, Is Moral Theory Perplexed by New Genetic Technology?
    Richard J. Arneson From Choice to Chance: Genes and the Just Society1 intelligently addresses difficult issues at the intersection of medical ethics and the theory of justice. The authors, Dan Brock, Allen Buchanan, Norman Daniels, and Daniel Wikler, repeatedly emphasize their opinion that advances in genetic technology force upon us entirely new ethical questions which previous moral theories lack the resources to resolve.2 The claims that new scientific discoveries render previous moral theories obsolete should be regarded with suspicion. The reader’s (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. British Medical Association (1992). Our Genetic Future the Science and Ethics of Genetic Technology. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13. Marco Azevedo (2013). Human Enhancement: A New Issue in Philosophical Agenda. Princípios. Revista de Filosofía 20 (33):265-303.
    Since before we can remember, humanity aims to overcome its biological limitations; such a goal has certainly played a key role in the advent of technique. However, despite the benefits that technique may bring, the people who make use of it will inevitably be under risk of harm. Even though human technical wisdom consists in attaining the best result without compromising anybody’s safety, misuses are always a possibility in the horizon. Nowadays, technology can be used for more than just improving (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Harold W. Baillie, William A. Galston, Sara Goering, Deborah Hellman, Mark Sagoff, Paul B. Thompson, Robert Wachbroit, David T. Wasserman & Richard M. Zaner (2003). Genetic Prospects: Essays on Biotechnology, Ethics, and Public Policy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The essays in this volume apply philosophical analysis to address three kinds of questions: What are the implications of genetic science for our understanding of nature? What might it influence in our conception of human nature? What challenges does genetic science pose for specific issues of private conduct or public policy?
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  15. Robert Baker (2002). On Being a Bioethicist: A Review of John H. Evans Playing God?: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):65-69.
    (2002). On Being a Bioethicist: A Review of John H. Evans Playing God?: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 65-69.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16. Linda Barclay (2003). Genetic Engineering and Autonomous Agency. Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (3):223–236.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  17. John Jacob Baumann (1999). The Ethics of Human Genetic Enhancement: Extending the Public Policy Debate. Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University
    Mammalian one-cell embryos can be genetically altered, implanted into the female's uterus, and subsequently develop into biologically mature organisms in the usual manner. If the resultant adult organisms reproduce, the genetic change may be passed on to future generations. In humans, the procedure is known alternatively as "human genetic engineering" or "human germline gene therapy." Bioethicists distinguish between genetic engineering intended for the prevention or treatment of disease and genetic engineering intended for non-medical enhancement of certain characteristics . Human genetic (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. Françoise Baylis & Jason Scott Robert (2004). The Inevitability of Genetic Enhancement Technologies. Bioethics 18 (1):1–26.
    We outline a number of ethical objections to genetic technologies aimed at enhancing human capacities and traits. We then argue that, despite the persuasiveness of some of these objections, they are insufficient to stop the development and use of genetic enhancement technologies. We contend that the inevitability of the technologies results from a particular guiding worldview of humans as masters of the human evolutionary future, and conclude that recognising this worldview points to new directions for ethical thinking about genetic enhancement (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  19. E. M. Berger & B. M. Gert (1991). Genetic Disorders and the Ethical Status of Germ-Line Gene Therapy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (6):667-683.
    Recombinant DNA technology will soon allow physicians an opportunity to carry out both somatic cell- and Germ-Line gene therapy. While somatic cell gene therapy raises no new ethical problems, gene therapy of gametes, fertilized eggs or early embryos does raise several novel concerns. The first issue discussed here relates to making a distinction between negative and positive eugenics; the second issue deals with the evolutionary consequences of lost genetic diversity. In distinguishing between positive and negative eugenics, the concept of malady (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  20. Roberta Berry (1998). From Involuntary Sterilization to Genetic Enhancement: The Unsettled Legacy of Buck V. Bell. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 12 (2):401-448.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Roberta M. Berry (2007). The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Routledge.
    Genetic engineering: past and present as prelude to the future -- Utilitarianism and engineering to maximize welfare -- Deontology: engineering at the edges of disease, disability, difference, and death -- Virtue ethics and engineering for the virtues -- Genetic engineering, fractious problems, and a navigational approach to policymaking.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  22. Roberta Marie Berry (2004). Re-Creating Adam: A Philosophical Investigation of the Genetic Engineering of Human Beings. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    It now seems possible, if not likely, that germ-line genetic engineering of human beings will become technologically possible at some time in the twenty-first century, raising a host of ethical and policy questions. This dissertation examines in some detail the capacity of each of three prominent approaches to philosophical ethics---utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics---to provide guidance in individual ethical decision making and policymaking regarding genetic engineering. The author concludes that utilitarianism fails in its own project to vindicate universal benevolence and (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23. Michael Blome-Tillman, Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.
  24. Nick Bostrom & Julian Savulescu (2009). Human Enhancement Ethics: The State of the Debate. In . Oxford University Press 1--22.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  25. Iain Brassington (2010). Enhancing Evolution and "Enhancing Evolution". Bioethics 24 (8):395-402.
    It has been claimed in several places that the new genetic technologies allow humanity to achieve in a generation or two what might take natural selection hundreds of millennia in respect of the elimination of certain diseases and an increase in traits such as intelligence. More radically, it has been suggested that those same technologies could be used to instil characteristics that we might reasonably expect never to appear due to natural selection alone. John Harris, a proponent of this genomic (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. John F. Brehany (2003). Germ Line Genetic Engineering: An Analysis of Principled Argumentation in Light of a Critical Theology of the Body. Dissertation, Saint Louis University
    This dissertation evaluates the ethical challenges posed by the prospect of human germ line gene transfer . It argues that GLGT presents a new, unprecedented and complex ethical challenge. While GLGT has not yet been attempted with human beings, it has the potential not only to introduce changes into human nature that are radical and different, but also to substantially affect attitudes about human dignity and human rights. This dissertation focuses on the principled ethical arguments and the frameworks, both rational (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Dan Brock (2003). Genetic Engineering. In R. G. Frey & C. H. Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics. Blackwell
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. J. H. Brooke (2004). Commentary On: The Person, the Soul and Genetic Engineering. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):597-600.
    The far reaching effects of the genetic revolution on our lives as a whole make it difficult to separate the secular and sacred issues involvedIn accepting this opportunity to comment on Dr Polkinghorne’s Templeton Prize lecture, I recognise that there is a significant division between those who would see religious beliefs as irrelevant in the ethical debates concerning new biotechnologies and those who, with Dr Polkinghorne, are willing to look to the major faith traditions for insight into the nature of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Allen Buchanan (2009). Moral Status and Human Enhancement. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (4):346-381.
  30. Allen Buchanan (2008). Enhancement and the Ethics of Development. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (1):pp. 1-34.
    Much of the debate about the ethics of enhancement has proceeded according to two framing assumptions. The first is that although enhancement carries large social risks, the chief benefits of enhancement are to those who are enhanced (or their parents, in the case of enhancing the traits of children). The second is that, because we now understand the wrongs of state-driven eugenics, enhancements, at least in liberal societies, will be personal goods, chosen or not chosen in a market for enhancement (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  31. Allen Buchanan (1996). Choosing Who Will Be Disabled: Genetic Intervention and the Morality of Inclusion. Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (2):18.
    The Nobel prize-winning molecular biologist Walter Gilbert described the mapping and sequencing of the human genome as “the grail of molecular biology.” The implication, endorsed by enthusiasts for the new genetics, is that possessing a comprehensive knowledge of human genetics, like possessing the Holy Grail, will give us miraculous powers to heal the sick, and to reduce human suffering and disabilities. Indeed, the rhetoric invoked to garner public support for the Human Genome Project appears to appeal to the best of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  32. Allen E. Buchanan (2011). Beyond Humanity?: The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement. Oxford University Press.
    In Beyond Humanity a leading philosopher offers a powerful and controversial exploration of urgent ethical issues concerning human enhancement.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   24 citations  
  33. Allen E. Buchanan (1995). Equal Opportunity and Genetic Intervention. Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):105 - 35.
    What does the prospect of being able to alter a human being's “natural assets” by genetic engineering imply for our understanding of the requirements of justice, and of equal opportunity in particular? Although their proponents are reluctant to admit it, some of the most prominent contemporary theories of justice yield a quite radical conclusion: If safe and effective intervention in the genetic “natural lottery” becomes feasible, there will be at least a strong prima facie case for doing so in the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  34. Allen E. Buchanan, Dan W. Brock, Norman Daniels & Daniel Wikler (2000). From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. Cambridge University Press.
    This book, written by four internationally renowned bioethicists and first published in 2000, was the first systematic treatment of the fundamental ethical issues underlying the application of genetic technologies to human beings. Probing the implications of the remarkable advances in genetics, the authors ask how should these affect our understanding of distributive justice, equality of opportunity, the rights and obligations as parents, the meaning of disability, and the role of the concept of human nature in ethical theory and practice. The (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   89 citations  
  35. Allen Buchanan, Tony Cole & Robert O. Keohane (2011). Justice in the Diffusion of Innovation. Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (3):306-332.
  36. W. Malcolm Byrnes (2003). The Ecological Imperative and its Application to Ethical Issues in Human Genetic Technology. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 2003:63-65.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. Ruth Chadwick (ed.) (1994). Ethics, Reproduction and Genetic Control. Routledge.
    In this revised edition with a new preface from the editor, leading scientists explain the nature and goals of `test tube' reproduction and genetic engineering, and their eugenic implications. In contrast to the Warnock report, the extended commentary considers the issues in the context of a social ethic rather than the individualist viewpoint.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  38. T. Chappell (1997). Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):329-331.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Daphne Chia (2013). The Alternative to a Cloned or Genetically Enhanced Child is a Child Genetically Determined by Chance. Asian Bioethics Review 5 (1):73-78.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40. Catholic Church (1996). Genetic Intervention on Human Subjects. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Larry R. Churchill, Myra L. Collins, Nancy M. R. King, Stephen G. Pemberton & Keith A. Wailoo (1998). Genetic Research as Therapy: Implications of "Gene Therapy" for Informed Consent. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 26 (1):38-47.
  42. Alan B. Clark, Moral Obligation and the Human Germ-Line Gene Therapy Debate.
    genetic engineering, there are few arguments made for a positive moral obligation to genetic intervention. This is especially so with respect to human germ-line gene therapy. Burke. K. Zimmerman makes one of the few arguments that society and the medical profession have a moral obligation to develop and use human germ-line gene therapy. However, Zimmerman's arguments are vague, and he misses some important points. It is the point of this thesis to criticize and buttress Zimmerman's arguments, and to show that (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Stephen R. L. Clark (1994). Genetic and Other Engineering. Journal of Applied Philosophy 11 (2):233-237.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44. Stephen R. L. Clark (1994). Genetic and Other Engineering. Journal of Applied Philosophy 11 (2):233-237.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Christopher Coenen (ed.) (2010). Die Debatte Über "Human Enhancement": Historische, Philosophische Und Ethische Aspekte der Technologischen Verbesserung des Menschen. Transcript.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Marilyn E. Coors & Lawrence Hunter (2005). Evaluation of Genetic Enhancement: Will Human Wisdom Properly Acknowledge the Value of Evolution? American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):21 – 22.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  47. Marilyn Elizabeth Coors (1998). The Ethical Boundary of Human Germ-Line Alteration: Who Will We Become If We Cannot "Draw the Lines?". Dissertation, The Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver
    The successful demonstration of the alteration of germline cells in mouse has prompted an appeal from ethicists, theologians, scientists, and non-professionals to reflect upon this novel technology and its unforseen consequences for future human beings. We regularly make decisions or take action which affect future generations: have children, use pesticides, pollute our environment, or explode an atomic bomb. However, biogenetic technology is seen as a qualitative departure from the former parameters of human action in that its effects upon the human (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. G. K. D. Crozier & Christopher Hajzler (2010). Market Stimulus and Genomic Justice: Evaluating the Effects of Market Access to Human Germ-Line Enhancement. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (2):161-179.
    In the debates surrounding the ethical dimensions of interventions in the human genome, much attention is paid to determining whether—and if so, how—market access to these technologies ought to be managed in order to maximize social benefit. There are those who advocate a “laissez-faire” free-market approach to the development and use of genetic and genomic interventions. We are sympathetic to this view insofar as we understand the workings of the market stimulus effect. We use the term “market stimulus effect” to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Scott Eugene Daniels (1990). Justifying Human Gene Therapy: An Assessment of Some of the Central Ethical Considerations Underlying the Application of Genetic Knowledge to Human Subjects From the Perspective of the Traditional Conscience. Dissertation, The University of Tennessee
    The argument of this dissertation regards the moral limitation on advancing biomedical knowledge in human genetics. The author discusses three general ethical schemes that contribute to the manner in which moral restriction develop. The central issue in the ethics of applying genetic knowledge is how to reconcile the apparent conflict between scientific explanations of human nature and human subjectivity, and to do so in a way that provides effective moral limits that protect human beings, as well as offer guidance to (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Bernard D. Davis & H. Tristram Engelhardt (1984). Genetic Engineering: Prospects and Recommendations. Zygon 19 (3):277-280.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 200