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Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Purva Mīmāṃsā (or Mīmāṃsā, "Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors" from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the physicalist Cārvākas. Given the diversity of views, theories, and systems espoused by Indian philosophers, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems of thought profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of the Indian philosophical vocabulary are such notions of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its negation in Buddhism in the doctrine of anatta ("not-self"), and mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation) and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of Indian thought is concerned with establishing reliable modes of knowing (pramāṇas), such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued apart from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical theories with Western philosophy, though Indian philosophers have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Bu there are also problems central to Western philosophy like the question of whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason, and such distinctions as that between analytic and synthetic judgments that Indian philosophers did not pursue.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. A. C. H. A. C. H. (1907). Reed, E. A. -Hindu Literature. [REVIEW] Mind 16:289.
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  2. Vidhushekhara Gauòdapåada åacåarya & Bhattacharya (1989). The Åagama'såastra of Gauòdapåada. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  3. åananda åachåarya (1988). Brahmadarsanam. Duke University Press.
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  4. åaratåibåaåi (1995). Anantano Åananda 'Sråimad Devacandrajåi-Eka Adhyayana'. Rati Åamra Såahita Pråakaâsana Samiti.
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  5. Vijaya Gani åatmåananda & Sheelachandra (1999). Granthatrayåi. Âsråijaina Grantha Prakåaâsana Samitióh.
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  6. Nārāyaṇa Ācārya (2008). Advaitavedānte Ānandasvarūpam. Sāmvidī Prakāśanam.
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  7. Ananda Acharya (1917). Brahmadarsanam or, Intuition of the Absolute, Being an Introduction to the Study of Hindu Philosophy. Macmillan.
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  8. Diwakar Acharya (forthcoming). ‘This World, in the Beginning, Was Phenomenally Non-Existent’: Āruṇi’s Discourse on Cosmogony in Chāndogya Upaniṣad VI.1–VI.7. Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-32.
    This paper critically reads and analyzes the first discourse of Āruṇi and Śvetaketu in the first half of the sixth chapter of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. It argues that, except for a few interpolated lines in VI.2 and VI.3, the entire discourse constitutes one integrated whole with a specific indicatory knowledge at its core that indicates deeper truth underlying all realities, and its characterization and twofold elaboration with reference to macro- and microcosmos. In light of two cosmogonic accounts from the Jaiminīya (...)
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  9. Diwakar Acharya (2014). On the Śaiva Concept of Innate Impurity (Mala) and the Function of the Rite of Initiation. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (1):9-25.
    This paper tries to trace the roots of the Śaiva Mantramārga concept of innate impurity. Since innate impurity is regarded as one of the three bonds fettering bound individual souls, this paper begins with the Pāśupata and early Śaiva views on these bonds. It examines the Buddhist logician Dharmakīrti’s criticism of the Śaiva idea that initiation removes sin, and discusses the Pāśupata concept of sin-cleansing and two different concepts of innate impurity found in two early Śaiva scriptures: the Sarvajñānottaratantra and (...)
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  10. Andrea Acri (2012). Yogasūtra 1.10, 1.21–23, and 2.9 in the Light of the Indo-Javanese Dharma Pātañjala. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (3):259-276.
    . Besides a philosophical exposition of the tenets of a form of Śaiva Siddhānta, the Dharma Pātañjala contains a long presentation of the yoga system that apparently follows the first three chapters of Patañjal’s Yogasūtra , either interweaving Sanskrit excerpts from an untraced versified version of the latter text with an Old Javanese commentary, or directly rendering into Old Javanese what appears to be an original Sanskrit commentary. Although the Old Javanese prose often bears a strong resemblance with the arrangement (...)
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  11. Hariprasāda Adhikārī (2007). Bhāratīya-Tattvamīmāṃsā. Navaśakti Prakāśana.
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  12. Swami Adiswarananda (1977). Philosophy of History, the Hindu View. In T. M. P. Mahadevan & Grace E. Cairns (eds.), Contemporary Indian Philosophers of History. World Press
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  13. Ādiveṅkaṭayogi (2007). Brahmavinnidhiḥ =. Abhiṣekaprakāśanam.
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  14. Vishwa P. Adluri (2011). Pride and Prejudice: Orientalism and German Indology. [REVIEW] International Journal of Hindu Studies 15 (3):253-292.
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  15. Vishwa Adluri & Joydeep Bagchee (forthcoming). Paradigm Lost: The Application of the Historical-Critical Method to the Bhagavad Gītā. International Journal of Hindu Studies.
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  16. Jaina Agama, Abhayadeva & Vijayajinendrasuri (1987). Sri Jñatadharma-Kathangam. Sri Harsapuspamrta Jaina Granthamala.
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  17. Jaina Agama, Abhayadevasuri & Jinadasa Mahattara (2002). Bhagavaticurnih. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  18. Jaina Agama, Nathamal & Tulsi (1987). Uvangasuttani. Jaina Vi Sva Bharati.
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  19. Sagaramala Jaina Agama, Sure sa Jaina, Sisodiya & Agama-Ahimsa-Samata Evam Prakrta Samsthana (1991). Candavejjhayam Painnayam Candravedhyaka-Prakirnaka. Agama Ahimsa-Samata Evam Prakrta Samsthana.
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  20. Sricand Jaina Agama, Amar & Surana (1996). Illustrated Jnata Dharma Kathanga Sutra Original Text with Hindi and English Translations. Padma Prakashan.
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  21. Hec Pi Agamas, Ar Malledevaru, Hec Ke Rama Sastri, En Es Siddhagangayya & Venkatanathacarya (1900). Vatula Suddhagamah Vyakhyanasamalankrtah. Pracyavidyasam Sodhanalayah, Maisuruvi Svavidyanilayah.
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  22. Sp Agarwal (1991). Lokasamgraha and Ahimsa in The'bhagavad Gita'. Journal of Dharma 16 (3):255-268.
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  23. Madan Mohan Agrawal (1986). Aspects of Indian Philosophy. Shree Publishing House.
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  24. Prithvi Kumar Agrawala (1983). Mithuna the Male-Female Symbol in Indian Art and Thought. Munshiram Manoharlal.
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  25. M. Shabbir Ahsen (2012). Iqbal's Conception of God. Philosophy East and West 62 (4):602-604.
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  26. Guònòdmi Candraâsåekhara Aitåaòla & Vi Bi Hosamane (1991). Guònòdmi Vicåara Parva. Bhåaradvåaja Prakåaâsana.
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  27. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar (1961). The Concept of Freedom: An Indian Reaction. [REVIEW] Philosophy East and West 11 (3):153 - 160.
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  28. Rajam Aiyar & R. B. (1908). Rambles in Vehanta. Madras,Ezhutthu Prachuram.
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  29. Ramaswami Aiyar & P. C. (1959). Fundamentals of Hindu Faith and Culture. Madras, Ganesh.
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  30. Akalaçnka & Mahendrakumåara (1996). Akalaçnkagranthatrayam Svopajänavivrtisahitam Laghåiyastrayam, Nyåayavini'scayaòh, Pramåaònasaçngraha'sca. Sarasvatåi Pustaka Bhaònòdåara.
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  31. Akalanka & Mahendrakumara Nyaya Sastri (1939). Akalankagranthatrayam. Sañcala-Singhi Jaina Granthamala.
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  32. Swami Akhilananda (1948). Hindu Psychology. Its Meaning for the West. Journal of Philosophy 45 (9):251-252.
    The six volume Psychology ann Religion set of the International Library of Psychology explores the interface between psychology and religion, looking at aspects of religious belief and mysticism as related to the study of human consciousness. Hindu Psychology looks at the relevance of Hindu belief systems and theories of perception for the West.
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  33. Shenkottai Avudai Akkal (2012). Transgressing Boundaries: The Advaitic Songs of Shenkottai Avudai Akkal. Zubaan.
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  34. Ashok Aklujkar (1989). Sa Bandha and Abhisa Bandha. Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
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  35. Ashok Aklujkar (1989). Sa $$Dot M$$ Bandha and Abhisa $$Dot M$$ Bandha. Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
    The few abbreviations employed in the body of the article are explained in the bibliography.
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  36. A. Akumatsu (1999). The Two Kinds of Anumana in Bhartrhari's' Vakyapadiya'. Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (1-2):17-22.
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  37. Edwin Alexander (1976). DANTO, ARTHUR C./"Mysticism and Morality, Oriental Thought and Moral Philosophy". [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 4:135.
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  38. John M. Alexander & Jane Buckingham (2011). Common Good Leadership in Business Management: An Ethical Model From the Indian Tradition. Business Ethics 20 (4):317-327.
    While dominant management thinking is steered by profit maximisation, this paper proposes that sustained organisational growth can best be stimulated by attention to the common good and the capacity of corporate leaders to create commitment to the common good. The leadership thinking of Kautilya and Ashoka embodies this principle. Both offer a common good approach, emphasising the leader's moral and legal responsibility for people's welfare, the robust interaction between the business community and the state, and the importance of moral training (...)
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  39. Daud Ali (2011). Padmaśrī's Nāgarasarvasva and the World of Medieval Kāmaśāstra. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):41-62.
    This essay focuses on a neglected and important text, the Nāgarasarvasva of Padmaśrī, as an index to the changing contours of kāmaśāstra in the early second millennium (1000-1500) CE. Focusing on a number of themes which linked Padmaśrī’s work with contemporary treatises, the essay argues that kāmaśāstra incorporated several new conceptions of the body and related para-technologies as well as elements of material and aesthetic culture which had become prominent in the cosmopolitan, courtly milieu. Rather than seeing this development as (...)
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  40. Daud Ali (2011). Rethinking the History of the Kāma World in Early India. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):1-13.
    This essay introduces a special issue on the history of kāmaśāstra in medieval India. It briefly reviews the secondary scholarship on the subject from the publication of the first translations of the genre at the end of the nineteenth century. It highlights the relatively unexplored history of later kāmaśāstra, and stresses the need for contexualized and detailed studies of the many kāmaśāstra treatises produced in the second millennium CE. The introduction, and the essays that follow, also argue for an expanded (...)
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  41. N. J. Allen (2005). Bhıs Ma and Hesiod's Succession Myth'. International Journal of Hindu Studies 8 (2004).
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  42. Nicholas J. Allen (1978). DAVID, KENNETH /"The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia". [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 6:189.
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  43. Patrick Mc Allister (2014). Ratnakīrti and Dharmottara on the Object of Activity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):309-326.
    This article examines two Buddhist explanations of how a conceptual cognition, whose object is a universal, can give rise to activity that leads to a particular. In both theories, that of Dharmottara and that of Ratnakīrti, this activity is due to a kind of error. A detailed investigation of how this error happens shows that there were big differences in the two underlying epistemological models.
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  44. Patrick Mc Allister (2014). Ratnakīrti and Dharmottara on the Object of Activity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):309-326.
    This article examines two Buddhist explanations of how a conceptual cognition, whose object is a universal, can give rise to activity that leads to a particular. In both theories, that of Dharmottara and that of Ratnakīrti, this activity is due to a kind of error. A detailed investigation of how this error happens shows that there were big differences in the two underlying epistemological models.
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  45. Recep Alpyagil (2012). Sufism and Deconstruction: A Comparative Study of Derrida and IbnʿArabi (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (2):270-273.
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  46. Recep Alpyağil (2012). Engaging with Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Model of Interfaith Dialogue. Philosophy East and West 62 (4):604-605.
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  47. M. A. Alwar (2010). Pratyaksam: Bharatiyadarsana-Ganakayantravijnanayordrstya Samiksa. Rastriyasamskrtavidyapitham.
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  48. S. Ambirajan (1995). Human Values and Consciousness: Towards a New Social Order in the Light of Sri Aurobindo. Journal of Human Values 1 (2):249-264.
    In the first part of his paper, published in the previous issue of this journal, the author dwelt on Sri Aurobindo's social, economic, political and nationalistic writings in Aurobindo's pre-Pondicherry days . In this second part, the paper crystallizes Sri Aurobindo's ideas and writings during the four decades he spent in Pondicherry. This paper looks at Aurobindo's metaphysical search for answers to the most fundamental questions of existence. The future that Sri Aurobindo was seeking out was not a particular future (...)
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  49. S. Ambirajan (1995). Human Values and Consciousness: Towards a New Social Order in the Light of Sri Aurobindo. Journal of Human Values 1 (1):127-138.
    In the first part of his paper, published in the previous issue of this journal, the author dwelt on Sri Aurobindo's social, economic, political and nationalistic writings in Aurobindo's pre-Pondicherry days . In this second part, the paper crystallizes Sri Aurobindo's ideas and writings during the four decades he spent in Pondicherry. This paper looks at Aurobindo's metaphysical search for answers to the most fundamental questions of existence. The future that Sri Aurobindo was seeking out was not a particular future (...)
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  50. William L. Ames (1995). Bhavaviveka's "Prajñapradipa" ["A Translation of Chapter Two": 'Examination of the Traversed, the Untraversed, and That Which is Being Traversed']. Journal of Indian Philosophy 23 (3):295-365.
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