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Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Purva Mīmāṃsā (or Mīmāṃsā, "Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors" from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the physicalist Cārvākas. Given the diversity of views, theories, and systems espoused by Indian philosophers, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems of thought profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of the Indian philosophical vocabulary are such notions of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its negation in Buddhism in the doctrine of anatta ("not-self"), and mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation) and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of Indian thought is concerned with establishing reliable modes of knowing (pramāṇas), such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued apart from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical theories with Western philosophy, though Indian philosophers have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Bu there are also problems central to Western philosophy like the question of whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason, and such distinctions as that between analytic and synthetic judgments that Indian philosophers did not pursue.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. Nārāyaṇa Ācārya (2008). Advaitavedānte Ānandasvarūpam. Sāmvidī Prakāśanam.
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  2. Diwakar Acharya (2014). On the Śaiva Concept of Innate Impurity (Mala) and the Function of the Rite of Initiation. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (1):9-25.
    This paper tries to trace the roots of the Śaiva Mantramārga concept of innate impurity. Since innate impurity is regarded as one of the three bonds fettering bound individual souls, this paper begins with the Pāśupata and early Śaiva views on these bonds. It examines the Buddhist logician Dharmakīrti’s criticism of the Śaiva idea that initiation removes sin, and discusses the Pāśupata concept of sin-cleansing and two different concepts of innate impurity found in two early Śaiva scriptures: the Sarvajñānottaratantra and (...)
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  3. Andrea Acri (2012). Yogasūtra 1.10, 1.21–23, and 2.9 in the Light of the Indo-Javanese Dharma Pātañjala. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (3):259-276.
    . Besides a philosophical exposition of the tenets of a form of Śaiva Siddhānta, the Dharma Pātañjala contains a long presentation of the yoga system that apparently follows the first three chapters of Patañjal’s Yogasūtra , either interweaving Sanskrit excerpts from an untraced versified version of the latter text with an Old Javanese commentary, or directly rendering into Old Javanese what appears to be an original Sanskrit commentary. Although the Old Javanese prose often bears a strong resemblance with the arrangement (...)
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  4. Hariprasāda Adhikārī (2007). Bhāratīya-Tattvamīmāṃsā. Navaśakti Prakāśana.
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  5. Ādiveṅkaṭayogi (2007). Brahmavinnidhiḥ =. Abhiṣekaprakāśanam.
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  6. Vishwa P. Adluri (2011). Pride and Prejudice: Orientalism and German Indology. [REVIEW] International Journal of Hindu Studies 15 (3):253-292.
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  7. M. Shabbir Ahsen (2012). Iqbal's Conception of God (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (4):602-604.
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  8. Rajam Aiyar & R. B. (1908/1973). Rambles in Vehanta. Madras,Ezhutthu Prachuram.
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  9. Shenkottai Avudai Akkal (2012). Transgressing Boundaries: The Advaitic Songs of Shenkottai Avudai Akkal. Zubaan.
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  10. Ashok Aklujkar (1989). Sa Bandha and Abhisa Bandha. Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
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  11. Ashok Aklujkar (1989). Sa $$Dot M$$ Bandha and Abhisa $$Dot M$$ Bandha. Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
    The few abbreviations employed in the body of the article are explained in the bibliography.
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  12. A. Akumatsu (1999). The Two Kinds of Anumana in Bhartrhari's' Vakyapadiya'. Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (1-2):17-22.
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  13. John M. Alexander & Jane Buckingham (2011). Common Good Leadership in Business Management: An Ethical Model From the Indian Tradition. Business Ethics 20 (4):317-327.
    While dominant management thinking is steered by profit maximisation, this paper proposes that sustained organisational growth can best be stimulated by attention to the common good and the capacity of corporate leaders to create commitment to the common good. The leadership thinking of Kautilya and Ashoka embodies this principle. Both offer a common good approach, emphasising the leader's moral and legal responsibility for people's welfare, the robust interaction between the business community and the state, and the importance of moral training (...)
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  14. Daud Ali (2011). Padmaśrī's Nāgarasarvasva and the World of Medieval Kāmaśāstra. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):41-62.
    This essay focuses on a neglected and important text, the Nāgarasarvasva of Padmaśrī, as an index to the changing contours of kāmaśāstra in the early second millennium (1000-1500) CE. Focusing on a number of themes which linked Padmaśrī’s work with contemporary treatises, the essay argues that kāmaśāstra incorporated several new conceptions of the body and related para-technologies as well as elements of material and aesthetic culture which had become prominent in the cosmopolitan, courtly milieu. Rather than seeing this development as (...)
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  15. Daud Ali (2011). Rethinking the History of the Kāma World in Early India. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):1-13.
    This essay introduces a special issue on the history of kāmaśāstra in medieval India. It briefly reviews the secondary scholarship on the subject from the publication of the first translations of the genre at the end of the nineteenth century. It highlights the relatively unexplored history of later kāmaśāstra, and stresses the need for contexualized and detailed studies of the many kāmaśāstra treatises produced in the second millennium CE. The introduction, and the essays that follow, also argue for an expanded (...)
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  16. N. J. Allen (2005). Bhıs Ma and Hesiod's Succession Myth'. International Journal of Hindu Studies 8 (2004).
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  17. Patrick Mc Allister (2014). Ratnakīrti and Dharmottara on the Object of Activity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):309-326.
    This article examines two Buddhist explanations of how a conceptual cognition, whose object is a universal, can give rise to activity that leads to a particular. In both theories, that of Dharmottara and that of Ratnakīrti, this activity is due to a kind of error. A detailed investigation of how this error happens shows that there were big differences in the two underlying epistemological models.
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  18. Patrick Mc Allister (2014). Ratnakīrti and Dharmottara on the Object of Activity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):309-326.
    This article examines two Buddhist explanations of how a conceptual cognition, whose object is a universal, can give rise to activity that leads to a particular. In both theories, that of Dharmottara and that of Ratnakīrti, this activity is due to a kind of error. A detailed investigation of how this error happens shows that there were big differences in the two underlying epistemological models.
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  19. Recep Alpyagil (2012). Sufism and Deconstruction: A Comparative Study of Derrida and IbnʿArabi (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (2):270-273.
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  20. Recep Alpyağil (2012). Engaging with Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Model of Interfaith Dialogue (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (4):604-605.
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  21. M. A. Alwar (2010). Pratyaksam: Bharatiyadarsana-Ganakayantravijnanayordrstya Samiksa. Rastriyasamskrtavidyapitham.
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  22. William L. Ames (1994). Bh?Vaviveka's Praj�?Prad?Pa. Journal of Indian Philosophy 22 (2):93-135.
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  23. Amana Ānanda (2008). Jogiā More Ghara Āyo Re!: Pr̥thvīnā Mahāna Sadguru Ashṭāvakrajīnuṃ Ākharī Satya. Gūrjara Grantharatna Kāryālaya.
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  24. Ānandānubhava (2007). Padārthatattvanirṇaya. Rāṣṭrīyasaṃskr̥tasaṃsthānam.
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  25. Anantarāmadeva (2009). Vedāntatattvabodhaḥ. Caukhambhā Saṃskr̥ta Bhavana.
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  26. Joshua Anderson (2012). An Investigation ofMokshain the Advaita Vedanta of Shankara and Gaudapada. Asian Philosophy 22 (3):275-287.
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  27. Joshua Anderson (2012). Sen and the Bhagavad Gita: Lessons for a Theory of Justice. Asian Philosophy 22 (1):63-74.
    In The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen, among other things, discusses certain qualities any adequate theory of justice ought to incorporate. Two important qualities a theory of justice should account for are impartiality/objectivity and sensitivity to consequences. In order to motivate his discussion of sensitivity to consequences, Sen discusses the debate between Krishna and Arjuna from the religio-philosophical Hindu text the Bhagavad Gita. According to Sen, Arjuna represents a sensitivity to consequences while Krishna is an archetypal deontologist. In this paper (...)
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  28. Añjanā (2006). Viveka-Cuḍāmaṇi Śaṅkara Kā Advaita Darśana. Parimala Pablikeśansa.
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  29. Annambhaṭṭa (2010). Tarkasaṅgraha of Annambhaṭṭa: English Translation with Notes. Chinmaya International Foundation Shodha Sansthan.
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  30. Annambhaṭṭa (2007). Tarkasaṅgrahaḥ: Svopajña-Dīpikāsahitaḥ. Motilāla Banārasīdāsa.
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  31. Annambhaṭṭa (2006). Tarka-Saṅgrahaḥ: Svopajñaṭīkā Tarkadīpikā Tathā Candrajasiṃhaviracita Padakr̥tya Ṭīkā Sahitaḥ ; Hindībhāṣāyām Āśā Ṭīkāsamanvitaḥ. Haṃsā Prakāśana.
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  32. Āpadeva (2004). Mīmāṃsānyāyaprakāśaḥ. Śrī Uttamūr Vīrarāghavācāryār Seṇṭineri Ṭrasṭa.
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  33. James Apple (2003). Twenty Varieties of the Samgha: A Typology of Noble Beings (ĀRya) in Indo-Tibetan Scholasticism (Part I). [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 31 (5/6):503-592.
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  34. James B. Apple (2013). An Early Tibetan Commentary on Atiśa's Satyadvayāvatāra. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 41 (3):263-329.
    Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna (982–1054 c.e.), more commonly known under his honorific title of Atiśa, is a renowned figure in Tibetan Buddhist cultural memory. He is famous for coming to Tibet and revitalizing Buddhism there during the early eleventh century. Of the many works that Atiśa composed, translated, and brought to Tibet one of the most well-known was his “Entry to the Two Realities” (Satyadvayāvatāra). Recent scholarship has provided translations and Tibetan editions of this work, including Lindtner’s English translation (1981) and Ejima’s Japanese (...)
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  35. James B. Apple (2013). An Early Tibetan Commentary on Atiśa's Satyadvayāvatāra: Diplomatic Edition with Introduction and Notes. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 41 (5):501-533.
    An earlier article (Apple, J Indian Philos 41(3): 263–329, 2013) identified for the first time a brief Tibetan commentary to Atiśa Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna’s (982–1054 c.e.) well-known “Entry to the Two Realities” (Satyadvayāvatāra) and provided an annotated translation of the work. This article provides an annotated diplomatic edition of the Tibetan commentary. The manuscript of the commentary is a facsimile reprint located in the recently published “Collected Works of the Bka’-gdams-pas” (bka’ gdams gsung ’bum). The early Tibetan commentary to Atiśa’s Satyadvayāvatāra provides (...)
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  36. Alan Arkin (1984). Halfway Through the Door: First Steps on a Path Toward Enlightenment. Harper & Row.
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  37. Latimah-Parvin Peerwani Arlington (2012). Mullā Ṣadrā and Metaphysics: Modulation of Being (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (2):278-280.
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  38. Dan Arnold (2012). The Deceptive Simplicity of Nāgārjuna's Arguments Against Motion: Another Look at Mūlamadhyamakakārikā Chapter 2. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (5):553-591.
    This article – which includes a complete translation of Mūlamadhyamakakārikā chapter 2 together with Candrakīrti’s commentary thereon – argues that notwithstanding the many different and often arcane interpretations that have been offered of Nāgārjuna’s arguments against motion, there is really just one straightforward kind of argument on offer in this vexed chapter. It is further argued that this basic argument can be understood as a philosophically interesting one if it is kept in mind that the argument essentially has to do (...)
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  39. Ashokananda (1970). My Philosophy and My Religion. San Francisco,Vedanta Society of Northern California.
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  40. Geoffrey R. Ashton (2013). The Soteriology of Role-Play in theBhagavad Gītā. Asian Philosophy 23 (1):1-23.
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  41. Ashwini (2007). Thoughts-- Of the Inner World. Dhyan Foundation.
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  42. Emilie Aussant (2007). A Case of Vyakaraic Oxymoro: The Notion of Anvarthasajna. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (2):133-147.
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  43. Christopher R. Austin (forthcoming). The S? Rasvata Y? Tsattra in Mah? Bh? Rata 17 and 18. International Journal of Hindu Studies.
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  44. Christopher R. Austin (2011). Draupadī's Fall: Snowballs, Cathedrals, and Synchronous Readings of the Mahābhārata. [REVIEW] International Journal of Hindu Studies 15 (1):111-137.
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  45. Christopher R. Austin (2008). The Sārasvata Yātsattra in Mahābhārata 17 and 18. International Journal of Hindu Studies 12 (3):283-308.
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  46. Bādarāyaṇa (2011). A Critical Edition of the Brahmasūtras: Sanskrit Text with Translation Into English,Critical Analysis and Notes with Śaṅkarācārya's Commentary Śārīrakamīmāṃsābhāṣya. New Bharatiya Book Corp..
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  47. Tair Baĭramov (2004). Advaĭta I Dualʹnostʹ V Khudozhestvennoĭ Kartine Mira. "Täknur".
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  48. R. Balasubramanian (2011). Consciousness, Cognition and the Cognitive Apparatus in the Vedānta Tradition. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):54.
    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. (...)
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  49. R. Balasubramanian (2011). Systems of Vedanta and Kashmir Saivism (C. A.D. 300-1000). Chinmaya International Foundation Shodha Sansthan.
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  50. R. Balasubramanian (2011). Systems of Vedānta and Kashmir Śaivism (C. Chinmaya International Foundation Shodha Sansthan.
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