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  1. Nicholas Asher (1987). A Typology for Attitude Verbs and Their Anaphoric Properties. Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (2):125--197.
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  2. Graeme Forbes (2010). Intensional Verbs in Event Semantics. Synthese 176 (2):227 - 242.
    In Attitude Problems, I gave an account of opacity in the complement of intensional transitive verbs that combined neo-Davidsonian event-semantics with a hidden-indexical account of substitution failure. In this paper, I extend the account to clausal verbs.
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  3. Graeme Forbes (2008). Intensional Transitive Verbs. In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A verb is transitive iff it usually occurs with a direct object, and in such occurrences it is said to occur transitively . Thus ‘ate’ occurs transitively in ‘I ate the meat and left the vegetables’, but not in ‘I ate then left’ (perhaps it is not the same verb ‘left’ in these two examples, but it seems to be the same ‘ate’). A verb is intensional if the verb phrase (VP) it forms with its complement is anomalous in at (...)
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  4. Graeme Forbes (2000). Objectual Attitudes. Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (2):141-183.
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  5. Graeme Forbes, Intensional Transitive Verbs: The Limitations of a Clausal Analysis.
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  6. Alex Grzankowski (2012). Not All Attitudes Are Propositional. European Journal of Philosophy:n/a-n/a.
  7. Ed Keenan (2003). The Definiteness Effect: Semantics or Pragmatics? [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 11 (2):187-216.
    In this paper I propose and defend a semantically based account of the distribution of DPs in existential there-sentences in English in opposition to the pragmatic account proposed in Zucchi (1995). The two analyses share many features, making it possible to study variation along the semantics/pragmatics dimension while holding the rest constant.
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  8. Eric Russert Kraemer (1980). Intensional Contexts and Intensional Entities. Philosophical Studies 37 (1):65 - 66.
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  9. Shalom Lappin (ed.) (1996). The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell Reference.
    1. Formal semantics in linguistics -- 2. Generalized quantifier theory -- 3. The interface between syntax and semantics -- 4. Anaphora, discourse, and modality -- 5. Focus, presupposition, and negation -- 6. Tense -- 7. Questions -- 8. Plurals -- 9. Computational semantics -- 10. Lexical semantics -- 11. Semantics and related domains.
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  10. Richard Larson, Marcel den Dikken & Peter Ludlow, Intensional ``Transitive'' Verbs and Abstract Clausal Complementation.
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  11. Pavel Materna (1997). Rules of Existential Quantification Into "Intensional Contexts". Studia Logica 59 (3):331-343.
    Propositional and notional attitudes are construed as relations (-in-intension) between individuals and constructions (rather than propositrions etc,). The apparatus of transparent intensional logic (Tichy) is applied to derive two rules that make it possible to export existential quantifiers without conceiving attitudes as relations to expressions (sententialism).
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  12. Friederike Moltmann (forthcoming). Quantification with Intentional and with Intensional Verbs. In Alessandro Torza (ed.), Quantifiers, Quantifiers, Quantifiers. Springer.
    The question whether natural language permits quantification over intentional objects as the ‘nonexistent’ objects of thought is the topic of a major philosophical controversy, as is the status of intentional objects as such. This paper will argue that natural language does reflect a particular notion of intentional object and in particular that certain types of natural language constructions (generally disregarded in the philosophical literature) cannot be analysed without positing intentional objects. At the same time, those intentional objects do not come (...)
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  13. Friederike Moltmann (2008). Intensional Verbs and Their Intentional Objects. Natural Language Semantics 16 (3):239-270.
    The complement of intensional transitive verbs, like any nonreferential complement, can be replaced by a ‘special quantifier’ or ‘special pronoun’ such as 'something', 'the same thing', or 'what'. In this paper, I will defend the ‘Nominalization Theory’ of special quantifiers against a range of apparent counterexamples involving intensional transitive verbs.
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  14. Friederike Moltmann (1997). Intensional Verbs and Quantifiers. Natural Language Semantics 5 (1):1-52.
    This paper discusses the semantics of intensional transitive verbs such as 'need', 'want','recognize', 'find', and 'hire'. It proposes new linguistic criteria for intensionality and defends two semantic analyses for two different classes of intensional verbs. The paper also includes a systematic classification of intensional verbs according to the type of lexical meaning they involve.
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  15. Richard Montague (1973). The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary English. In Patrick Suppes, Julius Moravcsik & Jaakko Hintikka (eds.), Approaches to Natural Language. Dordrecht. 221--242.
  16. W. V. Quine (1956). Quantifiers and Propositional Attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 53 (5):177-187.
  17. Craige Roberts (1997). Anaphora in Intensional Contexts. In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell. 215--246.
    In the semantic literature, there is a class of examples involving anaphora in intensional contexts, i.e. under the scope of modal operators or propositional attitude predicates, which display anaphoric relations that appear at first glance to violate otherwise well-supported generalizations about operator scope and anaphoric potential. In Section 1,I will illustrate this phenomenon, which, for reasons that should become clear below, I call modal subordination; I will develop a general schema for its identification, and show how it poses problems for (...)
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  18. R. M. Sainsbury (2008). Intensional Transitives and Presuppositions (Transitivos Intensionales y Presuposiciones). Critica 40 (120):129 - 139.
    My commentators point to respects in which the picture provided in Reference without Referents is incomplete. The picture provided no account of how sentences constructed from intensional verbs (like "John thought about Pegasus") can be true when one of the referring expressions fails to refer. And it gave an incomplete, and possibly misleading, account of how to understand certain serious uses of fictional names, as in "Anna Karenina is more intelligent than Emma Bovary" and "Anna Karenina does not exist". In (...)
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  19. Patrick Suppes, Julius Moravcsik & Jaakko Hintikka (eds.) (1973). Approaches to Natural Language. Dordrecht.
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  20. Richmond H. Thomason (1980). A Model Theory for Propositional Attitudes. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (1):47 - 70.
    My chief aim has been to convey the thought that the application of model theoretic techniques to natural languages needn't force a distortion of intentional phenomena. I hope that at least I have succeeded in accomplishing this.
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  21. Gabriele Usberti (1977). On the Treatment of Perceptual Verbs in Montague Grammar: Some Philosophical Remarks. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 6 (1):303 - 317.
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  22. Godfrey N. A. Vesey (1966). Miss Anscombe on the Intentionality of Sensation. Analysis 26 (March):135-137.
  23. Arnim von Stechow, Temporally Opaque Arguments in Verbs of Creation.
    Summary Verbs of creation (create, make, paint) are not transparent. The object created does not exist during the event time but only thereafter. We may call this type of opacity temporal opacity. I is to be distinguished from modal opacity, which is found in verbs like owe or seek. (Dowty, 1979) offers two analyses of creation verbs. One analysis predicts that no object of the sort created exists before the time of the creation. The other analysis says that the object (...)
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  24. Takashi Yagisawa (2001). Partee Verbs. Philosophical Studies 103 (3):253 - 270.
    Approximately thirty years ago, Barbara H. Partee tried to think of counterexamples to David Lewis’s observation that no intransitive verbs appeared to have intensional subject positions. She came up with such verbs as ‘rise,’ ‘change,’ and ‘increase.’ Lewis agreed that they were indeed counterexamples to his observation. He mentioned it to Richard Montague, who incorporated these verbs into his now famous grammatical theory for English.
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  25. Edward Zalta (ed.) (2008). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  26. Edward N. Zalta (1988). A Comparison of Two Intensional Logics. Linguistics and Philosophy 11 (1):59-89.
    The author examines the differences between the general intensional logic defined in his recent book and Montague's intensional logic. Whereas Montague assigned extensions and intensions to expressions (and employed set theory to construct these values as certain sets), the author assigns denotations to terms and relies upon an axiomatic theory of intensional entities that covers properties, relations, propositions, worlds, and other abstract objects. It is then shown that the puzzles for Montague's analyses of modality and descriptions, propositional attitudes, and directedness (...)
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  27. Ede Zimmermann, Coercion Vs. Indeterminacy in Opaque Verbs.
    This paper is about the semantic analysis of opaque verbs such as seek and owe, which allow for unspecific readings of their indefinite objects.1 One may be looking for a good car without there being any car that one is looking for; or, one may be looking for a good car in that a specific car exists that one is looking for. It thus appears that there are two interpretations of these verbs – a specific and an unspecific one – (...)
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  28. Thomas Ede Zimmermann (2006). Monotonicity in Opaque Verbs. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (6):715 - 761.
    The paper is about the interpretation of opaque verbs like “seek”, “owe”, and “resemble” which allow for unspecific readings of their (indefinite) objects. It is shown that the following two observations create a problem for semantic analysis: (a) The opaque position is upward monotone: “John seeks a unicorn” implies “John seeks an animal”, given that “unicorn” is more specific than “animal”. (b) Indefinite objects of opaque verbs allow for higher-order, or “underspecific”, readings: “Jones is looking for something Smith is looking (...)
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  29. Thomas Ede Zimmermann (1993). On the Proper Treatment of Opacity in Certain Verbs. Natural Language Semantics 2 (1):149-179.
    This paper is about the semantic analysis of referentially opaque verbs like seek and owe that give rise to nonspecific readings. It is argued that Montague's categorization (based on earlier work by Quine) of opaque verbs as properties of quantifiers runs into two serious difficulties: the first problem is that it does not work with opaque verbs like resemble that resist any lexical decomposition of the seek ap try to find kind; the second one is that it wrongly predicts de (...)
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