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The notions of noesis and noema need to be understood as part of Husserl’s account of constitution (See the summary for Husserl: Constitution.). The noetic resources function to constitute the noema—the account of constitution is two-sided. Husserl also uses the term “noesis” in a narrower sense, viz., for the interpreting part among the constitutive resources, as opposed to the part that undergoes interpretation. Thus, in Husserl’s account of the constitution of spatially extended objects, the kinesthetic sensations, in their “animating” functioning towards the visual sensations, can be regarded as the noesis. Disagreements over the nature of the perceptual noema have sparked a notable debate. According to the West Coast interpretation (Føllesdal, and Smith and McIntyre), the noema is an abstract object, akin to Fregean sense.  According to the East Coast interpretation (Sokolowski and Drummond), the noema is the object we perceive, as experienced by us.

Key works The West Coast interpretation of the noema was first proposed in Føllesdal 1969, and was also defended in Smith & McIntyre 1984. It has been criticized in Sokolowski 1984, Sokolowski 1992, and Drummond 1990, while defending the East Coast interpretation. Bernet 1989 distinguishes two strands in Husserl’s use of the notion of the noema, motivating the West and East Coast interpretations. Another, phenomenalist interpretation is developed in Gurwitsch 1964. Drummond & Embree 1992 is a collection of papers devoted to the topic of the noema. Two further monographs are Süssbauer 1995 and Vongehr 1995.
Introductions Smith 2006, Ch. 6
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  1. Richard E. Aquila (1974). Husserl and Frege on Meaning. Journal of the History of Philosophy 12 (3):377-383.
    Husserl's theory of meaning is often regarded as a somewhat obscure attempt at a view which frege stated more clearly. I argue that while this may be true with respect to the "ideas," it is false with respect to the "logical investigations." the theory presented in the latter work is superior to frege's theory. It provides an objective foundation for the semantical distinctions which concerned frege while remaining within the confines of an ontology that is more economical than frege's.
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  2. Marina Paola Banchetti (1993). Føllesdal on the Notion of the Noema: A Critique. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 10 (2):81-95.
    This paper critiques Dagfinn Follesdal's influential interpretation of the Husserlian noema as a Fregean sense. Though other philosophers have argued that Follesdal's interpretation is mistaken, this paper demonstrates that the origin of the error is a fundamental misunderstanding, on Follesdal's part, of Husserlian terminology. The paper also examines the views of David Woodruff Smith and Ronald McIntyre who, influenced by Follesdal, mistakenly read the Husserl of the "Ideas" as a linguistically motivated philosopher. The paper concludes that, if Follesdal and his (...)
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  3. Imants Barušs (1989). Categorical Modelling of Husserl's Intentionality. Husserl Studies 6 (1):25-41.
    This paper is concerned with the application of constructions from category theory to Smith and McIntyre's interpretation of Husserl's intentionality. 1 Not only did Hussefl's own ideas change in the course of his lifetime 2 but there are a number of interpretations of Husserl's work 3 so that the line of philosophical investigation that Husserl strongly influenced is still in the process of development. In this vein, Smith and McIntyre have recognized the potential for a possible worlds interpretation of intentionality (...)
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  4. George Berger (1983). Husserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning, and Language. Theoria 49 (3):184-188.
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  5. Rudolf Bernet (1989). Husserls Begriff des Noema. In Samuel IJsseling (ed.), Husserl-Ausgabe und Husserl-Forschung. 61--80.
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  6. Robert Brisart (2011). Husserl et l'affaire des démonstratifs.: À propos de la référence en régime noématique. Revue Philosophique de Louvain 109 (2):245-269.
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  7. Charles S. Brown (1990). Husserl, Intentionality, and Cognitive Architecture. Southwest Philosophy Review 6 (1):65-72.
  8. Clotilde Calabi (1987). Husserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning, and Language. Topoi 6 (2):139-142.
  9. R. Cobb-Stevens (2003). The Other Husserl and the Standard Interpretation. Review of the Other Husserl: Horizons of Transcendental Phenomenology by Donn Welton. Research in Phenomenology 33 (1):315-328.
  10. Richard Cobb-Stevens (1992). Husserlian Intentionality and Non-Foundational Realism. Review of Metaphysics 45 (4):850-852.
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  11. Suzanne Cunningham (1985). Perceptual Meaning and Husserl. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (4):553-566.
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  12. Føllesdal Dagfinn (2001). Bolzano, Frege and Husserl on Reference and Object. In Juliet Floyd & Sanford Shieh (eds.), Future Pasts: The Analytic Tradition in Twentieth-Century Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 67--80.
  13. André de Muralt (1974). The Idea of Phenomenology: Husserlian Exemplarism. Northwestern University Press.
  14. John Drummond (1990). Husserlian Intentionality and Non-Foundational Realism: Noema and Object. Springer.
    The rift which has long divided the philosophical world into opposed schools-the "Continental" school owing its origins to the phenomenology of Husserl and the "analytic" school derived from Frege-is finally closing.
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  15. John J. Drummond (2010). An Abstract Consideration: De-Ontologizing the Noema. In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer.
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  16. John J. Drummond (2003). Pure Logical Grammar: Anticipatory Categoriality and Articulated Categoriality. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 11 (2):125 – 139.
    In reworking his Logical Investigations Husserl adopts two positions that were not actually incorporated into later editions of the Investigations but do appear in other writings: (1) a new distinction between signitive and significative intentions, and (2) the claim that even naming and perceiving acts are categorially formed. This paper investigates Husserl's notion of noematic sense and the pure grammatical '<span class='Hi'>categories</span>' intimated therein in order to shed light on these new positions. The paper argues that the development of the (...)
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  17. John J. Drummond (1985). Frege and Husserl: Another Look at the Issue of Influence. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 2 (3):245-265.
    This paper argues that frege did not significantly influence husserl's departure from psychologism by (1) examining husserl's early logical reflections, Especially those concerning the meaning of the term ""vorstellung"," and (2) determining which parts of husserl's "philosophy of arithmetic", Criticized for its psychologism by frege, Were psychologistic and when husserl rejected them. It concludes that the logical writings show an independent movement toward a non-Psychologistic position and that the psychologism of "philosophy of arithmetic" was abandoned by 1891 apart from any (...)
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  18. John J. Drummond (1984). Huserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning, and Language. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 1 (1):201-225.
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  19. John J. Drummond (1984). D.W. Smith and R. Mclntyre: 'Husserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning, and Language'. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 1 (1).
    This book seems to us potentially as important as any work that has appeared in the last few decades for the purpose of understanding Hussefl's thought in its relation to other recent philosophical traditions, especially certain aspects of the analytical tradition. Yet there is a distinct danger that it will not receive the attention it amply merits. One reason for this danger is the unfortunate tendency we all have of dismissing ideas by pidgeonholing them.
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  20. John Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.) (1992). The Phenomenology of the Noema. Springer.
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  21. Lester Embree (2010). Some Noetico-Noematic Analyses of Action and Practical Life. In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer.
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  22. J. Claude Evans (2010). Meaning and Noema. In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer.
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  23. D. Follesdal (1993). The Concept of Intentionality in Husserl. Dialectica 47 (2-3):173-187.
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  24. Dagfinn Follesdal (2010). Intentionalität und ihr Gegenstand. In Manfred Frank & Niels Weidtmann (eds.), Husserl und die Philosophie des Geistes. Suhrkamp.
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  25. Dagfinn Føllesdal (1993). La Notion d'Intentionalité Chez Husserl. Dialectica 47 (2‐3):173-187.
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  26. Dagfinn Føllesdal (1990). Noema and Meaning in Husserl. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:263-271.
  27. Dagfinn Føllesdal (1978). Brentano and Husserl on Intentional Objects and Perception. Grazer Philosophische Studien 5:83-94.
    The article is a comparative critical discussion of the views of Brentano and Husserl on intentional objects and on perception. Brentano's views on intentional objects are first discussed, with special attention to the problems connected with the status of the intentional objects. It is then argued that Husserl overcomes these problems by help of his notion of noema. Similarly, in the case of perception, Brentano's notion of physical phenomena is argued to be less satisfactory than Husserl's notion of hyle, whose (...)
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  28. Dagfinn Føllesdal (1969). Husserl's Notion of Noema. Journal of Philosophy 66 (20):680-687.
    Darstellung des Noema in 12 Thesen.\nverwendete Textstellen: Ideen 1: S. 203, 22-23; S. 204, 20-21; S. 357, 19-20: Handlungen sind zielgerichtet. Dabei bedarf eines keines physischen Objekts. Husserl setzt and diese Stelle das Noema. Somit wird auch zielgerichtetes Handeln aufgrund einer Halluzination m{ö}glich, Zielgerichtet zu sein bedeutet ein Noema zu haben.\n1. Follesdal´sche These: Noema ist eine intensionale Entit{ä}t, eine Generalisierung des Begriffs Sinn/Bedeutung.\n2. These: Das Noema hat zwei Bestandteile, a) der noematische Sinn, der allen thetischen Handlungen (erinnern, sich vorstellen usw.) (...)
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  29. Grant Gillett (1997). Husserl, Wittgenstein and the Snark: Intentionality and Social Naturalism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (2):331-349.
    The Snark is an intentional object. I examine the general philosophical characteristics of thoughts of objects from the perspective of Husserl's, hyle, noesis, and noema and show how this meets constraints of opacity, normativity, and possible existence as generated by a sensitive theory of intentionality. Husserl introduces terms which indicate the normative features of intentional content and attempts to forge a direct relationship between the norms he generates and the actual world object which a thought intends. I then attempt to (...)
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  30. Aron Gurwitsch (1970). Towards a Theory of Intentionality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (March):354-367.
  31. Aron Gurwitsch (1964). The Field of Consciousness. Duquesne University Press.
  32. Aron Gurwitsch (1964). Field Of Consciousness. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.
  33. Aron Gurwitsch (1947). On the Object of Thought. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 7 (3):347-353.
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  34. James G. Hart (2010). Being's Mindfulness: The Noema of Transcendental Idealism. In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer.
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  35. Tetsushi Hirano, The Phenomenological Notion of Sense as Acquaintance with Background.
    In this paper, I will focus on the phenomenological notion of sense which Husserl calls in Ideen I noematic sense. My reading of Ideen I is based on the interpretation of noema as “object as it is intended”. This notion is developed from “filling sense” in LU. Similar to the Russellian “knowledge by acquaintance”, Husserl means by this notion the direct intuitive acquaintance with an intentional object. However, unlike Russell, Husserl doesn’t restrict this notion to sense data, but extend it (...)
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  36. Richard Holmes (2010). The Noema Revisited: Hard Cases. In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer.
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  37. Richard H. Holmes (1975). An Explication of Husserl's Theory of the Noema. Research in Phenomenology 5 (1):143-153.
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  38. Fred Kersten, Robert J. Dostal & Lenore Langsdorf (1992). Book Reviews. Eugen Fink: 'VI. Cartesianische Meditation, Teil 1: Die Ldee Einer Transzendentalen Methodenlehre'. Reinald Klockenbusch: 'Husserl Und Cohn: Widerspruch, Reflexion, Und Telos in Phanomenologie Und Dialektik'. John J. Drummond: 'Husserlian Intentionality and Non-Foundational Realism: Noema and Object'. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 9 (1).
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  39. Łukasz Kosowski (2012). The Structure of Noema in the Process of Objectivation. Husserl Studies 28 (2):143-160.
    The subject of the present work is noema and its structure in various stages of the objectivating process. Despite its great importance, this issue has never been adequately explained, neither by Husserl nor by his followers. The main objective is to provide the theory that would describe the structure of noema and its function without simplifying the case or appealing to non-phenomenological data. This has been achieved by way of analysis divided into four sections. The first provides an overview of (...)
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  40. Łukasz Kosowski (2008). Noema in the Light of Contradiction, Conflict, and Nonsense: The Noema as Possibly Thinkable Content. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 24 (3):243-259.
    The present paper is guided by the belief that Edmund Husserl’s concept of noema can be significantly enriched when considered in light of extreme epistemological instances. These include the phenomena of the absurd and nonsense, but also intentional conflict and cases of consciousness directed to contradictory objects. The paper shows that the noema, when experienced in such a context, exhibits interesting characteristics that are rather difficult to note in other circumstances. The paper consists of five sections. The first interprets and (...)
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  41. Wojciech Krysztofiak (1995). Noemata and Their Formalization. Synthese 105 (1):53 - 86.
    The presentation of the formal conception of noemata is the main aim of the article. In the first section, three informal approaches to noemata are discussed. The goal of this chapter is specifying main controversies and their sources concerned with different ways of the understanding of noemata. In the second section, basic assumptions determining the proposed way of understanding noemata are presented. The third section is devoted to the formal set-theoretic construction needed for the formal comprehension of noemata. In the (...)
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  42. Lenore Langsdorf (2010). Noetic Insight and Noematic Recalcitrance. In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer.
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  43. Mary Jeanne Larrabee (1986). The Noema in Husserl's Phenomenology. Husserl Studies 3 (3):209-230.
    Husserl's theory of the noema has precipitated much controversy, Especially following follesdal's 1969 paper, Yet many issues remain unsolved. This paper outlines aspects of method and experience relevant to a theory of noema, Describes various uses of the term 'noema' and thus sorts out two different levels of usage, And shows how this interpretation avoids difficulties raised by other commentators, Particularly in regard to maintaining a clear distinction between perceptual and linguistic experiences and their correlative noemata.
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  44. Eduard Marbach (2010). What Does Noematic Intentionality Tell Us About the Ontological Status of the Noema? In J. J. Drummond & Lester Embree (eds.), The Phenomenology of the Noema (Contributions to Phenomenology). Springer. 137--155.
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  45. Wayne M. Martin (1999). Husserl's Relapse? Concerning a Fregean Challenge to Phenomenology. Inquiry 42 (3 & 4):343 – 369.
    An influential interpretation of phenomenology construes Husserl's project as an attempt to generalize the Fregean notion of sense- an attempt to extend Frege's analysis of the structure of meaningful expressions to a more general account of the structure of meaning in experience . Michael Dummett has articulated a broadly Fregean critique of this Husserlian program, arguing that the project is misguided and retrograde-a relapse into the psychologism and idealism that Frege sought to avoid. A defense of Husserl is offered, based (...)
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  46. Wolfe Mays (1984). Husserl and Intentionality. Philosophical Books 25 (1):25-27.
  47. Ronald McIntyre (1986). Husserl and the Representational Theory of Mind. Topoi 5 (2):101-113.
    Husserl has finally begun to be recognized as the precursor of current interest in intentionality — the first to have a general theory of the role of mental representations in the philosophy of language and mind. As the first thinker to put directedness of mental representations at the center of his philosophy, he is also beginning to emerge as the father of current research in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence.
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  48. Ronald McIntyre (1982). Husserl's Phenomenological Conception of Intentionality and its Difficulties. Philosophia 11 (3-4):223-248.
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  49. Ronald McIntyre & David Woodruff Smith (1989). Theory of Intentionality. In William R. McKenna & J. N. Mohanty (eds.), Husserl's Phenomenology: A Textbook. University Press of America.
    §1. Intentionality; §2. Husserl's Phenomenological Conception of Intentionality; §3. The Distinction between Content and Object; §4. Husserl's Theory of Content: Noesis and Noema; §5. Noema and Object; §6. The Sensory Content of Perception; §7. The Internal Structure of Noematic Sinne; §8. Noema and Horizon; §9. Horizon and Background Beliefs.
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  50. William R. McKenna (2013). Aron Gurwitsch and the Transcendence of the Physical. In Lester Embree & Thomas Nenon (eds.), Husserl’s Ideen. Springer. 195--207.
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