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Summary Christianity claims that God, or more precisely the second of the three persons that constitute God, made himself to be a man for a few years and that Jesus Christ was this man. The texts in this category discuss whether and how this is possible.
Key works Davis 1992 is a collection of recent investigations of the incarnation. Swinburne 1994 contains an account of the incarnation.
Introductions Davis et al 2002
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Siblings:See also:History/traditions: Incarnation
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  1. Marilyn McCord Adams (2004). Cur Deus Homo?: Priorities Among the Reasons? Faith and Philosophy 21 (2):141-158.
    From some philosophical points of view, the Incarnation is difficult to motivate. From others, a host of reasons appear, raising the problem of how to choose among and/or prioritize them. In this paper I examine how different substantive commitments and starting points combine with contrasting understandings of method in philosophical theology, to generate different analyses and answers to Christianity’s crucial question: cur Deus homo?
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  2. Marilyn McCord Adams (1985). The Metaphysics of the Incarnation in Some Fourteenth-Century Franciscans. In Allan Bernard Wolter, William A. Frank & Girard J. Etzkorn (eds.), Essays Honoring Allan B. Wolter. Franciscan Institute
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  3. Marilyn McCord Adams (1982). Relations, Inherence and Subsistence: Or, Was Ockham a Nestorian in Christology? Noûs 16 (1):62-75.
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  4. Diogenes Allen (1989). Incarnation In the Gospels and the Bhagavad Gita. Faith and Philosophy 6 (3):241-259.
    This article is a venture into a Christian Theology of Other Faiths. In contrast to History of Religions, which seeks to understand a religion from its own point of view, a Christian Theology of Other Faiths seeks to understand another religion from the perspective of the Christian revelation.Here I present Simone Weil’s claim that the Word of God is manifest in human form in other faiths, and that the Gospels are written from the point of view of a victim, and (...)
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  5. Pamela Sue Anderson (2006). Divinity, Incarnation and Intersubjectivity: On Ethical Formation and Spiritual Practice. Philosophy Compass 1 (3):335-356.
    In what sense, if any, does the dominant conception of the traditional theistic God as disembodied inform our embodied experiences? Feminist philosophers of religion have been either explicitly or implicitly preoccupied by a philosophical failure to address such questions concerning embodiment and its relationship to the divine. To redress this failure, certain feminist philosophers have sought to appropriate Luce Irigaray’s argument that embodied divinity depends upon women themselves becoming divine. This article assesses weaknesses in the Irigarayan position, notably the problematic (...)
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  6. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2001). The Defence of the Mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation: An Example of Leibniz's 'Other' Reason. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (2):283 – 309.
    In this paper I will discuss certain aspects of Leibniz's theory and practice of 'soft reasoning' as exemplified by his defence of two central mysteries of the Christian revelation: the Trinity and the Incarnation. By theory and practice of 'soft' or 'broad' reasoning, I mean the development of rational strategies which can successefully be applied to the many areas of human understanding which escape strict demonstration, that is, the 'hard' or 'narrow' reasoning typical of mathematical argumentation. These strategies disclose an (...)
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  7. Ronald Aronson (1985). On Boxing: "Incarnation" in Critique, II. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 39 (152/153):149.
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  8. Ma Christina Astorga (2004). Constructive Christology in Roger Haight's Jesus, Symbol of God: A Continuing Critical Christological Discourse. Budhi: A Journal of Ideas and Culture 4 (2 & 3):187-219.
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  9. P. Auger (1960). L'incarnation de la forme. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 150:17 - 36.
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  10. Allan Bäck (1998). Scotus on the Consistency of the Incarnation and the Trinity. Vivarium 36 (1):83-107.
    Medieval theologians discussed the logical structure of reduplicative propositions in the midst of their discussions of the Incarnation and the Trinity. Aquinas has the usual medieval analyzes of reduplicative propositions: the specificative and the strictly reduplicative. But neither analysis resolves successfully the problems of the consistency of the statements about God while avoiding making the Trinity or the Incarnation a merely accidental feature of Him. However, Scotus introduces another analysis: abstractive. I shall conclude that Scotus’s view of reduplication, one, if (...)
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  11. Allan Bäck (1982). Aquinas on the Incarnation. New Scholasticism 56 (2):127-145.
    IN THIS PAPER THE AUTHOR DEALS WITH AQUINAS’ SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM, WHETHER THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION IS CONSISTENT. HE FIRST SHOWS WHY THERE IS A PROBLEM OF CONSISTENCY WITH THIS DOCTRINE, GIVEN ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN BELIEFS. HE THEN CLAIMS THAT AQUINAS HAS TWO SOLUTIONS, AND THAT BOTH FAIL: THE FIRST SOLUTION, AS SCOTUS ALSO OBSERVES, DOES NOT RESOLVE THE APPARENT INCONSISTENCY, AND THE OTHER DEPENDS ON MAKING HUMANITY ACCIDENTAL TO CHRIST, AND HENCE ON ABANDONING THE ORTHODOX POSITION.
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  12. Frederick Bauerschmidt (2005). Incarnation, Redemption, and the Character of God. Nova Et Vetera 3:459-472.
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  13. Tim Bayne (2003). Inclusion and Incarnation: A Reply to Sturch. Religious Studies 39 (1):107-109.
    I make three points in response to Richard Sturch's comments on my paper: I defend my interpretation of the Morris–Swinburne (M–S) account of the Incarnation; I argue that the M–S model appears to undercut the view that the unity of consciousness can be explained in terms of the self; and third, I argue that M–S model seems to entail that God has false beliefs.
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  14. Timothy J. Bayne (2001). The Inclusion Model of the Incarnation: Problems and Prospects. Religious Studies 37 (2):125-141.
    Thomas Morris and Richard Swinburne have recently defended what they call the ‘two-minds’ model of the Incarnation. This model, which I refer to as the ‘inclusion model’ or ‘inclusionism’, claims that Christ had two consciousnesses, a human and a divine consciousness, with the former consciousness contained within the latter one. I begin by exploring the motivation for, and structure of, inclusionism. I then develop a variety of objections to it: some philosophical, others theological in nature. Finally, I sketch a variant (...)
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  15. Renato Nunes Bittencourt (2011). Nietzsche and the Divine Idiocy of Jesus. Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 52 (123):105-119.
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  16. C. Clifton Black (forthcoming). Book Review: God's Final Envoy: Early Christology and Jesus' Own View of His Mission. [REVIEW] Interpretation 54 (1):88-90.
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  17. Douglas K. Blount (2002). On the Incarnation of a Timeless God. In God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. Oxford Univ Pr
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  18. Hendrikus Boers (1972). Where Christology Is Real A Survey of Recent Research on New Testament Christology. Interpretation 26 (3):300-327.
    The one way to overcome the dilemma confronting New Testament Christology is to understand the christological titles as ways in which primitive Christianity tried to express who Jesus was as a response to the claim which was already implicit in his message and activity.
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  19. Arthur Boutwood (1909). P. T. Forsyth, The Person and Place of Jesus Christ. [REVIEW] Hibbert Journal 8:686.
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  20. Louis Bouyer (1943). L'incarnation Et l'Église-Corps du Christ Dans la Théologie de Saint Athanase. Éditions du Cerf.
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  21. Frank Paul Bowman (1973). Le Christ Romantique. 1789 le Sans-Culotte de Nazareth. Droz.
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  22. Gerald Lewis Bray (1997). Creeds, Councils, and Christ. Mentor.
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  23. Graham Brown (1981). Identity Statements and the Incarnation. Heythrop Journal 22 (3):261–277.
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  24. Ronald P. Byars (forthcoming). Book Review: Christmas: Festival of Incarnation. [REVIEW] Interpretation 65 (4):433-433.
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  25. A. Caldecott (1903). Paul Lobstein, The Virgin Birth of Christ. [REVIEW] Hibbert Journal 2:202.
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  26. John D. Caputo (1991). Incarnation and Essentialization. Philosophy Today 35 (1):32-42.
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  27. Juniper B. Carol (1986). Why Jesus Christ? Thomistic, Scotistic and Conciliatory Perspectives. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  28. Eamon Carroll (1981). Edward Schillebeeckx: "Jesus - An Experiment in Christology". [REVIEW] The Thomist 45 (1):144.
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  29. Thomas Cattoi (2008). What Has Chalcedon to Do with Lhasa?: John Keenan's and Lai Pai-Chiu's Reflections on Classical Christology and the Possible Shape of a Tibetan Theology of Incarnation. Buddhist-Christian Studies 28 (1):13-25.
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  30. Gary Chartier (2008). The Incarnation and the Problem of Evil. Heythrop Journal 49 (1):110–127.
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  31. Joshua Cockayne (forthcoming). Empathy and Divine Union in Kierkegaard: Solving the Faith/History Problem in Philosophical Fragments. Religious Studies.
    Søren Kierkegaard's account of faith in Philosophical Fragments claims that the historical Incarnation is necessary for faith, but that historical evidence for the Incarnation is neither necessary nor sufficient for faith. It has been argued that the defence of these two claims gives rise to a faith/history problem for Kierkegaard and that it is incoherent to defend an account of faith which affirms both the necessity of the historical Incarnation and rejects the necessity and sufficiency of the historical evidence for (...)
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  32. Marcia L. Colish (1996). Christological Nihilianism in the Second Half of the Twelfth Century. Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 63:146-155.
    In the 1170s, John of Cornwall and Walter of St. Victor both attacked Peter Lombard's Christology, charging that he taught that Christ, insofar as He was a man, was nothing, or Christological nihilianism. At the time, this position had two corrolaries: the view that if the incarnate Christ lacked a human person His humanity was not an aliquid, and the view that His humanity once assumed was accidental and partible from His divinity, like a garment or habitus that could be (...)
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  33. L. J. Collins (1938). The Incarnation: Fact or Fantasy? Hibbert Journal 37:396.
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  34. Oliver D. Crisp (2008). On the 'Fittingness' of the Virgin Birth. Heythrop Journal 49 (2):197–221.
    In modern theology the doctrine of the Virgin Birth of Christ, including the doctrine of his Virginal Conception, has been the subject of considerable scepticism. One line of criticism has been that the traditional doctrine of the Virgin Birth seems unnecessary to the Incarnation. In this essay I lay out one construal of the traditional argument for the doctrine and show that, although one can offer an account of the Incarnation without the Virgin Birth which, in other respects, is perfectly (...)
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  35. F. L. Cross (1931). Anglo-Catholicism and the Incarnation. Hibbert Journal 30:468.
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  36. Richard Cross (2011). Disability, Impairment, and Some Medieval Accounts of the Incarnation: Suggestions for a Theology of Personhood. Modern Theology 27 (4):639 - 658.
    Drawing on insights from the medieval theologians Duns Scotus and Hervaeus Natalis, I argue that medieval views of the Incarnation require that there is a sense in which the divine person depends on his human nature for his human personhood, and thus that the paradigmatic pattern of human personhood is in some way dependent existence. I relate this to a modern distinction between impairment and disability to show that impairment -- understood as dependence -- is normative for human personhood. I (...)
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  37. Richard Cross (2011). Vehicle Externalism and the Metaphysics of the Incarnation: A Medieval Contribution. In Anna Marmodoro & Jonathan Hill (eds.), The Metaphysics of the Incarnation. OUP Oxford
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  38. Richard Cross (2008). The Incarnation. In Thomas P. Flint & Michael C. Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press
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  39. Richard Cross (2003). Incarnation, Omnipresence, and Action at a Distance. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 45 (3):293-312.
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  40. Richard Cross (2002). The Metaphysics of the Incarnation Thomas Aquinas to Duns Scotus. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  41. Richard Cross (1999). Incarnation, Indwelling, and the Vision of God: Henry of Ghent and Some Franciscans. Franciscan Studies 57 (1):79 - 130.
    According to Henry of Ghent (d. 1293), it is impossible for the second person of the Trinity to assume into unity of person an irrational nature (e.g., a stone nature), or to assume a rational nature that does not enjoy the beatific vision. He argues that the assumption of a nature to a divine person entails both that the nature has the sort of powers that could exercise supernatural activities and that these powers are exercised. Henry’s Franciscan opponents argue against (...)
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  42. Richard Cross (1996). Aquinas on Nature, Hypostasis, and the Metaphysics of the Incarnation. The Thomist 60 (2):171 - 202.
    Aquinas distinguishes four types of part included in a hypostasis (’suppositum’): (1) kind-nature; (2) individuating feature(s); (3) accidents; (4) concrete parts. (1) - (3) in some sense contribute ’esse’ to the ’suppositum’. Usually Aquinas holds that Christ’s human nature does not contribute ’esse’ to its divine ’suppositum’, since it is analogous to a concrete part of its ’suppositum’. This effectively commits Aquinas to the Monophysite heresy. In ’De Unione’ Aquinas argues instead that Christ’s human nature contributes ’secondary ’esse‘ to its (...)
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  43. F. Cuthbert (1917). The Incarnation and Modern Thought. Hibbert Journal 16:63.
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  44. Stephen T. Davis, Daniel Kendall & Gerald O'Collins (eds.) (2002). The Incarnation. Oxford Up.
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  45. Donald G. Dawe (1972). Christology in Contemporary Systematic Theology. Interpretation 26 (3):259-277.
    The indigenization of Christ to non-Western cultures is becoming a fact that may reshape Christology far more radically than any alternative now at work in academic circles.
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  46. Congrégation Pour la Docrtine de la Foi (1972). Les Mystères de l'Incarnation Et de la Très Sainte Trinité. Nouvelle Revue Théologique 94 (5):537-540.
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  47. Nicolas De Warren (2009). Imagination Et Incarnation. Methodos 9:1-16.
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  48. J. Andrew Dearman (2002). Theophany, Anthropomorphism, and the Imago Dei: Some Observations About the Incarnation in the Light of the Old Testament. In Stephen T. Davis, Daniel Kendall & Gerald O'Collins (eds.), The Incarnation. Oxford Up 31--46.
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  49. Paul Dehart (forthcoming). Book Review: Who Is Jesus Christ for Us Today? Pathways to Contemporary Christology. [REVIEW] Interpretation 64 (3):320-321.
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  50. Peter S. Dillard (2013). The Logic of Incarnation: James K. A. Smith's Critique of Postmodern Religion. Edited by Neal DeRoo and Brian Lightbody . Pp. Xxvii, 223. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publishers, 2009, $28.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 54 (2):334-335.
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