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  1. Diederik Aerts & Thomas Durt (1994). Quantum, Classical and Intermediate: An Illustrative Example. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 24 (10):1353-1369.
    We present a model that allows one to build structures that evolve continuously from classical to quantum, and we study the intermediate situations, giving rise to structures that are neither classical nor quantum. We construct the closure structure corresponding to the collection of eigenstate sets of these intermediate situations, and demonstrate how the superposition principle disappears during the transition from quantum to classical. We investigate the validity of the axioms of quantum mechanics for the intermediate situations.
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  2. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as a (...)
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  3. A. P. Balachandran (1994). Topology in Physics—A Perspective. Foundations of Physics 24 (4):455-466.
    This article, written in honor of Fritz Rohrlich, briefly surveys the role of topology in physics.
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  4. Paul Benioff (2005). Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics: The Theory–Experiment Connection. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1825-1856.
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  5. Paul Benioff (2002). Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics. Foundations of Physics 32 (7):989-1029.
    As an approach to a Theory of Everything a framework for developing a coherent theory of mathematics and physics together is described. The main characteristic of such a theory is discussed: the theory must be valid and and sufficiently strong, and it must maximally describe its own validity and sufficient strength. The mathematical logical definition of validity is used, and sufficient strength is seen to be a necessary and useful concept. The requirement of maximal description of its own validity and (...)
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  6. H. E. Brandt (1994). The Theory of Sprays and Finsler Spaces with Applications in Physics and Biology. Foundations of Physics 24:1705-1705.
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  7. Jeremy Butterfield (2014). Reduction, Emergence, and Renormalization. Journal of Philosophy 111 (1):5-49.
    In previous work, I described several examples combining reduction and emergence: where reduction is understood a la Ernest Nagel, and emergence is understood as behaviour that is novel. Here, my aim is again to reconcile reduction and emergence, for a case which is apparently more problematic than those I treated before: renormalization. My main point is that renormalizability being a generic feature at accessible energies gives us a conceptually unified family of Nagelian reductions. That is worth saying since philosophers tend (...)
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  8. Gabriel Catren (2014). On the Relation Between Gauge and Phase Symmetries. Foundations of Physics 44 (12):1317-1335.
    We propose a group-theoretical interpretation of the fact that the transition from classical to quantum mechanics entails a reduction in the number of observables needed to define a physical state and \ to \ or \ in the simplest case). We argue that, in analogy to gauge theories, such a reduction results from the action of a symmetry group. To do so, we propose a conceptual analysis of formal tools coming from symplectic geometry and group representation theory, notably Souriau’s moment (...)
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  9. Andrew A. Cochran (1971). Relationships Between Quantum Physics and Biology. Foundations of Physics 1 (3):235-250.
    The known facts of quantum physics and biology strongly suggest the following hypotheses: atoms and the fundamental particles have a rudimentary degree of consciousness, volition, or self-activity; the basic features of quantum mechanics are a result of this fact; the quantum mechanical wave properties of matter are actually the conscious properties of matter; and living organisms are a direct result of these properties of matter. These hypotheses are tested by using them to make detailed predictions of new facts, and then (...)
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  10. R. Eugene Collins (2005). The Mathematical Basis for Physical Laws. Foundations of Physics 35 (5):743-785.
    Laws of mechanics, quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, gravitation and relativity are derived as “related mathematical identities” based solely on the existence of a joint probability distribution for the position and velocity of a particle moving on a Riemannian manifold. This probability formalism is necessary because continuous variables are not precisely observable. These demonstrations explain why these laws must have the forms previously discovered through experiment and empirical deduction. Indeed, the very existence of electric, magnetic and gravitational fields is predicted by these (...)
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  11. G. F. Dell’Antonio (2015). On Tracks in a Cloud Chamber. Foundations of Physics 45 (1):11-21.
    It is an experimental fact that \ -decays produce in a cloud chamber at most one track and that this track points in a random direction. This seems to contradict the description of decay in Quantum Mechanics: according to Gamow a spherical wave is produced and moves radially according to Schrödinger’s equation. It is as if the interaction with the supersaturated vapor turned the wave into a particle. The aim of this note is to place this effect in the context (...)
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  12. Joseph Dreitlein (1993). The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Computer Physics. Foundations of Physics 23 (6):923-930.
    Computers provide tools suprisingly effective in analyzing physical processes. The interaction of analytical and computer methods of physical research has been synergistic. Examples are given of the conceptual advances which have been spurred by the interaction of computer and classical analysis. It is argued that a new age in physical research is beginning and that the power of computer tools has scarcely been tapped.
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  13. Anatolij Dvurečenskij (2013). Kite Pseudo Effect Algebras. Foundations of Physics 43 (11):1314-1338.
    We define a new class of pseudo effect algebras, called kite pseudo effect algebras, which is connected with partially ordered groups not necessarily with strong unit. In such a case, starting even with an Abelian po-group, we can obtain a noncommutative pseudo effect algebra. We show how such kite pseudo effect algebras are tied with different types of the Riesz Decomposition Properties. Kites are so-called perfect pseudo effect algebras, and we define conditions when kite pseudo effect algebras have the least (...)
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  14. George F. R. Ellis (2006). Physics and the Real World. Foundations of Physics 36 (2):227-262.
    Physics and chemistry underlie the nature of all the world around us, including human brains. Consequently some suggest that in causal terms, physics is all there is. However, we live in an environment dominated by objects embodying the outcomes of intentional design (buildings, computers, teaspoons). The present day subject of physics has nothing to say about the intentionality resulting in existence of such objects, even though this intentionality is clearly causally effective. This paper examines the claim that the underlying physics (...)
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  15. David J. Foulis (2007). Effects, Observables, States, and Symmetries in Physics. Foundations of Physics 37 (10):1421-1446.
    We show how effect algebras arise in physics and how they can be used to tie together the observables, states and symmetries employed in the study of physical systems. We introduce and study the unifying notion of an effect-observable-state-symmetry-system (EOSS-system) and give both classical and quantum-mechanical examples of EOSS-systems.
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  16. Stanford Goldman (1982). Carriers and Sideband Pairs and Their Analogues in Physics and Biology. Foundations of Physics 12 (9):907-917.
    This is a further development of the author's paper “A Unified Theory of Biology and Physics.” It is found that male and female in biology, as well as particle and antiparticle in physics, are analogues of symmetrical sideband pairs in communication theory. This gives a new point of view from which to investigate the significance and characteristics of these different paired entities.These findings are intimately related to the fact that there are two transform domains of representation of entities in all (...)
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  17. Stanford Goldman (1973). The Mechanics of Individuality in Nature. II. Barriers, Cells, and Individuality. Foundations of Physics 3 (2):203-228.
    The cell theory of Schleiden and Schwann is generalized to the effect that throughout the natural world, in physics, biology, and sociopsychology, there is a widespread phenomenon of the existence of organized cells, whose organization is usually protected by barriers. These barriers exist not only in space, but in time and even in other domains. These barriers typically not only protect the organization within the cell from external disturbance, but they actively participate in reducing the internal disorganization. It appears that (...)
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  18. Robin Findlay Hendry (2010). Emergence Vs. Reduction in Chemistry. In Cynthia Macdonald & Graham Macdonald (eds.), Emergence in Mind. OUP Oxford
  19. Nicholaos Jones & Kevin Coffey, Synopsis of the Robert and Sarah Boote Conference in Reductionism and Anti-Reductionism in Physics.
    This document is a synopsis of discussions at the workshop prepared by Nicholaos Jones and Kevin Coffey, with remarks added by by Chuang Liu, John D. Norton, John Earman, Gordon Belot, Mark Wilson, Bob Batterman and Margie Morrison. The program is included in an appendix.
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  20. William Kallfelz, Methodological Fundamentalism: Or Why Batterman's Different Notions of 'Fundamentalism' May Not Make a Difference.
    I argue that the distinctions Robert Batterman (2004) presents between ‘epistemically fundamental’ versus ‘ontologically fundamental’ theoretical approaches can be subsumed by methodologically fundamental procedures. I characterize precisely what is meant by a methodologically fundamental procedure, which involves, among other things, the use of multilinear graded algebras in a theory’s formalism. For example, one such class of algebras I discuss are the Clifford (or Geometric) algebras. Aside from their being touted by many as a “unified mathematical language for physics,” (Hestenes (1984, (...)
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  21. Max Kistler (2006). New Perspectives on Reduction and Emergence in Physics, Biology and Psychology. Synthese 151 (3):311 - 312.
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  22. J. R. Lucas, The Unity of Science Without Reductionism.
    The Unity of Science is often thought to be reductionist, but this is because we fail to distinguish questions from answers. The questions asked by different sciences are different---the biologist is interested in different topics from the physicist, and seeks different explanations---but the answers are not peculiar to each particular science, and can range over the whole of scientific knowledge. The biologist is interested in organisms--- concept unknown to physics---but explains physiological processes in terms of chemistry, not a mysterious vital (...)
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  23. Ulrich Mohrhoff (2014). Manifesting the Quantum World. Foundations of Physics 44 (6):641-677.
    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. Being part of the Scientific Image of the world, the theory concerns the process by which (the physical aspect of) what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering (...)
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  24. N. Mukunda, E. C. G. Sudarshan & R. Simon (1988). Families of Bose Rays in Quantum Optics. Foundations of Physics 18 (3):277-306.
    Having known classical wave optics and wave mechanics, can we reverse Schrödinger's path and extend the concept of families of rays of light to provide a new exact rendering of quantum optics including the Bose nature of photons? This question is answered in the affirmative, and the implications of the Bose symmetry for certain nonlocal correlations of the many-ray distribution functions are worked out. The similarities and the differences between classical and quantum wave optics are brought out. The ray-ray Bose (...)
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  25. P. N. (1995). Observation and Superselection in Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 26 (1):45-73.
    We attempt to clarify the main conceptual issues in approaches to 'objectification' or 'measurement' in quantum mechanics which are based on superselection rules. Such approaches venture to derive the emergence of classical 'reality' relative to a class of observers; those believing that the classical world exists intrinsically and absolutely are advised against reading this paper. The prototype approach, 237-248) where superselection sectors are assumed in the state space of the apparatus is shown to be untenable. Instead, one should couple system (...)
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  26. Joseph C. Pitt, The Epistemology of the Very Small.
    The question is how do Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) give us access to the nano world? The images these instruments produce, I argue, do not allow us to see atoms in the same way that we see trees. To the extent that SEMs and STMs allow us to see the occupants of the nano world it is by way of metaphorical extension of the concept of “seeing”. The more general claim is that changes in scientific instrumentation effect changes in the (...)
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  27. Eric Scerri (2004). Principles and Parameters in Physics and Chemistry. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1082-1094.
    The paper examines critically some recently published views by Ramsey on the contrast between ab initio and parametrized theories. I argue that, all things being equal, ab initio calculations are indeed regarded more highly in the physics and chemistry communities. A case study on density functional approaches in theoretical chemistry is presented in order to re-examine the question of ab initio and parametrized approaches in a contemporary context.
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  28. Shant Shahbazian (2013). Comment on “Austere Quantum Mechanics as a Reductive Basis for Chemistry”. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):327-334.
  29. K. P. Y. Thebault (2012). Symplectic Reduction and the Problem of Time in Nonrelativistic Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (4):789-824.
    Symplectic reduction is a formal process through which degeneracy within the mathematical representations of physical systems displaying gauge symmetry can be controlled via the construction of a reduced phase space. Typically such reduced spaces provide us with a formalism for representing both instantaneous states and evolution uniquely and for this reason can be justifiably afforded the status of fun- damental dynamical arena - the otiose structure having been eliminated from the original phase space. Essential to the application of symplectic reduction (...)
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  30. Jos Uffink & Giovanni Valente (2015). Lanford’s Theorem and the Emergence of Irreversibility. Foundations of Physics 45 (4):404-438.
    It has been a longstanding problem to show how the irreversible behaviour of macroscopic systems can be reconciled with the time-reversal invariance of these same systems when considered from a microscopic point of view. A result by Lanford shows that, under certain conditions, the famous Boltzmann equation, describing the irreversible behaviour of a dilute gas, can be obtained from the time-reversal invariant Hamiltonian equations of motion for the hard spheres model. Here, we examine how and in what sense Lanford’s theorem (...)
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  31. Robert E. Var (1975). On a New Mathematical Framework for Fundamental Theoretical Physics. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):407-431.
    It is shown by means of general principles and specific examples that, contrary to a long-standing misconception, the modern mathematical physics of compressible fluid dynamics provides a generally consistent and efficient language for describing many seemingly fundamental physical phenomena. It is shown to be appropriate for describing electric and gravitational force fields, the quantized structure of charged elementary particles, the speed of light propagation, relativistic phenomena, the inertia of matter, the expansion of the universe, and the physical nature of time. (...)
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  32. Rein Vihalemm (2011). The Autonomy of Chemistry: Old and New Problems. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):97-107.
    The autonomy of chemistry and the legitimacy of the philosophy of chemistry are usually discussed in the context of the issue of reduction of chemistry to physics, and defended making use of the failure of reductionistic claims. Until quite recent times a rather widespread viewpoint was, however, that the failure of reductionistic claims concerns actually epistemological aspect of reduction only, but the ontological reduction of chemistry to physics cannot be denied. The new problems of the autonomy of chemistry in the (...)
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  33. Giovanni Villani (2014). Structured System in Chemistry: Comparison with Mechanics and Biology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):107-123.
    The fundamental concept of structured chemical system has been introduced and analysed in this paper. This concept, as in biology but not in physics, is very important in chemistry. In fact, the main chemical concepts (molecule and compound) have been identified as systemic concepts and their use in chemical explanation can only be justified in this approach. The fundamental concept of “environment” has been considered and then the system concept in mechanics, chemistry and biology. The differences and the analogies between (...)
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  34. Ronald M. Yoshida (1977). Reduction in the Physical Sciences. Published for the Canadian Association for Publishing in Philosophy by Dalhousie University Press.
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Emergence in Physical Science
  1. Russ Abbott, Abstractions and Implementations.
    Fundamental to Computer Science is the distinction between abstractions and implementations. When that distinction is applied to various philosophical questions it yields the following conclusions. -/- • EMERGENCE. It isn’t as mysterious as it’s made out to be; the possibility of strong emergence is not a threat to science. -/- • INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HIGHER-LEVEL ENTITIES. Physical interaction among higher-level entities is illusory. Abstract interactions are the source of emergence, new domains of knowledge, and complex systems. -/- • PHYSICS and the (...)
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  2. David Aubin (2008). 'The Memory of Life Itself': Bénard's Cells and the Cinematography of Self-Organization. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (3):359-369.
    In 1900, the physicist Henri Bénard exhibited the spontaneous formation of cells in a layer of liquid heated from below. Six or seven decades later, drastic reinterpretations of this experiment formed an important component of ‘chaos theory’. This paper therefore is an attempt at writing the history of this experiment, its long neglect and its rediscovery. It examines Bénard’s experiments from three different perspectives. First, his results are viewed in the light of the relation between experimental and mathematical approaches in (...)
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  3. Ion C. Baianu (2007). Categorical Ontology of Levels and Emergent Complexity: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (3-4):209-222.
    An overview of the following three related papers in this issue presents the Emergence of Highly Complex Systems such as living organisms, man, society and the human mind from the viewpoint of the current Ontological Theory of Levels. The ontology of spacetime structures in the Universe is discussed beginning with the quantum level; then, the striking emergence of the higher levels of reality is examined from a categorical—relational and logical viewpoint. The ontological problems and methodology aspects discussed in the first (...)
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  4. Robert Batterman (2011). Emergence, Singularities, and Symmetry Breaking. Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1031-1050.
    This paper looks at emergence in physical theories and argues that an appropriate way to understand socalled “emergent protectorates” is via the explanatory apparatus of the renormalization group. It is argued that mathematical singularities play a crucial role in our understanding of at least some well-defined emergent features of the world.
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  5. Robert Batterman, "Fundamental Physics": Molecular Dynamics Vs. Hydrodynamics.
    This paper concerns the scale related decoupling of the physics of breaking drops and considers the phenomenon from the point of view of both hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics at the nanolevel. It takes the shape of droplets at breakup to be an example of a genuinely emergent phenomenon---one whose explanation depends essentially on the phenomenological (non-fundamental) theory of Navier-Stokes. Certain conclusions about the nature of "fundamental" theory are drawn.
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  6. Robert W. Batterman (2002). The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction, and Emergence. Oxford University Press.
    Robert Batterman examines a form of scientific reasoning called asymptotic reasoning, arguing that it has important consequences for our understanding of the scientific process as a whole. He maintains that asymptotic reasoning is essential for explaining what physicists call universal behavior. With clarity and rigor, he simplifies complex questions about universal behavior, demonstrating a profound understanding of the underlying structures that ground them. This book introduces a valuable new method that is certain to fill explanatory gaps across disciplines.
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  7. A. Beckermann, H. Flohr & Jaegwon Kim (eds.) (1992). Emergence or Reduction? Essays on the Prospect of Nonreductive Physicalism. De Gruyter.
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  8. Gordon Belot (2005). Whose Devil? Which Details? Philosophy of Science 72 (1):128-153.
    Batterman has recently argued that fundamental theories are typically explanatorily inadequate, in that there exist physical phenomena whose explanation requires that the conceptual apparatus of a fundamental theory be supplemented by that of a less fundamental theory. This paper is an extended critical commentary on that argument: situating its importance, describing its structure, and developing a line of objection to it. The objection is that in the examples Batterman considers, the mathematics of the less fundamental theory is definable in terms (...)
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  9. Gordon Belot (2000). Chaos and Fundamentalism. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):465.
    1. It is natural to wonder what our multitude of successful physical theories tell us about the world—singly, and as a body. What are we to think when one theory tells us about a flat Newtonian spacetime, the next about a curved Lorentzian geometry, and we have hints of others, portraying discrete or higher-dimensional structures which look something like more familiar spacetimes in appropriate limits?
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  10. Reinaldo J. Bernal (2012). E-Physicalism. A Physicalist Theory of Phenomenal Consciousness. Ontos Verlag.
    This work advances a theory in the metaphysics of phenomenal consciousness, which the author labels “e-physicalism”. Firstly, he endorses a realist stance towards consciousness and physicalist metaphysics. Secondly, he criticises Strong AI and functionalist views, and claims that consciousness has an internal character. Thirdly, he discusses HOT theories, the unity of consciousness, and holds that the “explanatory gap” is not ontological but epistemological. Fourthly, he argues that consciousness is not a supervenient but an emergent property, not reducible and endowed with (...)
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  11. Robert C. Bishop & Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as a (...)
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  12. Elena Castellani (2002). Reductionism, Emergence, and Effective Field Theories. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (2):251-267.
    In recent years, a ''change in attitude'' in particle physics has led to our understanding current quantum field theories as effective field theories (EFTs). The present paper is concerned with the significance of this EFT approach, especially from the viewpoint of the debate on reductionism in science. In particular, I shall show how EFTs provide a new and interesting case study in current philosophical discussion on reduction, emergence, and inter-level relationships in general.
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  13. Paul Sheldon Davies (2006). The Physics of Downward Causation. In Philip Clayton & Paul Sheldon Davies (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence. Oxford University Press
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  14. Eolo Di Casola, Stefano Liberati & Sebastiano Sonego (2015). Between Quantum and Classical Gravity: Is There a Mesoscopic Spacetime? Foundations of Physics 45 (2):171-176.
    Between the microscopic domain ruled by quantum gravity, and the macroscopic scales described by general relativity, there might be an intermediate, “mesoscopic” regime, where spacetime can still be approximately treated as a differentiable pseudo-Riemannian manifold, with small corrections of quantum gravitational origin. We argue that, unless one accepts to give up the relativity principle, either such a regime does not exist at all—hence, the quantum-to-classical transition is sharp—, or the only mesoscopic, tiny corrections conceivable are on the behaviour of physical (...)
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  15. Sharon R. Ford (2011). Deriving the Manifestly Qualitative World From a Pure-Power Base: Light-Like Networks. Philosophia Scientiae 15 (3):155-175.
    Seeking to derive the manifestly qualitative world of objects and entities without recourse to fundamental categoricity or qualitativity, I offer an account of how higher-order categorical properties and objects may emerge from a pure-power base. I explore the possibility of ‘fields’ whose fluctuations are force-carrying entities, differentiated with respect to a micro-topology of curled-up spatial dimensions. Since the spacetime paths of gauge bosons have zero ‘spacetime interval’ and no time-like extension, I argue that according them the status of fundamental entities (...)
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  16. GianCarlo Ghirardi (2005). Quantum Theory as an Emergent Phenomenon: The Statistical. Philosophy of Science 72 (4):642-645.
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