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Summary

Husserl’s treatment of intentionality does not just account for how the mind picks out objects in the world. Rather, it accounts for how the object comes to be given for the subject, with the kind of orderliness and permanence, vis-à-vis the changeable materials of consciousness, as to invest it with objectivity and materiality in the first place. The account is developed from the first-person perspective, and it involves a methodical “bracketing” of the world and the objects in it, so as to investigate their constitution in intentional acts. Husserl’s discussions of intentionality contain a variety of more or less arcane technical terms: “constitution,” “the horizons,” “the noesis,” and “the noema,” giving rise to various issues. A discussion in the secondary literature may thus appear to focus on the topic of “constitution,” another, say, on “the horizons,” or on “the noema.” It may be no easy matter to decide whether these are mere terminological differences, or whether we are indeed dealing with important differences in perspective or subject matter.  

Key works An important treatment, with a focus on the ideas of truth and intuitive evidence, is Tugendhat 1967. Smith & McIntyre 1984, and Beyer 2000, bridge the Husserlian discussions of intentionality with ideas current in analytic philosophy of mind and language. Ströker 1984 discusses the development of Husserl’s static account of intentional acts into a genetic account of intentional life, transforming the transcendental ego from an abstract act-pole to a concrete, embodied ego. Drummond 2003 develops a discussion covering the central aspects of (perceptual) intentional experiences, around the idea that the noema is “the perceived as perceived,” (the East Coast interpretation of the noema) and not a kind of intermediary between the act and its object (the West Coast interpretation of the noema). Mohanty 1972, Zahavi 2008
Introductions Zahavi 2003, Ch. 1, Bernet et al 1993, Ch. 3, Smith 2006, Ch. 6
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Husserl: Constitution
  1. Bernard Barsotti (1999). Synthèse passive et affinité chez Husserl. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:379-400.
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  2. Bruce Bégout (2000). L'héritage ambigu: Kant, Husserl et la question de la synthèse passive. Recherches Husserliennes 13:31-68.
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  3. Elizabeth A. Behnke (2002). Merleau-Ponty's Ontological Reading of Constitution. In Ted Toadvine & Lester Embree (eds.), Merleau-Ponty’s Reading of Husserl. Kluwer. 31-50.
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  4. Victor Biceaga (2010). The Concept of Passivity in Husserl's Phenomenology. Springer.
    The book outlines the contribution of passivity to the constitution of phenomena as diverse as temporal syntheses, perceptual associations, memory fulfillment and cross-cultural communication.
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  5. M. Bosch (2002). Symbolic Pregnance and Passive Synthesis-Genetic Phenomenology of Perception in Cassirer and Husserl. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 109 (1):148-161.
  6. Matt Bower (forthcoming). Husserl’s Theory of Instincts as a Theory of Affection. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology.
    Husserl’s theory of passive experience first came to systematic and detailed expression in the lectures on passive synthesis from the early 1920s, where he discusses pure passivity under the rubric of affection and association. In this paper I suggest that this familiar theory of passive experience is a first approximation leaving important questions unanswered. Focusing primarily on affection, I will show that Husserl did not simply leave his theory untouched. In later manuscripts he significantly reworks the theory of affection in (...)
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  7. John B. Brough (2008). Consciousness is Not a Bag: Immanence, Transcendence, and Constitution in the Idea of Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 24 (3):177-191.
    A fruitful way to approach The Idea of Phenomenology is through Husserl’s claim that consciousness is not a bag, box, or any other kind of container. The bag conception, which dominated much of modern philosophy, is rooted in the idea that philosophy is restricted to investigating only what is really immanent to consciousness, such as acts and sensory contents. On this view, what Husserl called the riddle of transcendence can never be solved. The phenomenological reduction, as Husserl develops it in (...)
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  8. John D. Caputo (1979). Transcendence and the Transcendental in Husserl's Phenomenology. Philosophy Today 23 (3):205-216.
    The author attempts to isolate the defining characteristic of the distinction between the transcendental and the transcendent in husserl and argues that it is found, Not in husserl's notion of reflection, But in his theory of constitution. Reflection is shown to be compatible with a transcendent interpretation of consciousness. Finally, Heidegger's phenomenology is shown to have rejected pure reflection but to have incorporated, Mutatis mutandi, A version of constitution.
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  9. James Collins (1966). "The Formation of Husserl's Concept of Constitution," by Robert Sokolowski. Modern Schoolman 43 (2):187-188.
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  10. Alexander Cooke (2003). Jacques Derrida, The Problem of Genesis in Husserl's Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 23:380-382.
  11. Grégory Cormann & Bruno Leclercq (2012). Présentation : la passivité en phénoménologie, un vieux problème à réactiver. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (1).
    Les textes rassemblés ici constituent les « Actes » du cinquième séminaire annuel de l?Unité de recherches Phénoménologie s , qui s?est tenu à l?Université de Liège du 2 au 6 mai 2011 et avait pour intitulé Entre phéno­ménologie et psychologie. Le problème de la passivité . Sans doute le thème de la passivité n?est-il pas neuf en phénoméno­logie. Très souvent, notamment dans le monde francophone, il a été brandi pour nuancer, voire contrecarrer, une certaine conception de la phénoméno­logie qui (...)
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  12. Mariano Crespo (2009). ¿Hay Una teoría no idealista de la constitución? Revista de Filosofia 65:105-114.
    Este artículo intenta mostrar que una teoría de la constitución de los objetos del conocimiento no conlleva necesariamente una teoría idealista del conocimiento. El punto de partida es, por un lado, la reconstrucción de los principales elementos de la teoría husserliana de la constitución y, por otro, el análisis de un argumento usado por Husserl en las Investigaciones lógicas a fi n de probar la existencia de objetos ideales. En este orden de cosas, Antonio Millán-Puelles ha mostrado la posibilidad de (...)
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  13. Dan Dahlstrom (2007). The Intentionality of Passive Experience. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 7:25-42.
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  14. Arnaud Dewalque (2012). Intentionnalité cum fundamento in re : La constitution des champs sensoriels chez Stumpf et Husserl. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (1):70-96.
    J?aborderai ici le problème de la passivité de l?esprit dans le cadre d?une analyse de la perception sensible 1 . La question qui m?occupera sera la sui­vante : quel est le rôle des matériaux sensoriels ou des phénomènes sensibles dans la perception ? Plus exactement : quel sens faut-il donner ? s?il faut en donner un ? à la notion de « champs sensoriels » ( Sinnesfelder ) dans l?ana­lyse intentionnelle de la perception ? Je commencerai par rappeler que l?ap­proche (...)
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  15. James Dodd (2009). La passivité de la logique. Methodos 9.
    Quel est le chemin qui, chez Husserl, nous mène de la logique formelle à celle transcendantale? S’agit-il de la voie kantienne qui va de la “logique générale” à celle “transcendantale” ou le caractère mathématique de la logique moderne interdit que celle-ci puisse jouer le rôle de “fil conducteur transcendantal”? Dans cet article, à la lumière de ce que l’on pourrait appeler la réciprocité entre passivité et logique, on avance la thèse selon laquelle c’est justement la logique mathématique qui pour Husserl (...)
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  16. J. J. Drummond (1984). I. Yamaguchi, "Passive Synthesis Und Intersubjektivität Bei Edmund Husserl". [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 1 (2):218.
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  17. Paul Ducros (2007). La Terre: La théorie du géostatisme d'Edmund Husserl. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (5).
    Entre le 7 et le 9 Mai 1934 Husserl écrit un texte, publié posthumément, répertorié comme Manuscrit D 17 dans les Archives Husserl et désormais très célèbre: L’archè-originaire-Terre ne se meut pas. Lié au projet d’ensemble de la Krisis, il s’efforce — dans le cadre rigoureux de la phénoménologie en tant qu’idéalisme transcendantal — de reconduire l’astronomie à sa source originaire: le corps propre se mouvant sur le sol irréductiblement immobile de la Terre. L’auteur commente ce texte en le liant (...)
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  18. James M. Edie (1967). The Formation of Husserl's Concept of Constitution. Journal of the History of Philosophy 5 (2):184-187.
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  19. Christian Ferencz-Flatz (2009). Quasi-Constitution And Consciousness Of Opportunity In Husserl / Quasi-Konstitution Und Möglichkeitsbewusstsein Bei Husserl. Studia Philosophica 2.
    The article comments upon Husserl’s attempts to outline, in a brief text dated 1922/23, the concept of Quasi-Konstitution. With its help, Husserl wishes to address the way objects are and can be constituted in the realm of pure phantasy. In discussing the various strata of their constitution, he reaches several problematic issues, concerning concordance, individuality, inter-subjectivity or reality. However, the chief aspect that governs Husserl’s reflections is the questionable relation between phantasy and the manifold senses of “possibility”.
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  20. Dagfinn Follesdal (2013). Husserl und Heidegger über die Rolle des Handelns bei der Konstitution der Welt. In Stefania Centrone (ed.), Versuche über Husserl. Meiner.
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  21. Fausto Fraisopi (2010). Questions de co-intentionnalité : Expérience et structure d?horizon. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (8: Questions d'intentionnalité ().
    Le dedans intentionnel (das intentionnale Innen) est en même temps le dehors (Aussen). (E. Husserl, Intentionnalité et être-au-monde, Hua. XV, p. 549-556 (§ 8), tr. fr. in D. Janicaud (éd.), L?intentionnalité en question entre phénoménologie et recherches cognitives, Paris, Vrin, p. 145.) En introduisant l?enracinement de l?expérience (et surtout de la logique) dans « le sol universel du monde », Husserl affirme, de façon très claire, dans Expérience et jugement , que « toute saisie d?objet singulier et toute activité ultérieure (...)
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  22. Dagfinn Føllesdal (1993). Le rôle de l'action dans la constitution du monde chez Husserl et Heidegger. Philosophiques 20 (2):267-284.
  23. Saulius Geniusas (2009). Husserl et la phénoménologie de la donation. Methodos 9.
    Cet essai a pour but de montrer comment la notion de plasticité articule la façon dont Husserl engage la problématique de la donation. Pour ce faire, il interprète le passage de la phénoménologie statique à la phénoménologie génétique comme le chemin qui mène de l’analyse du cogito éveillé à celle de son éveil ; il montre par la suite comment cette réorientation méthodologique lie la question de la donation à celle des origines du cogito. Ce texte se compose ainsi de (...)
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  24. Nicoletta Ghigi (2005). La sensibilità a fondamento delle sintesi passive ed attive. Una riflessione sulla fenomenologia genetica di Husserl. Idee 59:47-63.
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  25. A. Giorgi (2005). Husserl, E.(2002). Analyses Concerning Passive and Active Syntheses: Lectures on Transcendental Logic. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 36 (2).
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  26. Guillermo Haddock (2006). Releyendo al joven Carnap: estudio crítico de 'der raum'. Manuscrito 29 (1):259-296.
    Este estudio crítico se ocupa de la tesis doctoral de Rudolf Carnap, Der Raum. El mismo ofrece una breve exposición de esta obra juvenil, frecuentemente ignorada, de Carnap, e intenta corregir algunas interpretaciones incorrectas de dicha obra. Se muestra convincentemente que la principal influencia filosófica en Der Raum no es ni Kant ni los ne-okantianos, sino Edmund Husserl, y que la defensa que hace Carnap en esa obra de lo sintético a priori es claramente no kantiana, sino mucho más cercana (...)
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  27. Errol E. Harris (1977). The Problem of Self-Constitution For Idealism and Phenomenology. Idealistic Studies 7 (1):1-27.
    Following kant, idealists establish the transcendental unity of the subject as the prior condition of experience of objects. this is necessarily all-inclusive and the finite self becomes one of its phenomena, which cannot be identified with the transcendental ego, nor yet be wholly divorced from it. this is the basis of kant's paralogism of reason. t h green, f h bradley and edmund husserl are all victims of this paralogism, each in his own way. green fails to avoid it by (...)
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  28. James Hart (2004). Edmund Husserl, Analyses Concerning Passive and Active Synthesis. Lectures on Transcendental Logic. Husserl Studies 20 (2):135-159.
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  29. Patricia Limido Heulot (2004). L'origine en question. Le sens de la constitution chez Husserl (II). Recherches Husserliennes 21:35-62.
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  30. Patricia Limido Heulot (2003). Constituer, produire, interpréter. Le sens de la constitution chez Husserl (I). Recherches Husserliennes 20:27-62.
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  31. Juha Himanka (2006). How Does a Dark Room Appear: Husserl's Illumination of the Breakthrough of Logical Investigations. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 6 (2):1-8.
    Evidence is the very core of Husserlian phenomenology, with the term “evidence” signifying for Husserl the phenomenological perspective on the question of truth. In contrast to the conventional philosophical understanding of “truth” in mainly epistemological terms, Husserl’s notion of “evidence”, as elaborated in his Logical Investigations (1900–1), is more essentially ontological, pointing to the way in which a phenomenon becomes clear to us in its constitution. Husserl’s main point in the Sixth Investigation was that we can “see” how evidence functions (...)
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  32. Wolfgang Huemer (2005). The Constitution of Consciousness: A Study in Analytic Phenomenology. Routledge.
    Through the work of philosophers like Sellars, Davidson, and McDowell, the question of how the mind is related to the world has gained new importance in contemporary analytic philosophy. This book demonstrates that Husserl's phenomenological analyses of the structure of consciousness can provide fruitful insights for developing an original approach to these questions.
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  33. Wolfgang Huemer (2004). The Constitution of Consciousness. Routledge.
    Through the work of philosophers like Sellars, Davidson and McDowell, the question of how the mind is related to the world has gained new importance in contemporary analytic philosophy. This book demonstrates that Husserl's phenomenological analyses of the structure of consciousness can provide fruitful insights for developing an original approach to these questions.
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  34. Wolfgang Huemer (2003). Husserl and Haugeland on Constitution. Synthese 137 (3):345-368.
    Both Husserl and Haugeland develop an account of constitution to address the question of how our mental episodes can be about physical objects and thus, through the intentional relation, bridge the gap between the mental and the physical. The respective theories of the two philosophers of very different background show not only how mental episodes can have empirical content, but also how this content is shaped by past experiences or a holistic background of other mental episodes. In this article I (...)
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  35. E. Husserl (1968). Analysen zùr passiven Synthesis. [REVIEW] Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 73:127.
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  36. Edmund Husserl (1984). Die Konstitution der Geistigen Welt. Felix Meiner Verlag Gmbh.
    Diese Ausgabe basiert auf Manuskripten, die im wesentlichen zwischen 1913 und 1917 entstanden sind. Husserl entwickelt hier eine erste Phänomenologie der Lebenswelt. Kernstück dieser Theorie der "Göttinger Lebenswelt", die Ansätze von Avenarius, Dilthey und Pfänder aufnimmt und fortführt, ist der Versuch einer Grundlegung der Geisteswissenschaften durch Aufklärung der Konstitution ihres Gegenstandes.
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  37. Edmund Husserl (1981). The World of the Living Present and the Constitution of the Surrounding World External to the Organism. In Peter McCormick & Frederick A. Elliston (eds.), Husserl: Shorter Works. University of Notre Dame Press. 238--250.
  38. Edmund Husserl & Roland Breeur (2000). Aktive Synthesen Aus der Vorlesung "Transzendentale Logik" 1920/21 : Ergänzungsband Zu "Analysen Zur Passiven Synthesis". [REVIEW]
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  39. Hanne Jacobs (2014). Transcendental Subjectivity and the Human Being. In Sara Heinämaa Mirja Hartimo & Timo Miettinen (eds.), Phenomenology and the Transcendental. Routledge. 87-105.
    This article addresses an ambiguity in Edmund Husserl’s descriptions of what it means to be a human being in the world. On the one hand, Husserl often characterizes the human being in natural scientific terms as a psychophysical unity. On the other hand, Husserl also describes how we experience ourselves as embodied persons that experience and communicate with others within a socio-historical world. The main aim of this article is to show that if one overlooks this ambiguity then one will (...)
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  40. A. Johnstone & M. Sheets-Johnstone (2005). Edmund Husserl: A Review of the Lectures on Transcendental Logic. [REVIEW] Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (2):43-51.
    The centerpiece of the Analyses is a translation from the German of notes for a series of lectures given by phenomenologist Edmund Husserl in the early twenties, which is to say some eighty years ago. Husserl designated the topic of the lectures 'transcendental logic'. In this context, the term, 'transcendental', is not to be understood in some mystical sense, but rather in a Kantian sense: pertaining to the conditions of possibility of experience. Likewise, the term, 'logic', is not to be (...)
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  41. Laurent Joumier (2000). Généalogie de l'En Soi. Husserl," de la Synthèse Passive". Recherches Husserliennes 13:91-112.
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  42. J. N. Kaufmann (1974). Phaenomenologie der Assoziation: Zu Struktur und Funktion eines Grundprinzips der passiven Genesis bei E. Husserl. Par Elmar Holenstein. Phaenomenologica 44. Den Haag, Martinus Nijhoff, 1972. 369 pages. [REVIEW] Dialogue 13 (02):424-428.
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  43. Rolf Kuhn & Michael Staudigl (2002). Passivity as Pre-Predicative Constitution in Husserl: Structure and Discussion. Analecta Husserliana 80:119-133.
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  44. D. Lohmar (1993). Principles of a Model for the Synthesis of Interpretation-Kant and Husserl on the Degree of Order of Sensory Assumptions and the Elements of a Phenomenology of Interpretation. Husserl Studies 10 (2):111-141.
  45. Dieter Lohmar (1993). Grundzüge Eines Synthesis-Modells der Auffassung: Kant Und Husserl Über den Ordnungsgrad Sinnlicher Vorgegebenheiten Und Die Elemente Einer Phänomenologie der Auffassung. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 10 (2):111-141.
  46. Gabriel Mahéo (2005). La question de l'amour chez Max Scheler: par-delà l'activité et la passivité? Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 1 (1).
    L?entreprise philosophique de Scheler se présente comme une application de la phénoménologie des Recherches logiques au domaine des valeurs, et procède pour cela à une transposition de l?objectivisme séman­tique husserlien en un objectivisme axiologique. C?est pourquoi, au premier abord, le statut de la passivité ne semble pas poser problème dans la phénoménologie de Scheler, tant ce dernier insiste sur l?objectivité, l?absolui­té et l?indépendance des valeurs qui ne peuvent être, comme l?affirme le Formalisme, « ni créées, ni détruites », mais « (...)
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  47. Javier San Martín (1971). AGUIRRE, ANTONIO: Genetische Phänomenologie und Reduktion zur Letztbegründungder Wissenschaft aus der radikalen Skepsis im Denken E. Husserls. Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica 6 (6):121-123.
  48. Filip Mattens (2012). On the Introduction of the Concept of Phantom in Ideas II: A Case-Study in Husserl's Theory of Constitution. The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 6 (1):83-108.
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  49. Filip Mattens (2008). Body or Eye. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 8:93-125.
  50. Filip Mattens (2006). On the Introduction of the Concept of Phantom in Ideas II. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 6:83-107.
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