Bookmark and Share

Identity

Edited by Chad Carmichael (Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis)
About this topic
Summary

Identity is sameness: the relation that holds between each thing and itself, and never holds between two things. Most philosophical issues about identity concern the relationship between identity and other important concepts: time, necessity, personhood, composition (parthood), indiscernibility, and vagueness. In addition to these issues, some have suggested that identity is not absolute, but relative, so that we may say two things are the same person or statue, but not the same simpliciter. Finally, there are questions about whether there must always be informative criteria of identity that settle questions about when identity holds or fails to hold.

Key works

Quine 1950 is a classic piece that treats several of the issues mentioned above. For the relationship between identity and modality, see Kripke 19711980, and Gibbard 1975. On the identity of indiscernibles, see Black 1952 and Adams 1979. Baxter 1988 and Lewis 1991 defend versions of the thesis of composition as identity. See van Inwagen 1994 for a critique. Evans 1978 argues against vague identity. See Stalnaker 1988 and Parsons & Woodruff 1995 for replies. On relative identity, see Geach 1967, Geach 1980, and Perry 1970.

Introductions See the Stanford Encyclopedia piece on Identity Noonan & Curtis 2014 for a nice overview of nearly all of these topics. Hawthorne 2003 has an excellent discussion of several of these issues as well. Many of the papers listed above are collected in Korman & Sosa 2011.

  Show all references
Related categories
Subcategories:History/traditions: Identity
895 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Order:
1 — 50 / 895
Material to categorize
  1. Michael Ayers (2005). Ordinary Objects, Ordinary Language, and Identity. The Monist 88 (4):534-570.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  2. Jussi Backman (2015). Complicated Presence: Heidegger and the Postmetaphysical Unity of Being. State University of New York Press.
    From its Presocratic beginnings, Western philosophy concerned itself with a quest for unity both in terms of the systematization of knowledge and as a metaphysical search for a unity of being—two trends that can be regarded as converging and culminating in Hegel’s system of absolute idealism. Since Hegel, however, the philosophical quest for unity has become increasingly problematic. Jussi Backman returns to that question in this book, examining the place of the unity of being in the work of Heidegger. Backman (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Lynne Rudder Baker (2002). The Ontological Status of Persons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):370-388.
    Throughout his illustrious career, Roderick Chisholm was concerned with the nature of persons. On his view, persons are what he called ‘entia per se.’ They exist per se, in their own right. I too have developed an account of persons—I call it the ‘Constitution View’—an account that is different in important ways from Chisholm’s. Here, however, I want to focus on a thesis that Chisholm and I agree on: that persons have ontological significance in virtue of being persons. Although I’ll (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  4. Renford Bambrough (1974). Appearance, Identity and Ontology. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 75:69 - 76.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Kenneth F. Barber & Jorge J. E. Gracia (eds.) (1994). Individuation and Identity in Early Modern Philosophy: Descartes to Kant. State University of New York Press.
    This book is the first to concentrate on the problems of individuation and identity in early modern philosophy and to trace their philosophical development through the period in a coherent way.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  6. Kenneth Thomas Barnes (1972). Identity, Reference, and Quantifying In. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. Gerd Baumann & Andrâe Gingrich (2004). Grammars of Identity/Alterity a Structural Approach. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8. Michael Baur (1992). Kinds of Being. Review of Metaphysics 46 (1):166-168.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Lynne Belaief (1966). Toward a Concept of Human Identity. Philosophy Today 10 (2):109.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10. D. M. Bell (2010). Development of Identity. In Ronald L. Jackson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Identity. Sage Publications 1.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11. David Benfield & Edward Erwin (1975). Identity, Schmidentity — It's Not All the Same. Philosophical Studies 27 (2):145 - 148.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Gustav Bergmann (1958). Individuals. Philosophical Studies 9 (5-6):78 - 85.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13. J. Y. Béziau (1996). Identity, Logic and Structure. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 25:89-94.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Tomasz Bigaj (2015). On Discernibility and Symmetries. Erkenntnis 80 (1):117-135.
    This paper addresses the issue of the multiplicity of various grades of discernibility that can be defined in model theory. Building upon earlier works on the subject, I first expand the known logical categorizations of discernibility by introducing several symmetry-based concepts of discernibility, including one I call “witness symmetry-discernibility”. Then I argue that only grades of discernibility stronger than this one possess certain intuitive features necessary to individuate objects. Further downsizing of the set of non-equivalent grades of discernibility can be (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  15. Max Black (2012). L’Identité des indiscernablesThe Identity of Indiscernibles. Philosophia Scientiae 16:121-132.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16. Brand Blanshard (1967). Rejoinder to My Critics. Review of Metaphysics 21 (2):262 - 272.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17. Barna Bodo (2003). Self, Identity, Society / Én, Identitás, Társadalom. Studia Philosophica 1.
    The identity and its relative balance imply, in every case, the existence of two parallel factors, of value conserving and representation. The individual becomes as he is by the acceptance of his particular characteristics, respectively, the representation of these mean the acceptance and representation of the existent - the confirmation, more precisely, the possibility of this. The question is if we can talk about, and in which sense, about parallel and respectively, overlapping identity types? The father of the discipline, E.H. (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. James Bogen (1966). Identity and Origin. Analysis 26 (5):160 - 165.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  19. Giovanni Boniolo (2013). Is an Account of Identity Necessary for Bioethics? What Post-Genomic Biomedicine Can Teach Us. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):401-411.
    Is a theory of identity necessary for bioethics? In this paper I investigate that question starting from an empirical explication of identity based on post-genomics, in particular on epigenetics. After analysing whether the classic problems a theory of identity has to cope with also affect the proposed epigenetic account of identity, I deal with three topics to offer an insight on the relationship between that account and bioethics.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. Charles William Bonner (1993). An Existential-Phenomenological Investigation of Identity Confusion as Exemplified by Adolescent Suicide Attempts. Dissertation, Duquesne University
    It is well established that Erik Erikson introduced the 'identity crisis' as a normative aspect of adolescent development, one constituted by the tension of 'identity vs. identity confusion'. While the 'identity' dimension of this tension has received widespread recognition, the problematic pole of 'identity confusion' has been comparatively neglected. This study seeks to remedy this research deficit. ;The study's literature review serves a twofold purpose: To explicate the controversial issues concerning the psychological conceptualization of human identity, and To establish adolescent (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. F. Bonsack (1962). Réponse a M. Evans Et a Quelques Autres. Dialectica 16 (1):83-91.
    RésuméL'auteur montre que si l'argumentation d'Einstein paraǐt classique sur presque tous les points, elle ne l'est pas sur un point fondamental, qui est l'égalité de la vitesse de la lumière dans toutes les directions. Si l'on laisse tomber ce postulat, on retombe sur la simultanéité absolue. D'autre part, ce « classicisme » est légitime et apparaǐt au contraire comme une habileté didactique. Enfin, il montre que le point qui déroute M. Evans, c'est la relativité de la vitesse relative, qui n'existe (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. Bernard Bosanquet (1888). The Philosophical Importance of a True Theory of Identity. Mind 13 (51):356-369.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23. David Bostock (1977). Kripke on Identity and Necessity. Philosophical Quarterly 27 (109):313-324.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. Suzanne Bray & William Gray (eds.) (2012). Persona and Paradox: Issues of Identity for C.S. Lewis, His Friends and Associates. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25. Geoffrey G. Bridges (1959). Identity and Distinction in Petrus Thomae, O.F.M. St. Bonaventure, N.Y.,Franciscan Institute.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. Baruch A. Brody (1980). One. The Theory of Identity for Enduring Objects. In Identity and Essence. Princeton University Press 1-23.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. D. H. M. Brooks (1995). The Unity of the Mind. St Martin's Press.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. Kevin Brooks (2007). Being. Scholastic, Inc..
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Mark T. Brown (1987). Semantic Features of the Identities of Persons. Dissertation, University of Kansas
    The chief goal of this dissertation is to attain some clarity with respect to the interconnected issues which constitute the problem of personal identity. The logical and linguistic categories developed by Saul Kripke provide the tools through which these issues can be separated and put into perspective. In the first two chapters I examine the modal and other semantic features of rigid singular terms and such rigid predicates as natural kind terms. I defend both the transworld identity of named individuals (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30. Cedric Brun (2007). Lockean Mechanism and the Principle of Identity. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 28 (2):141-165.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Friedemann Buddensiek (2006). Die Einheit des Individuums: Eine Studie Zur Ontologie der Einzeldinge. De Gruyter.
    In der Kohdrenz des Gef]ges besteht die Einheit des Individuums.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. Nico Buitendag (2013). Contrasting Differences in Identity and Agency Between Narrative and Autopoietic Systems. Hts Theological Studies 69 (1):01-09.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. Peter J. Burke (2004). Extending Identity Control Theory: Insights From Classifier Systems. Sociological Theory 22 (4):574-594.
    Within identity control theory (ICT), identities control meaning and resources by bringing perceptions of these in the situation into alignment with references levels given in the identity standard. This article seeks to resolve three issues in ICT having to do with the source of the identity standard, the correspondence between identity standards and the identity relevant meanings perceived in the situation or environment, and the activation of identities. Classifier systems, as developed by John Holland, are inductive, flexible, rule-based, message-passing, adaptive (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Panayot Butchvarov (1977). Identity. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):70-89.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35. Clark Wade Butler (1972). A Nonmaterialistic Identity Thesis. Idealistic Studies 2 (no.):231-248.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36. Caroline Walker Bynum (2001). Metamorphosis and Identity. Distributed by the MIT Press.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. J. D. C. (1970). Identity and Difference. Review of Metaphysics 23 (4):742-743.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38. Carl Arthur Calvert (1973). Relative Identity: An Examination of a Theory by Peter Geach. Dissertation, University of Washington
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Stewart Candlish (1971). The Inexplicability of Identity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49 (1):23 – 37.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40. M. Capek (1969). The Main Difficulties of the Identity Theory. Scientia 63:388.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. William E. Carlo (1962). The Role of Essence in Existential Metaphysics. International Philosophical Quarterly 2 (4):557-590.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Herbert Wildon Carr (1932). Persons and Things. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 13 (1):13.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Massimiliano Carrara & Elisabetta Sacchi (2007). Cardinality and Identity. Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (5):539 - 556.
    P.T. Geach has maintained (see, e.g., Geach (1967/1968)) that identity (as well as dissimilarity) is always relative to a general term. According to him, the notion of absolute identity has to be abandoned and replaced by a multiplicity of relative identity relations for which Leibniz's Law - which says that if two objects are identical they have the same properties - does not hold. For Geach relative identity is at least as good as Frege's cardinality thesis which he takes to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  44. Mario F. Del Carril (1978). Designation and Identity. Critica 10 (28):57 - 75.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Enrique Casanovas (2003). Some Remarks on Indiscernible Sequences. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (5):475-478.
    We prove a property of generic homogeneity of tuples starting an infinite indiscernible sequence in a simple theory and we use it to give a shorter proof of the Independence Theorem for Lascar strong types. We also characterize the relation of starting an infinite indiscernible sequence in terms of coheirs.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1975). Individuation and Non-Identity: A New Look. American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (2):131 - 140.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  47. Tobias Chapman (1973). Identity and Reference. Mind 82 (328):542-556.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. Chung-Ying Cheng (1971). Intersystematic Identity and Conceptual Explication. International Logic Review 4:181.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Charles S. Chihara (1994). The Many Persons Problem. Philosophical Studies 76 (1):45 - 49.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  50. Roderick Chisholm (1971). Problems of Identity. In Milton Karl Munitz (ed.), Identity and Individuation. New York,New York University Press 3--30.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 895